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Marianne Grivel

(b Bourges, 1480; d Paris, 1533).

French printer, publisher, book designer and bookseller. He left Bourges in 1503 to study in Rome and Bologna. After returning to France in 1507, he published Classical works and taught at the Collège du Plessis in Paris (1508–11) and then, from 1512, at the Collège de Bourgogne (Paris), before a second stay in Italy from about 1516 to 1518. In 1518 he was admitted to the Paris booksellers’ guild. He worked under the sign of the Pot-Cassé, first on the Petit-Pont adjoining the Hôtel-Dieu (1512–23) and then on the Rue St Jacques; finally he settled on the Rue de la Juiverie from 1532 to 1533.

From 1529 Tory was active as a printer. Influenced by Classical art and by Italy, he adopted a new approach to the aesthetics of book production in France, concerning himself with a correct balance between text and illustration. From his first book, ...


A. Demarquay Rook

(b ?nr Troyes, fl 1467–99; d before 1508).

French illuminator. There are numerous mentions of him in the accounts of René, Duke of Anjou, between 1467 and 1480. In 1476 René provided Trubert with funds for a journey to Rome and two years later conferred on him the title of Valet de Chambre, an office he had granted to only one other painter, Barthélemy d’Eyck. Trubert lived mainly in Provence and seems to have continued working there after René’s death in 1480. By 1486 he was receiving gifts from René’s grandson, René II, Duke of Lorraine, and from 1491 until 1499 he was part of the Duke’s household in Lorraine. In documents of 1508 he is mentioned as dead.

A Breviary (Paris, Bib. Arsenal, MS. 601 and Petit Pal., MS. 42) and a Diurnal (Paris, Bib. N., MS. lat. 10491), made for René II between 1492 and 1494, have been identified as Trubert’s work, and on this basis nine other manuscripts have been attributed to him (Reynaud). These are all liturgical manuscripts, and there is no evidence to suggest that he either illustrated secular books or painted on a larger scale. Nonetheless, the outstanding characteristic of his style is a breadth of conception and a monumentality of form more usually associated with panel or mural painting. In the larger and more lavish books decorated for René II the scenes from biblical history allowed Trubert wide scope, and figures are confidently grouped within spacious surroundings. In many of these compositions the easy relationship of figures to one another and to their setting echoes the work of Jean Fouquet and other illuminators of the Loire valley, which was probably where Trubert trained. Although none of Trubert’s surviving works was demonstrably made for René of Anjou, emblematic motifs in the decoration show his awareness of the personal iconography of his first patron and there are compositional links with the work of the illuminator known as the Master of King René of Anjou as well as with Provençal painting in general. Trubert used Italian early Renaissance architectural forms in all but the earliest or humblest manuscripts. Although the motifs are limited and are far simpler than those painted by Fouquet, the interiors represented vary endlessly and are shown from a variety of angles, often with striking illusionism. Faces are very distinctive. In early works, such as the Chester Beatty Hours (sold London, Sotheby’s, ...


Anne Hagopian van Buren

Illuminated manuscript begun in the late 14th century and finished in the mid-15th, the work of French and Netherlandish illuminators and one of the major monuments of northern European art. The identification of the various sections (Paris, Bib. N., MS. nouv. acq. lat. 3093; Paris, Louvre, R.F. 2022–5; section in Turin, Bib. N. U., MS. K. IV. 29, destr. 1904; Turin, Mus. Civ. A. Ant., Inv. no. 47) was established by Durrieu (1902), but the history of the manuscript has been interpreted in various ways. The reconstruction presented here accounts for most, if not all, of the complex evidence.

The original manuscript, a Book of Hours expanded by several other offices and prayers and a nearly complete Missal, was commissioned by Jean, Duc de Berry (see Valois, House of family §(3)), in 1389 at the time of his second marriage, to which the decoration alludes. The text was transcribed in the Parisian shop of ...


Feliciano Benvenuti

(b Florence; fl Venice, 1503 fl Florence, 1557).

