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Sami  

[Sami Efendi; Mehmed Sami]

(b Istanbul, March 13, 1838; d Istanbul, July 1, 1912).

Ottoman calligrapher. He was the son of Mahmud Efendi, the head of the quilt-makers guild. Sami learnt ta‛līq script from the calligraphers Kibriszade Ismail Hakkı Efendi and Ali Haydar Bey (1802–70) and thuluth script from Boşnak Osman Efendi. He was also inspired by the work of Mustafa Raqim. Sami’s fine inscriptions and calligraphic compositions adorn several mosques and fountains in Istanbul. He trained such calligraphers as Necmeddin Okyay and Ahmed Kamil Akdik (1862–1941) and was buried in the cemetery of the Fatih Mosque, Istanbul.

Ş. Rado: Türk hattatları [Turkish calligraphers] (Istanbul, n.d.), pp. 239–41U. Derman: Hattat Sami Efendi (1838–1912): Hayatı ve eserleri [The calligrapher Sami Efendi (1838–1912): his life and works] (Istanbul, 1962)Letters in Gold: Ottoman Calligraphy from the Sakip Sabanci Collection, Istanbul (exh. cat. by M. U. Derman, New York, Met.; Los Angeles, CA, Co. Mus. A.; Cambridge, MA, Harvard U. A. Mus., 1998–2000)...

Article

Elizabeth B. Smith

Italian Benedictine abbey in the Abruzzo region. Founded in the 9th century by Emperor Louis the Pious (reg 814–40) and dedicated to St Clement I, whose relics it claimed, the abbey flourished under Abbot Leonate (reg 1155–82), a member of the papal curia. Leonate began an ambitious rebuilding project starting with a new façade, complete with rose window, and a portico for the church, both of which were decorated with monumental stone sculpture carved by masters who were probably not local but rather of French or north Italian origin, perhaps on their way to or from the Holy Land. An elaborately carved pulpit and paschal candelabrum also date to the time of Leonate, as does the Chronicon Casauriense (Paris, Bib. N., MS. lat. 5411), a compilation of documents pertinent to the abbey combined with a history of its existence up to the time of Leonate’s death. Although Leonate died before completing his rebuilding programme, his successor Joel installed the bronze doors still on the central portal of the façade. Construction continued on the church in the early 13th century....

Article

Teresa Gisbert

(d La Paz, 1834).

Catalan architect, active in Bolivia. He was a Franciscan friar and the leading architect in Bolivia between 1800 and 1830 (see Bolivia, Republic of §II 2., (i)). In 1808 he was called to Potosí to design the cathedral in a predominantly Neo-classical style coexisting with reminiscences of the Baroque. There were brief interruptions in its construction, and it was not finished until 1838. In Potosí he also redesigned the church of S Domingo. He interrupted his work there to execute the principal altar (1820) of the church of La Merced, Cuzco, and a new retable (1830) for the church of La Merced, La Paz. Shortly after he commenced work on a new cathedral for La Paz (for illustration see La Paz), although only the ground storey was completed before his death; the works were continued by the French engineer Philippe Bertrès and completed in the early 20th century by ...

Article

Santos  

James Cordova and Claire Farago

Term that refers to handmade paintings and sculptures of Christian holy figures, crafted by artists from the Hispanic and Lusophone Americas. The term first came into widespread use in early 20th-century New Mexico among English-speaking art collectors to convey a sense of cultural authenticity. Throughout the Americas, the term imagenes occurs most frequently in Spanish historical documents. Santos are usually painted on wood panels (retablos) or carved and painted in the round (bultos). Reredos, or altarpieces, often combine multiple retablos and bultos within a multi-level architectural framework.

European Christian imagery was circulated widely through the Spanish viceroyalties in the form of paintings, sculptures, and prints, the majority of which were produced in metropolitan centres such as Mexico City, Antigua, Lima, and Puebla, where European- and American-born artists established guilds and workshops. These became important sources upon which local artists elsewhere based their own traditions of religious image-making using locally available materials such as buffalo hides, vegetal dyes, mineral pigments, and yucca fibres, commonly employed by native artists long before European contact....

Article

S. J. Vernoit

(b Berlin, June 22, 1865; d Neubabelsberg, June 1945).

