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Eric Fernie


(b Stara Osota, now Ukraine, Sept 12, 1915; d London, Sept 8, 2008).

Polish art historian of medieval sculpture, active in England. Zarnecki received an MA from the Jagiellonian University, Kraków, in 1938 and where he also worked until 1939 at which stage the outbreak of war disrupted his academic career. His distinguished military career led to him being awarded the Polish Cross of Valour and later the French Croix de Guerre. He was interned in Spain after escaping from a prisoner of war camp where he was held from 1940 to 1942. After serving with the Polish Army in Britain he joined the Courtauld Institute of Art in 1945 where he became Deputy Director (1961–74) and where he was based until his retirement in 1982.

It was in London that Zarnecki began his university career afresh in 1945. He did so with little previous standing as a scholar outside Poland. The two chief experiences of his immediate past were his intellectual training in Kraków from ...


Gordon Campbell

(b, c. 1450; d before 1519).

Swiss glass stainer. His workshop in Zurich produced small heraldic panels in the Gothic style; the fine detail was achieved by scratching flashed glass with a quill. There are examples of his glass in the Schweizerisches Landesmuseum in Zurich and (since 2000) in the Metropolitan Museum in New York....


Hans Georg Gmelin

(b Nördlingen, 1455–60; d Nördlingen, c. 1520).

German painter . He is famed for the distinctive style of his altarpieces, which served as a model for Swabian painting in the early 16th century and was later much admired by the Romantics. Zeitblom’s family moved to Nördlingen under his grandfather Lienhard. There he married a daughter of the painter Friedrich Herlin, though no trace of Herlin’s work shows in Zeitblom’s altarpieces. In 1482 he became a citizen of Ulm, where he seems soon to have made contact with the leading master Hans Schüchlin, one of whose daughters later became his second wife. Besides his connections with leading families in Ulm, Zeitblom had noble patrons like the knight Georg von Ehingen, Peter von Hewen, and the families von Rechberg, von Limpurg and Öttingen, enabling his altarpieces to receive a wide distribution throughout the Swabian Alps and the Danube region of Upper Swabia.

Zeitblom’s characteristic style, which was developed but not decisively altered in his later work, is first apparent in the altarpiece from ...



Liliana Mavrodinova

[formerly Belovo]

Town approximately 70 km south-west of Sofia, Bulgaria, on the River Struma. It is famous for the monastery of St John the Evangelist, of which only the domed cruciform church (8.7×9.2 m) dating from the 11th century survives. Four square piers support the dome’s drum; barrel vaults cover the rest of the church. The walls are built of ashlar blocks. The north, south and west sides each have three blind-arched niches corresponding to the interior arrangements of the vaults and spaces; the east side ends in three high semi-cylindrical apses. During the period of Ottoman rule (1393–1878) the monastery was abandoned and the residential buildings destroyed. Not until the 19th century was the church renovated and new monks’ cells erected.

The church’s most remarkable features are its two layers of wall paintings. Those of the first layer are best preserved in the two chapels flanking the central apse and may be as early as the second half of the 11th century; they show figures of saints and scenes from the Gospels. The wall paintings of the second layer survive throughout the church; those in the sanctuary and nave are generally thought to be contemporary with the donor inscription, which mentions ...



Scott Montgomery

Municipality in Switzerland, known since 1875 as Zillis-Reischen. A Roman settlement occupied this important position along the Via Mala, which crossed the Splügen Pass. The monastery of Pfäffers held jurisdiction over the village, referred to as Ciranes c. 871, until it was granted to Bishop Waldo of Chur by Emperor Otto I in 940. The Schams Valley, including Zillis, was controlled by the lords of Vaz in the early 12th century, passing to the cathedral of Chur in the 14th century. The opening of the Viamala road in 1473 increased traffic through the region. Zillis converted to Protestantism in the 1530s. In 1875 Zillis and Reischen were fused into a single municipality in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.

Throughout the medieval period, Zillis was the juridical and ecclesiastical centre of the Schams Valley, housing the region’s principal church, the parish church (ecclesia plebia) of St Martin. This church had been built in the 5th century and was rectangular with a parabolic apse and adjacent baptistery/sacristy. It was replaced with a Carolingian triapsial hall (...


Lucy Der Manuelian and Armen Zarian

Ruins of the Armenian patriarch’s palace and cathedral 3 km south-east of Ēdjmiadzin (anc. Vagharshapat), in Armenia. The building was dedicated to the Heavenly Hosts, the ‘vigilant powers’ (zvart’nunk’ner), who appeared in a dream to St Grigor the Illuminator (c. ad 239–c. 325/6). According to a Greek inscription and the Armenian histories of Sebeos (7th century) and Katholikos Hovhannes Draskhanakertc‘i (10th century), the cathedral was built c. 650–59 by the Katholikos Nerses III, known as ‘the Builder’ (reg 641–61), at the site where according to tradition St Grigor the Illuminator was met by the pagan Armenian king Trdat III (reg c. ad 280–c. 330). By the time of the cathedral’s destruction in the 10th century, it was also said to house the relics of St Grigor.

Although the cathedral was excavated in 1901–7, only its foundations, parts of the walls and vaulting, bases and sections of piers and columns, some eagle capitals and other fragments of relief sculpture were found. On the basis of these remains, the load-bearing capability of the massive pillars and comparisons with a later Armenian copy, St Grigor at ...


H. Soukupová

[Ger. Klingenberg]

Castle in the southern Czech Republic. It was the private seat of Vaclav I (reg 1230–53) and Přemysl Ottokar II. First mentioned in 1234, it was founded at a strategically important position above the confluence of the Vltava and Otava rivers. To the east and west the headland is protected by abrupt cliffs, with the Otava on the north side. The oldest part of the castle is the great square tower built of rusticated ashlar masonry typical of Hohenstaufen architecture. It faces the south end of the headland and is protected by a moat. On the ground floor it had a single rib-vaulted bay, the ribs descending to pyramidal consoles. The square wall-ribs and the vault webs are of brick with surviving impressions of the original wooden centering. The space was lit by two arrow-slits and was accessible through a passageway with two doorways with pointed arches. The living-room on the first floor had groin vaults supported by corbels on a string course. There were further rooms to the east and west of the tower. The south range retains its early form, with two rib-vaulted rooms on the ground floor and an asymmetrical wooden-roofed entrance hall leading from the courtyard, giving access to the ground floor of the tower and to two rooms of the palace. The resemblance of the tower vault mouldings to those in the Cistercian abbeys at Zwettl and Lilienfeld indicate that the first masons’ workshop in Zvíkov came from the Danube area of what is now Austria....


Franz Bischoff and Carola Wenzel

[Zwietzel ; Zwitzl ; Zwizel]

German family of architects and masons . (1) Jakob Zwitzel may have been related to Hans von Elchingen, who worked as a mason at Ulm Minster in 1471–2 and in 1479. Jakob was mainly active in Augsburg, where he was much influenced by the Late Gothic style of Burkhard Engelberg. Both his son (2) Bernhard Zwitzel and his grandson (3) Simon Zwitzel were also active in the Augsburg area.

N. Lieb: ‘Die Augsburger Familie Zwitzel’, Lebensbilder aus dem bayerischen Schwaben, 8 (1961), pp. 84–107

Franz Bischoff

(b ?Elchingen, nr Ulm, c. 1470; d Augsburg, 1540).

He settled at quite an early age in Augsburg, paying taxes there in 1497 and becoming a citizen in 1505. From 1502 to 1507 he lived in the same house as the sculptor Gregor Erhart, and in 1512 he moved into the house of the painter Hans Holbein the elder, before acquiring his own house in ...