Italian printmaker. In Venice between 1503 and 1526 he engraved numerous woodcut book illustrations: his monogram, known in 17 variations, appears in c. 60 different volumes, printed in Venice. Among his most famous works is the edition (c. 1517) in nine blocks of Titian’s woodcut Triumph of Christ. Uberti’s return to Florence c. 1550 is suggested by the presence of wood-engravings in the Venetian fashion in certain Florentine texts, such as the Historia di S Antonio di Padova (1557). Apart from his woodcuts, seven engravings (and a dubious eighth) are attributed to him (e.g. b. 1, 2 [390] and Patellani, pp. 48–55), which, in a graphic language that is still late 15th century, are inspired by works by Perugino, Leonardo da Vinci, Marcantonio Raimondi and Dürer.

Bolaffi G. Patellani: ‘Lucantonio degli Uberti’, Quaderni del conoscitore di stampe, 20 (1974), pp. 46–55 M. Zucker: Early Italian Masters...


Bodo Brinkmann


(fl 1454; d Antwerp, before March 14, 1493).

South Netherlandish illuminator. He became a master of the Ghent painters’ guild on 30 October 1454. Between 1457 and 1459 he was in the service of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. In 1462 he enrolled in the Antwerp Guild of St Luke, to which he belonged until his death. He was also active for short periods outside Antwerp: in 1468, for example, he contributed to extensive preparations in Bruges for the assembly of the Order of the Golden Fleece and for the marriage of Charles the Bold to Margaret of York.

This artist was first recognized by De Schryver, who attributed to him a small prayerbook (the ‘Little Hours’) with the Office of the Passion, commissioned by Charles the Bold in 1469 (Larrivière, Charnacé priv. col.). By comparison with the style of this manuscript, most of the miniatures in the Hours of Mary of Burgundy (Vienna, Österreich. Nbib., Cod. ...


Patrizia Ferretti

(b Florence, 1410; d Florence, 1479).

Italian illuminator and stationer. He is documented from 1440, when he enrolled in the Arte de’ Medici e Speziali, and began to work for the Badia in Florence with his brother Giovanni. When the latter died, Bartolomeo entered the bottega of his younger brother, Chimenti. Bartolomeo was not an innovator and was of second rank compared to such skilled illuminators as Francesco d’Antonio del Chierico, Gherardo di Giovanni di Miniato del Foro, Monte di Giovanni di Miniato del Foro and Attavante degli Attavanti. His handling of volume, the sculptural quality of his scrolls and his use of large, densely hatched areas in landscapes, beards and hair, are reminiscent of contemporary sculpture; the influence of Donatello’s low reliefs is especially evident in Bartolomeo’s use of the ‘heroic putto’ (e.g. initial S, Florence, Bib. Medicea–Laurenziana, MS. S Marco 616, fol. 4r).

Bartolomeo worked mainly on liturgical manuscripts and Books of Hours, sometimes in collaboration with other artists. For example he came into contact with Battista di Niccolò da Padova and Ser Ricciardo di Nanni while working on the four-volume Lectionary (Florence, Bib. Medicea–Laurenziana, MSS Edili 141–7) for Florence Cathedral. Among his large-scale works are two Missals (Florence, Bib. Medicea–Laurenziana, MSS Edili 103–4), also commissioned by the cathedral authorities, in ...


Gregory A. Pass

The Knights of Columbus Vatican Film Library at Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, is a research library for medieval and Renaissance manuscript studies that holds more than 37,000 manuscripts on microfilm from the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. In addition, it holds microfilms of more than 2400 manuscripts from other libraries, 52,000 colour slides of manuscript illumination, and large collections of microfilmed Jesuit historical documents relating to the Order’s activities in the Americas and the Philippines. The library maintains an extensive reference collection of published manuscript catalogues and unpublished inventories for Vatican Library manuscripts, as well as manuscript catalogues for many other libraries, works on palaeography, codicology, and illumination, manuscript facsimiles, and other reference materials and periodicals to support the study of manuscripts and their texts.

The library was opened in 1953. Since 1957 it has published the journal Manuscripta: A Journal for Manuscript Research, which features articles and reviews on palaeography, codicology, illumination, library history, manuscript catalogues, text editing, and other subjects. Since ...


