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A. E. Werdehausen

[Antonio di Pietro Averlino]

(b c. 1400; d c. 1469).

Italian sculptor, architect and theorist. According to Vasari, he trained in the studio of Lorenzo Ghiberti, but he developed a personal style that was relatively independent of Florentine influence. His Trattato di architettura was the first Renaissance architectural treatise to be written in vernacular Italian and illustrated with drawings and was an important work in the development of Renaissance architectural theory.

Filarete is first recorded in 1433 in Rome, where he attended the coronation of the Emperor Sigismund. Presumably the same year he was commissioned by Pope Eugenius IV to design and execute the bronze door of the main porch of the old St Peter’s (inscribed and dated, 1445). The unsettled political conditions during the pontificate of Eugenius IV (1431–47) and the depiction of events during 1438–42 in the small, friezelike reliefs have led to the supposition (Spencer, 1978) that Filarete was not continuously engaged on the door and at one point was given a change of programme. The two wings of the door each consist of three rectangular fields of different size with large figures (...


(b Budapest, April 12, 1901; d Budapest, Feb 23, 1995).

Hungarian architect, urban planner and theorist. He studied (1915–19) at the State Architecture High School, Budapest, taking his master builder examination in 1926. His entry in the design competition for the Imperial Baths (1924), Budapest, demonstrated his Modernist leanings, which he elaborated in articles for the avant-garde periodicals Munka (Hung.: work) and Tér és Forma (Hung.: space and form). After the Hungarian affiliate of CIAM was formed (1929) under the leadership of Farkas Molnár, Fischer became one of its most active members and one of the most important pioneers of Functionalism in Hungary. The Hungarian group, which existed for nine years, worked within CIAM’s overall focus on the need for affordable housing. Their utopian architectural and urban designs were illustrated by the collective house, Kolhāz (1931), and the collective town, Kolvāros (1932), but in practice the group’s members were primarily able to build only villas and residential blocks. Fischer’s architecture combines various Modernist influences with his own individual style. His early works are strictly geometric, while the later work includes increasingly rich formal elements. His cube-like villa (...


(b Pontoise, Sept 20, 1762; d Paris, Oct 10, 1853).

French architect and writer. With his friend and collaborator, Charles Percier(-Bassant), he was one of the principal French architects of the 19th century and the best exponent of late Neo-classicism, or the Empire style. Born during the reign of Louis XVI, he died when Napoleon III was on the throne. Continuously, from 1800 to 1851, he held positions of the highest responsibility, supervising the construction of public buildings. As the architect to the government, he worked for Napoleon (see Bonaparte family §(1)), in Paris and at the châteaux of Saint-Cloud, Fontainebleau and Compiègne; he built the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel (Louvre) and started the construction of the arcades in Rue de Rivoli. During the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, he built the Chapelle Expiatoire, Rue d’Anjou, Paris, and supervised for a number of years the site of the Arc de Triomphe at the Etoile. For ...



(b ?Antwerp, ?1583; d Brussels, bur Jan 6, 1651).

Flemish architect, painter, draughtsman, engineer and writer. He was the son of an Antwerp painter, Jacques Francart (b before 1550; d 1601), and he was trained as a painter in Rome, where his father worked for some years. He greatly admired Michelangelo, Jacopo Vignola, Giacomo della Porta and Carlo Maderno. In 1599 the Flemish painter and architect Wenzel Coebergher married Francart’s younger sister in Rome. After Coebergher had been appointed Court Engineer in 1605 to the Archduke Albert and Archduchess Isabella in Brussels, Francart likewise returned to the Low Countries in 1608 to begin a career as a painter and architect in the service of the Archduke, where he remained until the death of Isabella.

In 1622, influenced by his Roman sojourn, Francart published his Premier livre d’architecture in November 1616, a work of great importance to the development of the early Baroque style in the southern Netherlands. One month after its publication he was given the task of completing the Jesuit church in Brussels (destr. ...


Galienne Francastel

(b Paris, June 8, 1900; d Paris, Jan 2, 1970).

