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W. Iain Mackay

(b Ica, 1914; d Lima, July 21, 1961).

Peruvian painter, potter and sculptor. He had little formal education, but after training as a boxer in Lima he settled in Buenos Aires, where his interest in pottery led him to set up a workshop for the conservation of Pre-Columbian pottery and for the manufacture of pottery in the style of this period. He learnt to sculpt and studied painting under Emilio Pettoruti (1892–1971). In 1938 he went to Paris, where he studied the work of the French masters and relaxed his style, rejecting academic canons. Returning to Peru in 1942, he adopted a rather Expressionist style of painting, with clear lines, suggestive of sculpted forms. He avoided the other avant-garde European styles of the period, opting for a while for elements of the Indigenist style (see Peru, Republic of, §IV, 2). Under Pettoruti he developed a great interest in sculpture. His activity in this field was limited to a few works, culminating in ...

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Ana Tapias

(b Valencia, Carabobo, Aug 4, 1926; d Caracas, April 22, 2014).

Venezuelan painter, ceramicist and sculptor. He started painting around 1942. His work was initially abstract but it became figurative with surrealistic elements, as in The Tetragramist (1943) and Composition (1943–4; both artist’s col.). He attended the Escuela de Artes Plásticas y Aplicadas in Caracas irregularly from 1948 to 1951. In 1949 he joined the Taller Libre de Arte, an avant-garde group active between 1948 and 1952, which sought to explore Venezuelan historical and cultural roots. His interest in Pre-Columbian Venezuelan cultures influenced his subsequent work. From 1952 to 1964 he lived in Paris, where he studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and frequented the studio of Marcel Joudon. Later Vigas produced both pottery and sculpture, in addition to paintings.

G. Diehl: Oswaldo Vigas (Caracas, 1990)Vigas Oswaldo (exh. cat., Caracas, Grupo Li Cent. A., 1997)

Venezuela, §IV, 3: Painting, graphic arts and sculpture, after c 1900...