Peter Humfrey

(fl Venice, 1472–97).

Italian painter and illuminator. Knowledge of the artistic activity of Jacometto is based almost exclusively on the notebooks of Marcantonio Michiel, who recorded a number of his works in the patrician houses of Venice and Padua in the first half of the 16th century. In Pietro Bembo’s house Michiel saw a small picture with scenes from the life of a saint, and portraits of Bembo as a child of eleven and of his brother Carlo as a newborn baby in 1472; in the house of Francesco Zio Michiel saw four miniatures by Jacometto in a Book of Hours; in the house of Zuanantonio Venier he saw a small picture with animals painted in chiaroscuro; in the house of Antonio Pasqualino he saw a number of drawings; in the house of Gabriele Vendramin he saw a portrait painted (or ?drawn) in chiaroscuro, and a small book of vellum with pen drawings of animals and candelabra; and finally, in the house of ...


Alexandra Herz

Italian family of painters. On the basis of one documented early 15th-century fresco, the Last Judgement (Campione, S Maria dei Ghirli), three other works have been attributed to Lanfranco de Veris da Milano and his son Filippolo de Veris da Milano. According to the inscription on the fresco (now illegible; transcribed by Gerspach and Toesca), in 1400 the students of S Maria dei Ghirli and other individuals from Campione, with alms raised by the church, commissioned the two painters to execute the work, which was completed on 23 June that year. The composition, painted on an exterior wall of the church, is divided into two zones. Owing to its obvious superiority, particularly in the figure drawing, the upper, larger zone of the Last Judgement has been attributed to the older, presumably more experienced Lanfranco, while the lower and smaller zone, traditionally assigned to Filippolo, depicts the tortures of Hell. At the far right is an unmistakably secular scene in which two men serenade a courtesan: one of the men, a fashionably dressed young aristocrat, stands directly in front of the woman and sings to her, while his grotesquely featured companion to the left plays the rebec and seems to beat time with his right foot. The characters’ style of dress is close to that seen in works by Pisanello, but here tends to the comical rather than the elegantly fashionable. The figures have individualized features and expressions, the singing aristocrat’s being especially charming. The drawing of hands, however, is less satisfactory. The colours of the ...


Paola Pacht Bassani

(b Tours, May 19, 1593; d Paris, May 10, 1670).

French painter, printmaker and illustrator . Born into a prosperous family in Tours, he received his early training in Paris, probably in Jacob Bunel’s studio. In 1609–10 he travelled to Rome; although his presence there is recorded only in 1618–20, he was probably based there throughout that decade, becoming a member of the community of young French artists that included Simon Vouet and Valentin de Boullogne. They were all predominantly influenced by the art of Caravaggio and of his most direct follower Bartolomeo Manfredi. Vignon’s severe half-length figures (St Paul, Turin, Gal. Sabauda; Four Church Fathers, on loan to Cambridge, Fitzwilliam), executed possibly even earlier than 1615, are in a Caravaggesque style, as are his paintings of singers, musicians and drinkers (e.g. the Young Singer, Paris, Louvre), although the latter group owes more to the style of contemporary genre painting. However, Vignon was already showing an interest in new artistic experiments, the origins of which were northern, Venetian and Mannerist. His sensitivity to the splendid colouring of Venice and to the art of Jacques Bellange, Georges Lallemand and Jacques Callot is manifest in his ...


Blanca García Vega

(b Lyon, 1498; d ?France, c. 1552).

French printmaker. He was the son of a Lyonnais printer and an important illustrator and designer of engraved decoration. He was active throughout Spain from 1534, when his signature i. d. v. began to appear on woodcuts the style of which was still imbued with the Gothic tradition of Provence. In 1547 in Saragossa he signed a contract with the calligrapher and writer Juan de Iciar, for whom he illustrated the frontispieces of several works including Recopilación intitulada, orthographia practica (Saragossa, 1548), which contains a fine portrait of the author. They also collaborated on Arte subtilisima por la qual se enseña a escrivir perfectamente (Saragossa, 1550). From 1552 he was active in Pau in the south of France. His engravings for the borders of books, frontispieces and coats of arms were very popular and his work was widely disseminated and used in the mid–16th century. His style was Italianate rather than Germanic, but he made use of models by Holbein in his designs for initial letters....