German archaeologist, art historian and collector. He travelled to the Middle East and met Carl Humann, who was excavating Pergamon and advised Sarre to study the monuments of medieval Anatolia. In 1895 he visited Phrygia, Lycaonia and Pisidia and in 1896 went on a longer journey in Asia Minor. His principal aim was to discover architectural monuments and archaeological sites; he always travelled with a trained architect and became a talented photographer. He also collected epigraphic material which he sent to such Arabists as Bernhard Moritz, Eugen Mittwoch and Max van Berchem. In the years 1897 to 1900 Sarre travelled to Iran. Objects from his collection were exhibited in Berlin (1899) and at the Exposition des arts musulmans (Paris, 1903). In 1905 he met Ernst Herzfeld, and in 1907–8 they travelled together from Istanbul via Aleppo and Baghdad to the Gulf to find an Islamic site suitable for excavation. Their choice, which Herzfeld later described as Sarre’s, fell upon ...

Article

Saudi  

[Āl Sa‛ūd]

Dynasty that has ruled most of the Arabian peninsula since 1746. The foundations of Saudi rule were laid when Muhammad ibn Sa‛ud (reg 1746–65) formed an alliance with the theologian Muhammad ibn ‛Abd al-Wahhab (d 1791), who wanted to purify Islam in Arabia. Under ‛Abd al-‛Aziz I (reg 1765–1803) Riyadh and most of the Najd region came under Saudi rule, and the Hijaz region, including Mecca and Medina, soon followed. Saudi expansion was countered when the Ottoman sultan Mahmud II (reg 1808–39) commissioned his viceroy in Egypt, Muhammad ‛Ali (reg 1805–48), to reconquer the Hijaz and Najd. After the withdrawal of Turco-Egyptian forces, Riyadh was recaptured by Turki (reg 1823–34) and became the new capital of a reduced ‘second’ Saudi state. After the death of Faysal I (reg 1834–65 with interruption), Saudi fortunes began to wane, and by 1891 the ‘second’ Saudi state had come to an end. ‛Abd al-‛Aziz II (...

Article

Michael Turner

[Shlomo Zalman Dov]

(b Vrno, Lithuania ?1866; d Denver, CO, March 22, 1932).

Lithuanian sculptor and painter, active in Palestine. Born into a poor, orthodox Jewish family, he attended rabbinical school in Vilna (now Vilnius; 1882–7). During this period he studied art at the local academy and, affected by the anti-Semitism of the period, developed left-wing political interests and the connections to an emancipated Jewish art form. His personal history generated three distinct artistic periods: the early activities in Paris (until 1895), the Bulgarian period (until 1903) and the later Jewish period in Palestine. His first known oil painting, the Dying Will (c. 1886; priv. col., see 1933 exh. cat., no. M16), was typical of late 19th-century romanticism. In 1888 he moved to Warsaw, working intensely on sculptures, reliefs and lithographs. His concept of art for a Jewish national agenda and propaganda was published that year as an article ‘Craftsmanship’ in the Hebrew newspaper Hazfira, forming the basis for his later works. After his marriage (...

Article

[Şefik Bey; Muḥammad Shafīq]

(b Istanbul, 1819; d Istanbul, 1880).

Ottoman calligrapher. He first studied calligraphy with Ali Vasfi and then with Mustafa İzzet. In 1845 he was appointed teacher of calligraphy to the Muzika-i Hümayun, the imperial brass band. Together with the calligrapher Abdülfettah (1814–96), he was sent by Sultan Abdülmecid (reg 1839–61) to Bursa to repair the inscriptions in the Ulu Cami (congregational mosque), which had been severely damaged in the earthquake of 1855. His inscriptions there are reckoned among his finest works. During the three years he spent on this project he also wrote inscriptions in other mosques. His work includes beautiful compositions in thuluth, jalī, naskh and dīvānī scripts.

K. Baykal: Bursa’da Ulu Câmi [The Ulu Cami of Bursa] (Istanbul, 1950) A. S. Ünver: Hattat Şefik Bey (1819–1880): Hayatı ve eserleri [The calligrapher Şefik Bey (1819–1880): his life and works] (Istanbul, 1956) Ş.Rado: Türk hattatları [Turkish calligraphers] (Istanbul, n.d.), pp. 220–21...

Article

Ingrid Sattel Bernardini

(Caroline Sophie)

(b Jena, May 15, 1786; d Weimar, Oct 7, 1866).

