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Bruce A. Coats

(b Mino Prov. [now part of Gifu Prefect.], 1544; d Osaka, 1615).

Japanese samurai and master of the tea ceremony. He strongly influenced the development of tea aesthetics in the late 16th century and early 17th (see Japan, §XV, 1). He was reportedly born into the Kuwahara family and then adopted by Yoshida Shigesada (d 1598). He became known as Oribe after his appointment as a military official, Oribe no Kami, of Mino Province in 1585, at which time he became commander of Nishigaoka Castle at Yamashiro, near Kyoto. Oribe distinguished himself in the service of the military dictators Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi and through them met Sen no Rikyū, the foremost practitioner of the wabicha tea ceremony, which was based on the concept of wabi (‘simple, austere natural beauty’). By 1590 Oribe was one of Rikyū’s most promising disciples, and the two exchanged poetry and attended tea ceremonies together. Remarkably, Rikyū chose Oribe as his successor in preference to his own sons; similarly, when Rikyū died in ...


Graham Reynolds

(b Penshurst, Kent, Nov 30, 1554; d Zutphen, nr Arnhem, Oct 17, 1586).

English statesman, soldier, poet and writer. He was the son of Sir Henry Sidney, who served three terms as Lord Deputy of Ireland. While still in his teens, Philip Sidney travelled for three years in Europe, witnessing the St Bartholomew’s Eve massacre of Protestants in Paris in 1572 and visiting Germany, Austria and Italy under the guidance of the Huguenot statesman Hubert Languet (1518–81). The medallist Antonio Abondio the younger (?1538–91) made his portrait (untraced); in 1574 he sat in Venice to Paolo Veronese, whom he had chosen in preference to Domenico Tintoretto. This painting was sent to Languet, who thought it made Sidney look too young and too sad; it has since disappeared, and his main surviving portrait, by John de Critz (version, Penshurst Place, Kent), is of lesser note. There is also a well-known portrait (London, N.P.G.) by an unknown artist. On a subsequent journey in ...