French art historian. He was employed between 1925 and 1930 in the Service d’Architecture at the château of Versailles. This activity was crowned by the publication of La Sculpture de Versailles (1930), in which the subject, characterized by a triumph of classical discipline over the Baroque, is studied in the context of the general history of taste. This marked the beginning of the author’s understanding of the way art functions in a given society and of the discipline that he termed ‘sociology of art’. He gained his doctorate in 1930 and taught art history in Warsaw (at the Institut Français and the university) and, from 1937 to 1945, in Strasbourg and Clermont-Ferrand. In 1945 he was appointed cultural adviser to the French Embassy in Warsaw and organized exhibitions of French sculpture, painting and drawing. His first return from Warsaw to France was marked by the publication of L’Impressionnisme...


Paul Crossley

(b Prague, 1879; d Princeton, NJ, Jan 30, 1962).

American art historian. He first trained as an architect but, in his early thirties, he turned to the study of art history and in 1911 submitted his doctoral dissertation at Munich University on 15th-century stained glass in southern Germany. Under the influence of his teacher, Heinrich Wölfflin, Frankl soon attempted a systematic definition of the formal principles underlying Renaissance and post-Renaissance architecture. His first theoretical work, Die Entwicklungsphasen der neueren Baukunst (1914), was strongly influenced by the visual formalism and philosophical idealism of German art history in the decades before World War I. It isolated four main categories of analysis, which were fundamental to much of his later investigations: spatial composition, treatment of mass and surface (‘corporeal form’), treatment of light, colour and other optical effects (‘visible form’), and the relation of design to social function (‘purposive intention’). His emphasis on spatial analysis as a determinant of style relied heavily on August Schmarsow’s works on Baroque and Rococo architecture. His concept of ‘visible form’ (sometimes called ‘optical form’), which presupposes that viewers derive their experience of a building kinetically, as the mental synthesis of many images from different viewpoints, owed much to late 19th-century theories of perception, in particular to Konrad Fiedler’s and Adolf von Hildebrand’s emphasis on the physiological and psychological processes of seeing, and to Alois Riegl’s notion of ‘haptic’ and ‘optic’ forms. Frankl’s principal debt, however, lay in his adoption of Wölfflin’s quasi-Hegelian model of style as a predetermined, supra-individual force, impelled onwards by its own immanent laws, and evolving from one art-historical period to another through the action and counter-action of ‘polar opposites’: the underlying formal principles of a style are diametrically antithetical to those of the styles preceding and succeeding it....


Edwin Lachnit

(b Vienna, April 23, 1883; d Stuttgart, May 13, 1962).

Austrian art historian. In 1911, after completing a course of study in architecture at the Technische Hochschule, Vienna, he became assistant to Max Dvořák at the office for the preservation of national monuments. On Dvořák’s advice Frey began studying art history, producing a dissertation on Bramante’s design for St Peter’s and its apocrypha. The architecture of the Renaissance, the Baroque and the modern period became focal points of his research, although he also produced numerous contributions on Austrian art. He was appointed Professor of Art History at the University of Breslau (now Wrocław, Poland) in 1931 and extended his interests to the problems of art in north-eastern Europe. In 1945 he returned to Vienna and resumed his work at the office responsible for monuments. In addition, he published on theories of art and methodological questions. In 1951 he moved to Stuttgart, where he was Professor of Art History at the Technische Hochschule. In his last years he wrote on such great creative figures as Giotto, Titian, Michelangelo and Rembrandt. Frey’s methodological position is a synthesis of the procedure of the Vienna School, based on the study of historical development through sources, and the unorthodox system of Josef Strzygowski, which transcended subject boundaries. The work of Julius von Schlosser and, above all, that of Dvořák, based on intellectual history, were of fundamental importance to Frey. In keeping with Strzygowski’s comparative approach, he also showed an intense interest in neighbouring disciplines, an interest in science and a regard for artistic questions outside his own region, particularly those of Eastern Europe. Frey’s unfulfilled intention was to unite the different components of his work into a comprehensive philosophy of art....


Bernard Marrey

(b Objat, Correze, July 13, 1879; d Saint-Martin-de-Vesubie, nr Nice, June 8, 1962).