German painter. She began her training in Gotha and Jena and in 1810–11 she studied in Dresden at the Akademie under Christian Leberecht Vogel and Gerhard von Kügelgen. In 1817 she studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich under Robert von Langer. Early in her career she was in demand for her copies of Italian Renaissance masters and also as a portrait painter, mostly in pastel. Among her early portraits is one of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1811; Weimar, Goethe-Wohnhaus), whose friendship and encouragement were important to her. From 1816 onwards she worked on an altarpiece in oils for the Rochuskapelle near Bingen, Rheinland-Pfalz, St Roch on his Wanderings (1817; in situ). With Goethe’s help, she received stipends for visits to Munich and Italy from Charles Augustus, Duke of Saxe-Weimar (1757–1828). In Rome, between 1818 and 1823 she moved in the circle of the Lukasbrüder (...

Article

Sergey Kuznetsov

(b nr Merseburg, Germany, March 12, 1770; d Tartu, Jan 2, 1838).

Estonian painter, engraver and teacher, of German birth. He studied in Leipzig and Dresden c. 1795 under Anton Graff and Christian Leberecht Vogel. In Leipzig he learnt an austere approach to art that was mingled with Lutheranism. He rarely received commissions for portraits and turned to engraving as a more democratic art form, portraying, for example, Estonians in the service of the Russian government, such as Pyotr Wittgenstein (drypoint, 1815; Tartu, Mus. A.). At the centre of Senff’s artistic universe, Germany, the medieval system of relations between man and the world gave way to Sturm und Drang at the turn of the 19th century, but on the fringes art was more conservative and made a smooth transition to the Biedermeier style, whereby portraits, landscapes and still-lifes were painted with equal scrupulousness. Senff’s landscapes are completely purged of feeling, and they focus on the accurate and precise representation of detail, mainly architectural, as in ...

Article

[Şevki Efendi; Muḥammad Shawqī]

(b Kastamonu, 1829; d Istanbul, 1887).

Ottoman calligrapher. He was brought to Istanbul at a young age and learned thuluth and naskh scripts from his maternal uncle Mehmed Hulusi (d 1874), receiving his diploma (Turk. icazet) at the age of 14. Despite the insistence of his teacher, he refused to study with any other master and directed his attention towards an examination of the calligraphic models prepared by Mustafa İzzet. He taught penmanship in the Ministry of War and in several schools. In naskh script he adopted the style of Hafiz Osman and Isma‛il Zühdü (d 1806), while in thuluth he followed Mustafa Raqim. Among his work are several complex calligraphic compositions.

A. S. Ünver: Hilyei saadet hattat-ı Mehmed Şevki [Calligraphic compositions of the calligrapher Mehmed Şevki] (Istanbul, 1953) Ş. Rado: Türk hattatları [Turkish calligraphers] (Istanbul, n.d.), p. 225 M. U. Derman: The Art of Calligraphy in the Islamic Heritage...

Article

Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

(b. Tehran, late 1830s; d. 1933).

Russian photographer active in Iran. The son of Vassil de Sevruguin, an Orientalist who served as a diplomat with the Russian embassy in Tehran, and Achin Khanoum. After his father’s death, Sevruguin followed his Georgian mother to Tblisi, where he met the Russian photographer Dmitri Ivanovitch Jermakov (1845–1916), who had opened a studio there. In 1870 Sevruguin traveled to Iran with his brothers, photographing the landscape, archaeological sites and the people of Azerbaijan, Kurdistan and Luristan. He eventually settled in Tehran and established a studio, becoming an official court photographer to Nasir al-Din Shah (r. 1848–96), and was sought as a portraitist by members of the élite. Sevruguin made annual trips to Vienna to keep abreast of modern photographic developments. The art historian Friedrich Sarre commissioned Sevruguin to photograph Achaemenid and Sasanian monuments in southern Iran for Iranische Felsreliefs, which he published with Ernst Herzfeld (although Sevruguin’s contribution went unmentioned). Sevruguin’s business was damaged during the Constitutional Revolution of ...

Article

(b Istanbul, 1842; d Istanbul, 1913).

Turkish painter. After studying at the Military Academy in Istanbul, he was sent by Sultan Abdülaziz (reg 1861–76) to Paris, where he underwent a preparatory education at a special Ottoman school and later studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. In Paris, under Alexandre Cabanel, he developed his talent for meticulous workmanship. On returning to Turkey he was appointed assistant to the painter Osman Nuri Pasha (1839–1906) at the Military Academy, and he taught there for many years. Disappointed at his failure to rise above the rank of major, he also worked as a French teacher at several schools. He contributed articles to newspapers and wrote an unpublished work on perspective. His paintings, which were influenced by European art, included still-lifes, such as Still-life with Hyacinths (1900; Istanbul, Mimar Sinan U., Mus. Ptg & Sculp.), and landscapes, for example Inside the Woods (1900s; Istanbul, Mimar Sinan U., Mus. Ptg & Sculp.). Like the painter Ahmet Ali, he generally avoided figural narrative subjects. Unfortunately many of his paintings, sold posthumously as part of his estate, later deteriorated in private collections....

