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Peter Kidson, Michael T. Davis, Paul Crossley, Dany Sandron, Kathryn Morrison, Andreas Bräm, Pamela Z. Blum, V. Sekules, Phillip Lindley, Ulrich Henze, Joan A. Holladay, G. Kreytenberg, Guido Tigler, R. Grandi, Anna Maria D’Achille, Francesco Aceto, J. Steyaert, Pedro Dias, Jan Svanberg, Angela Franco Mata, Peta Evelyn, Peter Tångeberg, Carola Hicks, Marian Campbell, Elisabeth Taburet-Delahaye, A. M. Koldeweij, G. Reinheckel, Judit Kolba, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Danielle Gaborit-Chopin, Virginia Chieffo Raguin, Yvette Vanden Bemden, Nigel J. Morgan, Daniel Kletke, Erhard Drachenberg and Scot McKendrick



(b Bristol, 1415; d c.1483).

English topographer. He is the first recorded English antiquary and is particularly known for his Itinerary. An undergraduate at Oxford in 1432, he entered the service of Sir John Fastolf (?1378–1459) and travelled widely as an administrator of Fastolf’s many estates. He spent 12 years as Fastolf’s executor, and in the settlement he was awarded property in Norwich and Southwark and a house in Bristol. Worcestre’s principal antiquarian adventure was a journey from Norwich to St Michael’s Mount in Cornwall. He left a daily diary of his trip (Cambridge, Corpus Christi Coll., MS. 210). The manuscript includes material for a chronicle of recent history, and Worcestre seems also to have been collecting information for a topography of England. He noted inter-town distances, courses of rivers, and lists of bridges, and extracted details from chronicles and calendars. He was keenly interested in the classical revival, and to the plan of a historical guidebook he added detailed architectural descriptions with dimensions, the latter recorded either with a measure or by ‘steppys meis’ (Harvey, p. 28). His great achievement was his Survey of ...


Nigel J. Morgan

(b Dewsbury, Yorks, June 1, 1904; d London, Jan 11, 1972).

English palaeographer, liturgist, and art historian. Educated at Eton and Magdalene College, Cambridge, he worked in the department of manuscripts at the British Museum (1927–49) and was Professor of Palaeography at King’s College, University of London (1950–68), and director of the Institute of Historical Research (1960–67). His early work was almost entirely on liturgical texts and included the three volumes on English calendars published for the Henry Bradshaw Society (1934–46). He continued to publish on liturgical texts throughout his life but from the late 1930s, particularly after the death of M. R. James in 1936, he became the most influential figure in the study of English illuminated manuscripts; he also helped to emphasize the need for the study and publication of medieval liturgical texts. His studies were mainly concerned with Anglo-Saxon and Romanesque material with a few devoted to later medieval illumination and iconography. In these his knowledge of palaeography, historical sources, and the liturgy was always to the fore. His most important books on art history were ...


Katrin Kogman Appel


Illuminated Hebrew prayerbook for holy days in two volumes (vol. 1: Wurzburg(?), 1272; vol. 2: late 13th century; Jerusalem, N. Lib., MS. heb. 4°781). As is common for Ashkenazi Machzorim, the Worms Machzor does not contain statutory prayers, but optional liturgical poems (piyyutim), common according to the Ashkenazi rites. The two volumes that currently constitute the Worms Machzor did not originally belong together, but must have been joined at some later stage during the history of the book, when it served the community of Worms . Textual evidence points at the possibility that the second volume reflects the local prayer rite of Worms and did not originate in Würzburg.

It is primarily the first volume that stands out in terms of decoration, whereas the second is sparsely illuminated. The decorations appear as initial word panels, large arches framing several of the text pages, and marginal scenes on the outer, upper, and bottom margins, some of which were trimmed during later bindings. The scenes relate to the contents of the ...


Vincent Mayr

[?Hans Bilger]

(fl 1475–96).

German sculptor. He is documented as active in Frankfurt am Main, Höchst am Main and Aschaffenburg. His seal shows a crossed hammer and chisel with the inscription hans bilhawer [sculptor] worms. Five sculptured altarpieces can be ascribed to him on documentary evidence (Frankfurt am Main, the Weissfrauenkirche, 1475–6, and the Bernhardskapelle, 1476–9; Kirchgarten, near Worms, Abbey Church, 1476; the high altar of the Justinuskirche, Höchst am Main, 1486; and the high altar of the monastery church of Aschaffenburg, 1489–96). Although none of these altars has survived, busts of four Fathers of the Church in Frankfurt (Frankfurt am Main, Liebieghaus), which are ascribed to Hans von Worms, may come from the Aschaffenburg altar, which was dismantled in 1770. Four half-figures are recorded from the predella, and the busts were described in 1606 by the painter Georg Rudolf Henneberger, who had been commissioned to renovate and remodel the altar.