French engineer and theorist. He attended the Ecole Polytechnique and the Ecole des Ponts et Chaussées, Paris, where he studied with Jean Résal (1854–1919), Paul Séjourné (1851–1939) and Charles Rabut (1852–1925), the latter being one of the pioneers of reinforced concrete. In his first post as a government engineer in Moulins (1907–13) Freyssinet built a number of reinforced-concrete bridges, including that at Prairéal-sur-Besbre (1907), where for the first time the centring was struck by the use of jacks, creating a thrust at the crown. For the contractor François Mercier he built several works under state supervision. In 1910–12 he undertook to build three three-arch concrete bridges over the River Allier for the cost of one masonry bridge. The first, at Le Veurdre (1910; destr. 1940), was designed with a flat, lightly reinforced three-hinged arch with horizontal jacks at mid-span that raised the arch for decentring. The arch sank by 130 mm during the winter of ...


(b Chambéry, 1682; d Brest, 1773).

French engineer and theorist. He moved from Savoy to Paris at an early age and was educated at the Collège de France, where he studied theology for three years and then mathematics as a pupil of Philippe de La Hyre (1640–1718), the disciple of Gérard Desargues. Frézier subsequently travelled to Italy, and in 1707 he published the Traité des feux d’artifice pour le spectacle. In the same year he enrolled in the Corps de Génie, in which he remained until his retirement in 1764. In 1712 he departed on a two-year mission to South America, and in 1719 he was posted to Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic) to maintain fortifications. On his return in 1727 he was made chief engineer and, after a brief spell in Phalsbourg (nr Strasbourg), he was placed in charge of military fortifications in Landau (now Germany). In the ten years he spent there he executed his only major building, the military hospital, and published (...


Peter Blundell Jones

Term applied to architecture in which the form of a building is derived from the function it is intended to fulfil. As employed by such historians as Nikolaus Pevsner and Siegfried Giedion, the term became generally identified with early 20th-century Modernism, for, like many of their architect contemporaries, they used it in justifying that style. It would, however, be hard to substantiate the claim that modern architecture is truly more functional than that of many other periods, particularly as it was impregnated with aesthetic and social concerns that sometimes conflicted directly with the requirements of use.

Even in the realm of theory modernists cannot claim any monopoly on functionalist ideas: A. W. N. Pugin claimed in his True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture (1841) that ‘there should be no features about a building which are not necessary for construction, convenience or propriety’, defining propriety as the appropriate reflection of the internal arrangements in the exterior. Even though he applied them to Gothic examples, he drew his ideas from the French Neo-classical tradition, while the French reiterated theories borrowed from the Italian Renaissance. Thus functionalist ideas can be found in ...


(b Leutkirch, Dec 30, 1591; d Ulm, Jan 12, 1667).

German merchant, architect and writer. He received his commercial training in Italy, where he lived between 1608 and 1620, mainly in Genoa and Florence but also visiting other important cities in northern and central Italy and travelling as far south as Rome. During these years he acquired a wide knowledge of architecture, engineering and mathematics. In Genoa he learnt fortification design under Paolo Rizio and gunmaking and pyrotechnics with Hans Veldhausen of Augsburg. He encountered Galileo Galilei in Florence and also made contact there with the architect Giulio Parigi, who had a decisive influence on him, awakening his lifelong interest in the building and decoration of theatres. His travel journal Newes itinerarium Italiae (1627) became a standard guide for travellers.

In 1620 Furttenbach returned to Leutkirch but settled in Ulm the following year, working as a merchant until his death. In 1623 he was made a citizen of Ulm, where he was admitted to the Ulm guild of merchants in ...


(b Cérisières, Aug 2, 1883; d Bar-sur-Aube, Dec 23, 1972).

French architectural historian and archaeologist . He obtained a diploma in architecture at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and from 1908 to 1911 he was attached to the French School at Athens, where he participated in the publication of the school’s excavations at Delos and studied the medieval buildings of Rhodes. During World War I he was an interpreter in Syria. He earned his license-ès-lettres at the University of Paris in 1921 with theses on the ramparts of Rhodes and the excavations at Fustat (Old Cairo). This double education as an architect and archaeologist shaped his later works on the Islamic monuments of medieval Anatolia, Iraq and Iran. He visited Syria and Cilicia in 1922 and Syria again in 1925; he taught at the universities of Caen (1923), Strasbourg (1925–46) and Istanbul (1926–30). From 1930 to 1955 he directed the Institut Français d’Archéologie in Istanbul. In ...


