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(b New York, Jan 24, 1862; d Pavillon Colombe, nr Paris, Aug 11, 1937).

American writer . She was born into a wealthy New York family and was educated privately; she travelled widely, settling in France in 1907. Her first book was The Decoration of Houses (1898), written in collaboration with the Boston architect Ogden Codman (who had remodelled her home at Newport, RI, in 1893). Their aim was to raise the standard of decoration in modern houses to that of the past through a return to ‘architectural proportion’ and an avoidance of the ‘superficial application of ornament’. Each room should be furnished for comfort and according to its use and should be organically related to the rest of the house and the quality of life to be expressed. The work was successful and influential among both the public and such decorators as Elsie De Wolfe and William Odom. Wharton’s house in Lenox, MA, the Mount, built to her design from 1901...


Rosamond Allwood

( fl London, 1825–50).

English designer . His influential pattern books reflect styles from the late Regency period to the early Victorian. His designs were executed for a number of important clients, including Queen Victoria (at Osborne House, Isle of Wight), Brownlow Cecil, 2nd Marquess of Exeter, William Spencer Cavendish, 6th Duke of Devonshire, and Hugh Percy, 3rd Duke of Northumberland. Whitaker’s Designs of Cabinet and Upholstery Furniture in the Most Modern Style (London, 1825) contains 50 plates of designs for furniture and curtains. The designs are chiefly in the then current late Grecian manner, with a tendency towards rich ornament. In 1826 he published Practical Carpentry, which cites Thomas Hope as the major furniture reformer of the day, and includes a few Grecian designs. Five Etchings from the Antique (London, 1827) is a book of Classical vase designs. Whitaker’s most important work is the House Furnishing, Decorating and Embellishing Assistant (London, 1847...


Cornelia Bauer

(b Zurich, Sept 28, 1818; d Zurich, April 27, 1891).

Swiss architect and writer . He trained (1833–6) with Hans Rychner in Neuenburg and then attended the Akademie der Bildenden Künste (1836–40), Munich. In 1841 he published an extensive guidebook to architecture for both specialist and lay readers, entitled Der Baufreund. He worked as a building administrator in Zofingen (1843–50) and as state building inspector to the Canton of Zurich (1851–65). The majority of Wolff’s works were functional public buildings of block form and classical style, such as a school (1851–4) at Wohlen, the prison (1852–4) at Winterthur and the Burghölzli sanatorium (1864–70) at Zurich. His few religious buildings were Neo-classical, such as the Calvinist church (1851–4) at Wohlen, or were in historicist styles, such as the Gothic Revival Calvinist church (1854–5) at Töss, or the In Rein parish church (1863–4) at Rüfenach, which combines various historical styles. After the fire at Glarus in ...


Nigel J. Morgan

(b Dewsbury, Yorks, June 1, 1904; d London, Jan 11, 1972).

English palaeographer, liturgist, and art historian. Educated at Eton and Magdalene College, Cambridge, he worked in the department of manuscripts at the British Museum (1927–49) and was Professor of Palaeography at King’s College, University of London (1950–68), and director of the Institute of Historical Research (1960–67). His early work was almost entirely on liturgical texts and included the three volumes on English calendars published for the Henry Bradshaw Society (1934–46). He continued to publish on liturgical texts throughout his life but from the late 1930s, particularly after the death of M. R. James in 1936, he became the most influential figure in the study of English illuminated manuscripts; he also helped to emphasize the need for the study and publication of medieval liturgical texts. His studies were mainly concerned with Anglo-Saxon and Romanesque material with a few devoted to later medieval illumination and iconography. In these his knowledge of palaeography, historical sources, and the liturgy was always to the fore. His most important books on art history were ...


Lija Skalska-Miecik

(b Kraków, Jan 15, 1869; d Kraków, Nov 28, 1907).

Polish painter, pastellist, decorative artist, illustrator, writer and theatre director . He was the son of the Kraków sculptor Franciszek Wyspiański (1836–1902) and studied at the Kraków School of Fine Arts, mostly under Władysław Łuszczkiewicz (1828–1900) and Jan Matejko. In 1889 Wyspiański and Józef Mehoffer, the school’s most talented students, were appointed to complete Matejko’s painted decorations for St Mary, Kraków, a task that prompted Wyspiański’s interest in both decorative painting and stained glass. In 1890 he travelled in Italy, Switzerland, France and Germany, and also to Prague. In 1891 he continued his training in Paris, where he remained with intervals until 1894, studying at the Académie Colarossi under Joseph Blanc, Gustave Courtois (1852–1924) and Louis Auguste Girardot (b 1858). Wyspiański also worked independently in Paris, studying paintings in the museums and fascinated by contemporary art. Through Władysław Ślewiński, he met Paul Gauguin and members of the Nabis....


Juliana Nedeva-Wegener

(b Samokov, June 8, 1895; d Sofia, Nov 28, 1971).

Bulgarian printmaker, graphic designer, illustrator, bookbinder, art historian, theorist, critic and teacher . He is considered to be the founder and leading representative of 20th-century Bulgarian graphic art, who in the 1920s developed his own style in the spirit of the national tradition, but with a contemporary western European outlook. In 1919 he graduated from the National Academy of Arts (Natsionalna Hudozhestvena Academia), Sofia. In 1922–4 he studied at the State Academy of Graphic Art and Book Decoration, Leipzig, where he made an in-depth study of graphic techniques. After his return to Bulgaria, he was engaged in a variety of activities, including ex-libris, illustration, bookbinding and the design of postage stamps and banknotes. From 1924 until his death he was a professor of graphic and decorative arts at the National Academy of Arts. His output of graphic art was prodigious and included woodcuts (Basilica of St Sofia, 1925; e.g. Sofia, N.A.G.), coloured mezzotints (...


Nigel Vaux Halliday

[ Antonie ]

(b Haarlem, Feb 18, 1892; d Crowborough, E. Sussex, Jan 23, 1979).

Dutch bookseller, dealer and publisher, active in England . He worked in the book trade in Holland and then in London, where in 1916 he became manager of a foreign-language bookshop at 78 Charing Cross Road. After buying the business in 1923 he developed it into a specialist art bookshop, unique in London until the late 1930s. Zwemmer concentrated on European publications and was the sole British distributor of such magazines as Cahiers d’art, XXe siècle, Minotaure, Labyrinthe, Verve and, later, L’Oeil. He also stocked modern English literature. The bookshop, which was soon financially successful, was a focus for the London art world in the 1920s and 1930s, and Zwemmer became a friend and patron of such artists as Henry Moore, Wyndham Lewis, Jacob Epstein and Graham Sutherland. Through his regular visits to Paris he also came into contact with Picasso, Miró, Dalí and Paul Eluard. In 1929 Zwemmer opened the Zwemmer Gallery at 26 Litchfield Street, round the corner from his bookshop; it operated until ...