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Alexandra Herz

Italian family of painters. On the basis of one documented early 15th-century fresco, the Last Judgement (Campione, S Maria dei Ghirli), three other works have been attributed to Lanfranco de Veris da Milano and his son Filippolo de Veris da Milano. According to the inscription on the fresco (now illegible; transcribed by Gerspach and Toesca), in 1400 the students of S Maria dei Ghirli and other individuals from Campione, with alms raised by the church, commissioned the two painters to execute the work, which was completed on 23 June that year. The composition, painted on an exterior wall of the church, is divided into two zones. Owing to its obvious superiority, particularly in the figure drawing, the upper, larger zone of the Last Judgement has been attributed to the older, presumably more experienced Lanfranco, while the lower and smaller zone, traditionally assigned to Filippolo, depicts the tortures of Hell. At the far right is an unmistakably secular scene in which two men serenade a courtesan: one of the men, a fashionably dressed young aristocrat, stands directly in front of the woman and sings to her, while his grotesquely featured companion to the left plays the rebec and seems to beat time with his right foot. The characters’ style of dress is close to that seen in works by Pisanello, but here tends to the comical rather than the elegantly fashionable. The figures have individualized features and expressions, the singing aristocrat’s being especially charming. The drawing of hands, however, is less satisfactory. The colours of the ...


Blanca García Vega

(b Lyon, 1498; d ?France, c. 1552).

French printmaker. He was the son of a Lyonnais printer and an important illustrator and designer of engraved decoration. He was active throughout Spain from 1534, when his signature i. d. v. began to appear on woodcuts the style of which was still imbued with the Gothic tradition of Provence. In 1547 in Saragossa he signed a contract with the calligrapher and writer Juan de Iciar, for whom he illustrated the frontispieces of several works including Recopilación intitulada, orthographia practica (Saragossa, 1548), which contains a fine portrait of the author. They also collaborated on Arte subtilisima por la qual se enseña a escrivir perfectamente (Saragossa, 1550). From 1552 he was active in Pau in the south of France. His engravings for the borders of books, frontispieces and coats of arms were very popular and his work was widely disseminated and used in the mid–16th century. His style was Italianate rather than Germanic, but he made use of models by Holbein in his designs for initial letters....


[Guillaume; Willam] (Backer van) (de, du)

(b Utrecht; fl 1449; d Bruges, 1481).

Netherlandish illuminator. He is considered one of the most influential illuminators working in Bruges during the third quarter of the 15th century. Despite this, there is no consensus about attributions to Vrelant, his studio, or imitators. He is not known to have had any pupils, and the documentary evidence for studio works is slight; on the other hand, the different artistic levels of the works attributed to this artist and his followers are very marked.

Vrelant was born in Utrecht, the son of Jacob, and was registered there in 1449 as a citizen and illuminator. Among the manuscripts ascribed to his period in Utrecht is the Montfort Hours (Vienna, Österreich. Nbib., Cod. s.n. 12878), on which Vrelant collaborated with the Master of Catherine of Cleves. The manuscript is dated to c. 1450 on codicological grounds and because of its immature style. Another early work is the Hours of Isabella the Catholic (Madrid, Pal. Real), on which he collaborated with the ...


Tilman Falk


(b Schwabmünchen, nr Augsburg, 1453–4; d Augsburg, Jan 1, 1522).

German calligrapher. From 1472 he was a Benedictine monk at SS Ulrich and Afra in Augsburg. He worked as a scribe on liturgical manuscripts from at least 1480. According to his own notes (Conscriptiones, 1494; Augsburg, Staats- & Stadtbib.) and the history of the monastery, he completed in all over 50 manuscripts, including commissions outside his Augsburg monastery, some being illuminated by important miniaturists. For Emperor Maximilian, a patron of his monastery, he produced the Vita Sancti Simperti (1492; Munich, Bayer. Staatsbib.), with some illustrations by Hans Holbein I. On journeys—to St Gall, among other places, where he could study medieval manuscripts—he taught calligraphy. His most famous calligraphic work is the Proba centum scripturarum (after 1509; Augsburg, Bischöf. Ordinariat), a pattern book of 100 medieval (lettera antica) and contemporary (lettera moderna) scripts, some invented by Leonhard himself. His portrait was drawn several times by ...


Hannelore Hägele

[Claus ]

(b 1450/55; d after 1526).

German sculptor. His name appears several times in the roll book of burghers of Ulm between 1481 and 1526. In 1490 he was commissioned to produce a high altarpiece for St Martin’s church, Biberach, similar in construction and appearance to those at Sterzingen and Blaubeuren. This, his major work, was destroyed during the iconoclasm of 1531. Its eight painted Passion scenes were once thought to be by Martin Schongauer.

The Ulmer Museum, Ulm, has three relief panels by Weckmann: St Catherine of Alexandria (c. 1510) may have formerly belonged to the cloister of Heggbach, while two other high reliefs, a Nativity and an Adoration of the Magi, were once wing panels of the high altar (c. 1515) at Attenhofen parish church, where the predella showing the Twelve Apostles and additional paintings can still be seen. The altars at Biberach and Attenhofen were carved in limewood and originally polychromed. The two Nativity scenes have retained some of their former colour, while the ...


Gordon Campbell

German family of printers. Günther Zainer (b Reutlingen; d Buxheim, 13 April 1478) seems to have been trained in the workshop of Johann Mentelin (c. 1410–78) in Strasbourg, and in 1468 he established the first printing workshop in Augsburg. His publications include the first illustrated Bible (1475), the first printed edition of the De imitatione Christi of Thomas à Kempis and an edition of the 13th-century Golden Legend (Lombardica historia) of the Genoese hagiographer Jacopo da Voragine in which the lives of the saints are illustrated with 231 woodcuts. Johann Zainer (b Reutlingen; d Ulm, c. 1523), who was probably Günther’s brother, moved to Ulm in the early 1470s, where he established a printing workshop that specialized in illustrated books. In 1476 he published the first edition of Aesop’s Fables in German.

A. Fujii: Günther Zainers druckersprachliche Leistung: Untersuchungen zur Augsburger Druckersprache im 15. Jahrhundert, ...