(b Bordeaux, Feb 27, 1884; d Paris, Jan 17, 1972).

French historian, archivist, paleographer and writer. He was chief librarian at the Cour de la Cassation. An expert on Renaissance architecture, sculpture and history, he established precise chronologies of events, and revised the generally accepted view of the Italian influence on the French Renaissance. In his Les Châteaux de la Renaissance he refuted the common assumption that the Italianate architecture seen in France during the reigns of Louis XII and Francis I was built by Italians working in France. He argued instead that much of it was the product of French masons, and maintained that the arrival of Sebastiano Serlio at the French court had led to the dispersal of Italian Renaissance styles among French craftsmen, which had reached a peak in the work of the French architect Pierre Lescot, at the end of Francis I’s reign. Under Henry II, a less Italian, more indigenous style was seen. In Les Châteaux de la France...


Liliane Châtelet-Lange

(b Sainte-Menehould, Marne, 1578; d in or after Nov 1623).

French architect, draughtsman, theorist and writer. Around 1600 he worked in the studio of Jacques Androuet Du Cerceau (ii) in Paris. In 1602 he left Paris to work in Troyes and Sedan (Ardennes) and remained from about 1603 to 1610 in Lorraine, where his principal patron was Jean III Du Châtelet, Baron des Thons. At Petit-Thon, Gentillâtre built an important château for him consisting of two wide wings joined by a narrower gallery. The exterior façade is of brick and stone (the brickwork is simulated in paint), and the corners and openings are enhanced by quoins. There is no polychromy on the courtyard façade, which has instead an abundant display of decorative sculpture. The fireplaces are also laden with sculptural motifs.

After staying in Montbéliard (Doubs) and Geneva, he went to Chalon-sur-Saône (Saône-et-Loire) in 1612, staying there until 1622. The Hôtel Virey (1612; now the Sous-préfecture) and the Palais du Bailliage (begun ...


Edward Chaney

(b Middelburg, Zeeland, Feb 23, 1592; d Hampstead Marshall, Berks, 1663).

Dutch courtier, miniature painter, architect, and writer, of French origin, active in England. The son of a Huguenot émigré, and perhaps a pupil of the artist Hendrick Goltzius, he travelled to London in 1616. William Sanderson, in his Graphice of 1658, says that Gerbier ‘had little of art, or merit; a common Pen-man who pensil’d the Dialogue [Decalogue] in the Dutch Church, London; his first rise of preferment’ (p. 15). Two or three years later he entered the service of George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, whose miniature portrait he painted in 1618 (London, Syon House), the same year in which he wrote a poem on the death of Goltzius, which features his future friend Rubens. Rubens was to paint a portrait of his wife Debora Kip (daughter of the Dutch-born goldsmith and engraver William Kip), whom Gerbier married not later than 1618 (Huguenot Soc. Proc., 3rd ser., x, p. 194). Gerbier was clearly instrumental in the spectacularly rapid growth of Buckingham’s collection of pictures. In ...


Peter Boutourline Young

(b Vienna, May 12, 1839; d Baden-Baden, Dec 19, 1909).

Austrian architect, engineer, architectural historian and writer. He studied engineering in Paris and in 1860 entered the Bauakademie, Berlin, where he was a pupil of Friedrich Adler. He made two study trips to Italy in his youth. He devoted himself mainly to historical research, renouncing his practical activities as an architect. Many of his numerous studies are still invaluable reference works for scholars of French and German architecture of the 15th and 16th centuries. Geymueller was profoundly influenced by the Swiss art historian Jacob Burckhardt. His Les Projets primitifs pour la basilique de Saint-Pierre de Rome (1875) was based on the discovery and study of previously unpublished drawings by Bramante and Raphael for St Peter’s in Rome. He collaborated with Karl Martin von Stegmann in writing, and then edited, Die Architektur der Renaissance in Toscana (1885–1907), a comprehensive work that had originally been the idea of four young German artists who had joined together to form the ...