The busts originally stood in front of a wall. They are of lime-wood and are deeply hollowed out at the back, their height varying between 455 and 595 mm. The Aschaffenburg busts can be compared to the busts of the ...


Rhys W. Williams

(b Aachen, Jan 13, 1881; d Munich, March 29, 1965).

German art historian. He studied art history at Freiburg, Berlin, and Munich, before submitting his doctoral dissertation in Berne in 1907. This thesis, entitled Abstraktion und Einfühlung: Ein Beitrag zur Stilpsychologie, was first published in Neuwied in 1907 as a dissertation. Somewhat unusually, it was recommended to, and reviewed favourably by, the writer Paul Ernst, whose article in Kunst and Künstler swiftly prompted a publication in book form the following year. It is a peculiar feature of Worringer’s reception that his first publication not only established his reputation as a significant art historian, but has seldom been out of print since 1908. That a doctoral thesis should have had such a profound impact, not only for art historians and theorists, but also for generations of creative writers and intellectuals, is almost unprecedented.

Abstraktion und Einfühlung takes as its starting-point Theodor Lipps’s theory of empathy, the notion that the work of art maximizes our capacity for empathy, that beauty derives from our sense of being able to identify with an object. While conceding that a mimetic urge exists in man, drawing on the ideas of Alois Riegl, Worringer denies any necessary connection between mimesis and art: if Egyptian art was highly stylized, he argued, this was not because its artists were incompetent and failed to reproduce external reality accurately, but because Egyptian art answered a radically different psychological need. In mimetic works, he argued, we derive satisfaction from an ‘objectified delight in the self’; the aim of the artist is to maximize our capacity for empathizing with the work. This kind of art springs from a confidence in the world as it is, a satisfaction in its forms, something embodied in Classical and Renaissance art. By contrast, the urge to abstraction, exemplified variously by Egyptian, Byzantine, Gothic, or primitive art, articulates a wholly different response to the universe: it expresses man’s insecurity and seeks to answer transcendental or spiritual needs. Thus in certain historical periods man is confidently assertive and finds satisfaction in ‘objectified delight in the self’, abandoning himself in contemplation of the external world, but in periods of anxiety and uncertainty he seeks to abstract objects from their contingency, transforming them into permanent, absolute, transcendental forms....


(d before 1520).

Architect probably of German origin, active in Austria . His name suggests that he may have come from Lower Bavaria (Wulzingen near Passau) or Upper Styria. He was active in Upper Austria and Styria between 1476 and 1517. The building inscriptions on the parish churches of Zell am Pettenfirst (c. 1490) and St Georgen in Attergau (c. 1496) and on the church (1513–14) in Weissenkirchen prove that they were built by him. At Whitsun 1516 Wultinger is recorded in the Admont masons’ lodge book (Graz, Steiermärk. Landesarchiv), perhaps because he worked in the area controlled by that lodge; his name and his master’s mark are given, and Wultinger is described as being ‘from Vegklenmargk’ (Vöcklamarkt), where he had built the parish church in 1512–13.

The rich adornment and twin aisles characteristic of Wultinger’s churches are related to a group of Styrian double-naved hall churches built from the first half of the 15th century that depended on the Salzburg lodge, which was responsible for their elaborate decoration. Wultinger habitually placed free-standing piers within the body of the church on the axis of the windows in the side walls, so creating a sequence of opposed, triangular bays; the resulting net and star vaulting recurs like a leitmotif in almost all of his buildings. Other characteristic features of Wultinger’s buildings include the use of a wide variety of free-standing pier shapes—octagonal, decagonal, smooth and cylindrical, twisted into spirals or incised with diamonds—and the rich use of sculptural decoration, particularly heads and foliage, on consoles and keystones. Wultinger’s ability to manipulate space was influential, as at the parish church in Gaishorn (...


[Wurmser, Mikuláš ]

(flmid-14th century).

German painter. A document of 1357 refers to him as court painter to Emperor Charles IV and as a citizen of Strasbourg. In 1360 he was granted exemption for life from taxes on an estate in Mořina, but the only specific reference to his work occurs in a document of 1359, which mentions ‘places and castles’ in which he was to work. Work began in 1348 on Karlštejn Castle, one of the major projects of Charles IV’s reign. As a painter high in Charles’s esteem, Nicholas must have been involved in the first phase of decoration, including the Luxemburg Genealogy (begun c. 1356; destr. before 1597; see Karlštejn Castle §2), a wall painting in the main hall, depicting c. 60 figures from Noah to Charles IV; watercolour copies of the Genealogy (Prague, N.G., Convent of St George, Codex Heidelbergensis; Vienna, Österreich. Nbib., MS. 8330) made for Emperor Maximilian II between ...


