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W. Iain Mackay

(b Lima, May 11, 1911; d Lambayeque, Peru, Aug 23, 2004).

Peruvian painter, sculptor, teacher and critic. His adolescence was spent in Germany and Spain. In 1929 he went to Buenos Aires, studying first (until 1932) at the Escuela Superior Nacional de Artes and then (1933–6) at the Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes ‘Ernesto de la Cárcova’. In 1940 he returned to Lima, where he struggled against being absorbed into the Indigenist movement and joined the group Los Independientes, whose members promoted European styles, although not to the exclusion of Peruvian subject-matter (see also Peru, Republic of §IV 2.). In 1944 he began teaching at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes, Lima, becoming its Director in 1956. Ugarte Eléspuru’s paintings are characterized by rich textures and colours and are often purely abstract (e.g. Death of Pachacamac the Bullfighter, 1961; Lima, Mus. A.), although in such murals as Urban Education (5.0×6.0 m, 1956; Lima, Ministerio de Educación) he refers broadly to the strong figures and social comment of Mexican murals by Diego Rivera and others. His sculptures include the bust of ...