Codruţa Cruceanu

(b Iaşi, Dec 12, 1869; d Bucharest, Dec 16, 1943).

Romanian architect, restorer, architectural historian and teacher. He studied engineering (1889–93) at the School of Roads and Bridges, Bucharest, and later studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in the studio of Victor Laloux, where he obtained a diploma in 1901. After 1906 he was active in the Romanian Historical Monuments Commission, researching the ancient historical architecture of Romania. He was among the promoters of the ‘neo-Romanian’ style, along with Ion Mincu, Petre Antonescu, Constantin Iotzu (1884–1962) and Grigore Cerchez (1850–1927). Ghika-Budeşti’s most significant building is the Museum of National Art (1912–38; now the Romanian Peasant Museum), Bucharest. Built of traditional stone, brick and tiles, it is remarkable both for a compositional balance characteristic of traditional Romanian architecture and for its monumental dimensions. At the same time the human scale is retained by the incorporation of various decorative elements: dogtooth motifs, mouldings, niches, balustrades and ornamental tendrils reminiscent of the Brâncoveanu period (...


Roger White

(b Aberdeen, Dec 23, 1682; d London, Aug 5, 1754).

Scottish architect.

Gibbs was the younger son of an Aberdeen merchant, Patrick Gibb(s), and was brought up a Roman Catholic. He was educated at the Grammar School and at Marischal College in Aberdeen. Shortly before 1700 he left Scotland for the Netherlands, where he stayed with relatives before making his way through France to Italy, visiting Milan, Venice, Bologna, Florence, Genoa and Naples. He arrived in Rome in the autumn of 1703 and registered at the Pontifical Scots College, apparently with the intention of training for the priesthood. Within a year, however, he left to become a pupil of Carlo Fontana, then the most influential architect in Rome. His father had suffered financial hardship as a result of the 1688 Revolution, so that Gibbs had to rely on the charity of friends for his income, probably supplementing it by guiding and drawing for British tourists.

These contacts with potential patrons proved useful when Gibbs arrived in London late in ...


Catherine Cooke


(b Minsk, May 23, 1892; d Moscow, Jan 7, 1946).

Belarusian architect, urban planner, theorist and teacher. His age and background prepared him ideally for a central position among the architects who led the Modernist avant-garde in the USSR in the 1920s. He is best known for his leadership, with Aleksandr Vesnin, of the Constructivist architectural group from 1925 to 1931, but he was a consistently influential figure in Soviet architecture from the early 1920s until his premature death after World War II. Ginzburg insisted on constant re-evaluation and innovation in three key dimensions: architecture must tackle new social tasks; it must create new ‘spatial organisms’ to facilitate, reflect and catalyze those tasks; and it must harness the new technologies of mass production and the new building materials to achieve fulfilment of those tasks. A new ‘style’ would be the aesthetic correlate and result of these innovations.

The son of an architect in Minsk, with limited access as a Jew to higher education in Russia, Ginzburg attended the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris and the Ecole d’Architecture in Toulouse before joining the studio of ...


(b Verona, 1433; d Rome, July 1, 1515).

Italian engineer, architect, epigraphist, and scholar. He was much sought after for his technical skills, particularly his expertise in hydraulics and military engineering, while his wide-ranging interests in archaeology, theology, urban planning, and philology earned him the regard of his contemporaries; Vasari described him as ‘un uomo rarissimo ed universale’. He was almost certainly a Franciscan friar, but it is not known where he acquired his architectural training. Given his lifelong and profound study of Classical architecture and inscriptions, Vasari’s assertion that he spent time in Rome as a youth is plausible. One of his earliest endeavours was to compile a collection of Latin inscriptions. The first version (1478–c. 1489), which included drawings and was dedicated to Lorenzo de’ Medici, became an important and much-copied reference work; it was also a major source for the Corpus inscriptionum latinarum, the principal 19th-century compilation. A fine copy survives (Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, MS. Vat. lat. 10228), transcribed by Giocondo’s friend and sometime collaborator, the eminent Paduan calligrapher, ...