( fl 1360; d 1405).

English architect . He was employed as warden of masons’ work at Windsor Castle in 1360, under the direction of John de Sponlee ( fl 1350–?86). In April 1361 he was promoted to joint ‘disposer of the works’, and in the same year he is referred to as Master. Only in 1365–6, however, the date at which the Great Gate and the royal lodgings in the upper ward were constructed, did he receive a full year’s wages. In 1365 Wynford was appointed consultant architect of Wells Cathedral ( see Wells §1, (i) ), where he remained until his death and executed his most influential projects. The south-west tower, built c. 1390, set the fashion for the spireless, square-topped towers of the parish churches of Somerset. By 1372 work at Windsor Castle was nearly complete and Wynford was free to develop his private practice. From 1379 he worked for Bishop of Winchester William of Wykeham...


Eric Fernie, Thomas W. Lyman, Carola Hicks, Maylis Baylé, Anat Tcherikover, M. T. Camus, Danielle Valin Johnson, Neil Stratford, Alan Borg, S. Moralejo, James D’Emilio, Pedro Dias, Faith Johnson, Jeffrey West, Malcolm Thurlby, Deborah Kahn, Tessa Garton, Roger Stalley, A. v. Hülsen, Christine Verzar, Hans Buchwald, P. Cornelius Claussen, Paul Williamson, Dorothy F. Glass, Pina Belli D’Elia, Carl D. Sheppard, Elizabeth B. Smith, F. Niehoff, Robert Will, Michael Semff, Ludwig Tavernier, Zygmunt Świechowski, Lucy Wright, Melinda Tóth, Jan Svanberg, Robert Melzak, Eduard Carbonell Esteller, Peta Evelyn, Thomas Stangier, Peter Tångeberg, Angela Franco Mata, David Park, C. M. Kauffmann, Catherine Harding, Peter Barnet, Rebecca Leuchak, G. Reinheckel, Zsuzsa Lovag, Jane Geddes, Roberto Coroneo, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Charles T. Little, Elizabeth Pastan and Leonie von Wilckens



Leonie von Wilckens




M. C. Lacarra Ducay

(fl Saragossa, 1462; d 1505).

Spanish painter. He was of Castilian origin and worked in Aragon during the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella. His workshop in Saragossa was inherited by his son Juan, who was also a painter and a follower. Between 1482 and 1496 Miguel Ximénez collaborated with the painter Martín Bernart of Saragossa on a series of altarpieces, notably the high altar retable (1485; Saragossa, Mus. Prov. B.A.) from the church at Blesa (Teruel), which depicts the Legend of the True Cross. In his independent works, the altarpiece (Madrid, Prado) for S María, Ejea de los Caballeros (Saragossa), that of the Virgin of Villaverde in the church at Luna (Saragossa) and that of St Martin of Tours for S Pablo, Saragossa (Saragossa, Mus. Prov. B.A.), a development is noticeable from a Gothic style of Netherlandish and German origin, influenced by Rogier van der Weyden and Martin Schongauer, to the more naturalistic language of the Renaissance, with experiments in perspective and modelling....


Dimitris Tsougarakis

(b Athens, 1891; d Athens, April 22, 1979).

Greek archaeologist and art historian . He graduated from the School of Philosophy at the University of Athens in 1924. From 1928 until 1930 he studied Byzantine art at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes in Paris under Charles Diehl and Gabriel Millet, gaining his doctorate in 1937. From 1920 until 1940 he also worked in the Greek archaeological service, mainly in Macedonia, as ephor of Byzantine monuments. In 1940 he was elected professor of Byzantine archaeology at the University of Thessaloniki, where he taught until he retired in 1956. In 1966 he became a member of the Academy of Athens. His work covered wide areas of Byzantine and post-Byzantine art. As an archaeologist, his two most important discoveries were the mosaics (5th century) in Hosios David at Thessaloniki and those in the church of the Holy Apostles (14th century) in the same city. He was a prolific author of books and articles....


Lucy Der Manuelian and Armen Zarian

[Ererouk ; Ereruk ; Ereruyk

Ruins of an Early Christian basilica dating from the 5th century ad to the early 6th, near the village of Ani-Pemza, Armenia, south-east of the border with Turkey and c. 10 km south of Ani. An Armenian inscription (probably 7th century) on the north wall of the apse identifies the church as the martyrium of the Forerunner (Karapet). A Greek inscription (6th–7th centuries) and several others in Armenian (c. 6th–10th centuries; 1038; and 1201–12) refer to restoration works.