[Guillaume; Willam] (Backer van) (de, du)

(b Utrecht; fl 1449; d Bruges, 1481).

Netherlandish illuminator. He is considered one of the most influential illuminators working in Bruges during the third quarter of the 15th century. Despite this, there is no consensus about attributions to Vrelant, his studio, or imitators. He is not known to have had any pupils, and the documentary evidence for studio works is slight; on the other hand, the different artistic levels of the works attributed to this artist and his followers are very marked.

Vrelant was born in Utrecht, the son of Jacob, and was registered there in 1449 as a citizen and illuminator. Among the manuscripts ascribed to his period in Utrecht is the Montfort Hours (Vienna, Österreich. Nbib., Cod. s.n. 12878), on which Vrelant collaborated with the Master of Catherine of Cleves. The manuscript is dated to c. 1450 on codicological grounds and because of its immature style. Another early work is the Hours of Isabella the Catholic (Madrid, Pal. Real), on which he collaborated with the ...


Tilman Falk


(b Schwabmünchen, nr Augsburg, 1453–4; d Augsburg, Jan 1, 1522).

German calligrapher. From 1472 he was a Benedictine monk at SS Ulrich and Afra in Augsburg. He worked as a scribe on liturgical manuscripts from at least 1480. According to his own notes (Conscriptiones, 1494; Augsburg, Staats- & Stadtbib.) and the history of the monastery, he completed in all over 50 manuscripts, including commissions outside his Augsburg monastery, some being illuminated by important miniaturists. For Emperor Maximilian, a patron of his monastery, he produced the Vita Sancti Simperti (1492; Munich, Bayer. Staatsbib.), with some illustrations by Hans Holbein I. On journeys—to St Gall, among other places, where he could study medieval manuscripts—he taught calligraphy. His most famous calligraphic work is the Proba centum scripturarum (after 1509; Augsburg, Bischöf. Ordinariat), a pattern book of 100 medieval (lettera antica) and contemporary (lettera moderna) scripts, some invented by Leonhard himself. His portrait was drawn several times by ...


Hannelore Hägele

[Claus ]

(b 1450/55; d after 1526).

German sculptor. His name appears several times in the roll book of burghers of Ulm between 1481 and 1526. In 1490 he was commissioned to produce a high altarpiece for St Martin’s church, Biberach, similar in construction and appearance to those at Sterzingen and Blaubeuren. This, his major work, was destroyed during the iconoclasm of 1531. Its eight painted Passion scenes were once thought to be by Martin Schongauer.

The Ulmer Museum, Ulm, has three relief panels by Weckmann: St Catherine of Alexandria (c. 1510) may have formerly belonged to the cloister of Heggbach, while two other high reliefs, a Nativity and an Adoration of the Magi, were once wing panels of the high altar (c. 1515) at Attenhofen parish church, where the predella showing the Twelve Apostles and additional paintings can still be seen. The altars at Biberach and Attenhofen were carved in limewood and originally polychromed. The two Nativity scenes have retained some of their former colour, while the ...


Gordon Campbell

German family of printers. Günther Zainer (b Reutlingen; d Buxheim, 13 April 1478) seems to have been trained in the workshop of Johann Mentelin (c. 1410–78) in Strasbourg, and in 1468 he established the first printing workshop in Augsburg. His publications include the first illustrated Bible (1475), the first printed edition of the De imitatione Christi of Thomas à Kempis and an edition of the 13th-century Golden Legend (Lombardica historia) of the Genoese hagiographer Jacopo da Voragine in which the lives of the saints are illustrated with 231 woodcuts. Johann Zainer (b Reutlingen; d Ulm, c. 1523), who was probably Günther’s brother, moved to Ulm in the early 1470s, where he established a printing workshop that specialized in illustrated books. In 1476 he published the first edition of Aesop’s Fables in German.

A. Fujii: Günther Zainers druckersprachliche Leistung: Untersuchungen zur Augsburger Druckersprache im 15. Jahrhundert, ...