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Article

Leila Krogh

(b Copenhagen, Sept 7, 1863; d Cannes, April 4, 1958).

Danish painter, printmaker, sculptor, ceramicist, architect and collector. He studied from 1881 at the Kunstakademi in Copenhagen and in 1886 at Peder Severin Krøyer’s Frie Skole there. His style changed radically during his travels in France and Spain (1888–9) and during a stay in France, where he met and exhibited with French artists, including Paul Gauguin. In Brittany he painted several scenes of local people, similar to Gauguin’s work of this period, for example Two Women Walking, Brittany (1890; Frederikssund, Willumsens Mus.). In such works Willumsen emphasized the element of vigorous movement. From the start of his career Willumsen also made prints (etchings from 1885, lithographs from 1910 and woodcuts from 1920): early, more realistic works, such as the Copenhagen townscape of Woman Out for a Walk (1889) soon gave way to a bolder, more Symbolist approach, as in Fertility (1891), which showed his wife Juliette in an advanced stage of pregnancy and raised a storm of protest when exhibited at the Copenhagen Frie Udstilling (Free Exhibition), which Willumsen and others had founded. His major work from this period is ...

Article

Jane Clark

( Herbert )

(b Aston, Warwicks, Oct 22, 1854; d Eltham, Victoria, Oct 13, 1914).

Australian painter of English birth. He studied at the Royal Academy and South Kensington Schools (1870–82) in London and arrived in Melbourne on 1 January 1883 to work on the land for 18 months. He joined the life classes at the National Gallery of Victoria (1884–7), while employed as a lithographic draughtsman, and returned to Europe in 1887–8 to attend the Académie Julian in Paris. Back in Australia, he exhibited with the Victorian Artists’ Society and painted with the Heidelberg school artists, based at Eaglemont from October 1889 to June 1890. He was nicknamed ‘the orderly colonel’ for his organized habits. He leased the south end of the Heidelberg mansion ‘Charterisville’ from September 1890, painting prolifically, teaching and accommodating numerous fellow artists. The critic Sidney Dickinson named him, with Arthur Streeton, as a leader of ‘the “Heidelberg School” … for out-of-door painting’ (‘Two exhibitions of paintings’, ...

Article

Roger Avermaete

(b Mechelen, Aug 21, 1882; d Amsterdam, July 11, 1916).

Belgian painter, sculptor, draughtsman and printmaker . From the age of 11 he worked in the studio of his father, an ornamental sculptor. After studying painting in 1899 at the Akademie van Schone Kunsten in Mechelen, he went to Brussels in 1902 to study sculpture under Charles Van der Stappen; although he did not stay there long, he continued to sculpt, taking up painting only in 1911. In 1905 he married Hélène Duerinckx, known affectionately as Nel, who first worked for him as a model earlier in the year. They were rescued from poverty only in 1911, when Wouters signed a contract with the Galerie Giroux in Brussels.

Wouters was particularly productive as a painter from 1912 to 1914, painting some of his best works, such as the portrait of his wife entitled Woman with Yellow Necklace (1912) and The Flautist (1914; both Brussels, Mus. A. Mod.), in which a man in pensive pose is set against a landscape seen through a window. An exhibition held at the Galerie Giroux at this time was highly successful. After being called up in ...

Article

( Vasil’yevna )

(b Wiesbaden, Jan 31, 1870; d Chêne Bougerie, nr Geneva, Dec 27, 1902).

Russian painter, decorative artist and designer . She was a major Symbolist artist in Russia and played a significant role in the revival of folk traditions in Russian art in the late 19th century. She grew up in Moscow and studied (1885–8) under Yelena Polenova and Vasily Polenov as an external student at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. Subsequently she joined Yelena Polenova’s group for the study of the historical and archaeological monuments of Moscow and became closely associated with the Abramtsevo group. From 1888 she spent winters in Paris, where she enrolled as a student at the Académie Julian. Her paintings, sometimes consisting of melancholic depictions of decaying mansions in the manner of Viktor Borisov-Musatov, were dominated by decorative landscapes. Always striving to express the synthetic inner vitality of organic life, she concentrated on forest motifs (e.g. The Window and Aspen and Fir Tree (both pokerwork and oil on panel, ...

Article

Mark Allen Svede

[Est. Noor-Eesti]

Term used from 1912 to describe a broad cultural movement in Estonia that lasted from c. 1902 until 1917. It generated new literary and artistic traditions for a people seeking independence from the Russian empire. Young Estonia was one manifestation of the phenomenon of national awakenings occurring throughout fin-de-siècle northern and eastern Europe, being particularly akin to those in Finland and Latvia. Its ideologist, the poet Gustav Suits (1883–1956), preached a synthesis of individualism and socialism, wherein culture could be nationalistic as long as it transcended chauvinism. His literary programme called for the assimilation of the best of European culture, and this expansive view soon affected Estonian visual arts, theatre and linguistics. Calendars and a periodical, Noor-Eesti, published in 1905–15 and 1910–11 respectively, promulgated and refined Young Estonia’s philosophy. During this period, the first formal exhibition of Estonian painting and sculpture opened in Tallinn in 1906, and in ...

Article

Sergey Kuznetsov

[ Zhmuydzinavichyus, Antanas ( Ionasovich )]

(b Seiriai, Seinai region, Oct 31, 1876; d Kaunas, Aug 9, 1966).

Lithuanian painter, administrator and writer. He qualified as a drawing teacher at the St Petersburg Academy of Arts and taught at the Warsaw Commercial College (1899–1905) while continuing his studies. He also studied in Paris (from 1905), Munich (1908–9) and Hamburg (1912). During a short stay in Vilnius in 1906–7 he became close to Petras Rimša and Mikalojus Čiurlionis, founding the Lithuanian Art Society, which combined two trends in Lithuanian art: realist (Žmuidzinavičius, Petras Kalpokas, Rimša) and Symbolist (Čiurlionis). He was the initiator of the first Lithuanian Art Exhibition, held in Vilnius in 1907, at which he showed 35 paintings, among them Peasant Kitchen (1905; Kaunas, A. Žmuidzinavičius Mem. Mus.). During these years Žmuidzinavičius was influenced by the work of the Symbolists, as evident in Horseman (1910–12; Kaunas, A. Žmuidzinavičius Mem. Mus.). His essays on art were published in periodicals and newspapers in Vilnius, Kaunas and Warsaw in the first two decades of the 20th century. He maintained contact with Lithuanian emigrés in the USA, which he visited in ...

Article

M. Dolores Jiménez-Blanco

(b Eibar, Guipúzcoa, July 26, 1870; d Madrid, Oct 31, 1945).

Spanish Basque painter . He studied in Paris in 1891, coming under the influence of Impressionism and of the group of Catalan painters around Santiago Rusiñol. His visit to Andalusia in 1892 provided the key to his later work, leading him to replace the grey tonalities of his Paris paintings with more brightly coloured images of Spanish folkloric subjects and of male or female figures in regional dress, for example Merceditas (1911/13; Washington, DC, N.G.A.). Zuloaga turned to Castilian subjects in works such as Segoviano and Toreros de Pueblo (both 1906; both Madrid, Mus. A. Contemp.) after the defeat suffered by Spain in the Spanish-American War of 1898; like the group of writers known as the ‘Generation of ’98’, with whom he was associated and who were among his most articulate supporters, he sought to encourage the regeneration of his country’s culture but with a critical spirit.

Zuloaga began to enjoy considerable international success in ...