The church was excavated by N. Marr in 1908; by then the vaulted roof was missing, and only the outer walls survived. Restoration work was undertaken in 1928, followed by renewed excavations in 1987. Some features resemble those of 5th-century Armenian churches, but other architectural details, such as the twin-towered west façade, gabled portals, porticos and some sculptural decorations, are similar to contemporary Syrian churches (e.g. Turmanin and Ruwayha) and indicate an early 6th-century date. Accordingly it has been suggested that the original 5th-century structure may have had additions and changes during the 6th century....


(b ?nr Yeaveley, Derbys, c. 1320–30; d London, Aug 21, 1400).

English architect. He is first recorded in 1353, when he was granted the freedom of the City of London. He quickly rose to prominence and c. 1357 he was appointed mason to Edward, Prince of Wales (1330–76). The title of King’s Deviser of Masonry, which he held from 1360 to his death, indicates that he was recognized as an architect in the modern sense, with responsibility for design, erection, and maintenance of all Crown works, such as Queenborough Castle (1361–7; destr. 1650; see also Plantagenet, House of family §(4)) and Rochester Castle (repaired 1367–8). Stylistic evidence, including characteristically Perpendicular mouldings, indicates that he was responsible for the Black Prince’s chantry (from 1363) in the crypt of Canterbury Cathedral. In 1371 he contracted to build the first cell and the cloister of the London Charterhouse. The Neville screen (1372–6) in Durham Cathedral has been attributed to Yevele’s London workshop (...



Virginia Roehrig Kaufmann

[Ger.: ‘jagged style’]

Term used to describe the predominant painting style in German-speaking regions during the 13th century, derived from its characteristic zigzag or ‘broken-fold’ drapery forms. Its early development was largely due to the influence of Byzantine painting on German artists in the north-east (Lower Saxony, Saxon–Anhalt, and Thuringia). But in copying the Byzantine draperies, the northern artists exaggerated the patterns with decorative and expressive force, at the expense of the human forms beneath. Zigzagging drapery folds emphasize movement and lend the garment dynamic energy, as if it has a life of its own. Early examples include the Psalter (Stuttgart, Württemberg. Landesbib., MS. Bibl., fol. 24) made for Landgraf Hermann I von Thuringia (reg 1190–1217). Zackenstil occurs in the following decades in Franconia and the Rhineland, where it was adopted by workshops painting in all media. In these western regions, however, the style became increasingly influenced by French Gothic sculpture, giving it a new monumental plasticity (...



Vladimir Peter Goss

[Lat. Iadera ; Gr. Diadora ; It. Zara]

Port city in Croatia. A Liburnian Bronze Age fortress on a well-protected peninsula, a major Roman city, and the capital of Byzantine Dalmatia, Zadar was hotly contested between Croatian rulers and Venice throughout the later Middle Ages. During the 15th century it became part of the Venetian Empire and was known as Zara.

The remains of the Cathedral of St Peter (rededicated to St Anastasia [Croat. Stošija] with the arrival of her relics in the early 9th century), its hexagonal baptistery (destr. 1943; rebuilt), the basilica of St Stephen (destr., St Simeon was then built on the same site), and the aisleless church of St Andrew all date from the 4th–5th centuries. Artistic activity continued throughout the Dark Ages (6th–7th centuries; fragments from the cathedral survive), to fully revive in the 8th century with the first phase of the rotunda of the Holy Trinity, which was rebuilt c. 800, under Carolingian influence, and in the 15th century was renamed St Donat after the bishop who had the church built....


Lynette Bosch

[Llorenz Saragozza]

(b Cariñena, Aragon; fl 1364; d 1401).

Spanish illuminator and painter. He worked in Valencia and Barcelona and was responsible for the continuation of the so-called International Gothic style in Catalonia, Aragon and Valencia. He is recorded in Valencia from 1364 to 1366; in the latter year he was working in Barcelona, where he was paid by Queen Eleanor (d 1374) for two retables, one of St Nicholas for the Franciscan convent in Calatayud and the other of St Catherine for the Franciscan convent in Teruel, both of which are untraced. In 1373 King Peter IV of Aragon (reg 1336–87) referred to him in a letter to the Council of Albocacer as the best painter of Barcelona. Lorenzo later returned to Valencia, where he is documented from 1377 to 1401, the year of his death. His varied commissions there included an embroidered cloth for the Armourers’ Guild (1390; untraced) and a series of ceiling paintings for the Casa del Peso Real (...