Article

Shakers  

Malcolm Jones and Daniel W. Patterson

[The United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing]

American religious order founded on the personality and teachings of Ann Lee (1736–84). In 1774 she moved from England to America in search of religious freedom, and by the early 1780s began to attract converts. From 1788 subsequent leaders gathered her followers into a disciplined religious order. Shakers believed in a male and a female godhead and in Ann Lee as the second manifestation of the Christ spirit, and they insisted on celibacy and the confession of sins. The name Shaker derives from their charismatic form of worship, in which they sang, danced, and shook with emotion. They were widely respected for their acts of benevolence and for the success of their communitarian experiment, founded on equality of the sexes, joint ownership of all property, and the consecration of labour. At its peak in the 1840s, the Shakers had a membership estimated at 6000 in 19 communities scattered from Maine to Kentucky....

Article

[Muḥammad, the ‘Shirin’ Painter]

(fl c. 1825–50).

Persian painter. He painted in a distinctive, bold style and is known for his depiction of plump moon-faced women. He has been assigned the name Muhammad on the basis of the punning signature, yā muḥammad (‘O Muhammad’) on a painting of a reclining woman (1842; Foroughi priv. col.). The artist is also known as the ‘Shirin’ Painter, a name derived from a painting of a woman (Tehran, Nigaristan Mus., ex-Amery priv. col.) inscribed with the name Shirin. Several other paintings (Tehran, Nigaristan Mus.; Tbilisi, Mus. A. Georg.; London, V&A) can be assigned to him on stylistic grounds, and his output seems to have quite large. He excelled in the depiction of women (e.g. a dancing woman with castanets; Tehran, Nigaristan Mus., ex-Amery priv. col.); his male figures are less successful.

S. Y. Amiranashvili: Iranskaya stankovaya zhivopis’ [Iranian wall painting] (Tbilisi, 1940) B. W. Robinson: ‘The Court Painters of Fatḥ ‛Alī Shāh’, ...

Article

Ingrid Reed Thomsen

(b Modum, March 12, 1854; d Eggedal, Jan 19, 1924).

Norwegian painter and writer. After a year at Johan Fredrik Eckersberg’s painting school and the Royal School of Drawing and Art in Christiania (now Oslo), Skredsvig studied in Copenhagen (1870–74), first as a pupil of Vilhelm Kyhn and later at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Besides landscapes, his main interest was animal painting. In 1874–5 he studied in Paris, in museums and with Léon Bonnat. From 1875 to 1879 he worked in Munich, where among others he was influenced by Arnold Böcklin. Skredsvig painted landscapes based on sketches made in Norway but using German models, as in Evening in the Mountains (1878, priv. col.; replica, 1882, Bergen, Billedgal.), a typical studio work in its smooth finish and use of local colour.

Returning to Paris in 1879 Skredsvig again studied briefly under Bonnat and others. Works from this period such as Unloading Snow by the Seine (...

Article

Tone Skedsmo

(b Christiania [Kristiania from 1877; now Oslo], Nov 29, 1869; d Oslo, June 19, 1935).

Norwegian painter and printmaker. Sohlberg decided to be a painter when young, but his father wished him to follow a thorough training as a craftsman. Sohlberg therefore enrolled at the Royal School of Drawing in Kristiania in 1885 under the interior designer Wilhelm Krogh (1829–1913) and stayed at the school until 1890. Subsequently, he attended night classes under the graphic artist and painter Johan Nordhagen (1856–1956) both in the autumn of 1906 and also from 1911 to 1917, when he concentrated on printmaking. Sohlberg painted his first pictures while staying in the Valdrés region to the north-west of Kristiania in summer 1889. The following summer he painted with Sven Jørgensen (1861–1940) at Slagen near Åsgårdstrand, and in autumn 1891 he was a pupil of Erik Werenskiold and Eilif Peterssen in Kristiania. For some months during the winter of 1891–2 Sohlberg attended Kristian Zahrtmann’s art school in Copenhagen. He also studied for four months in ...

Article

Sabine Kehl-Baierle

(b Vienna, July 11, 1875; d Klosterneuburg, nr Vienna, Aug 24, 1959).

Austrian painter. He studied painting from 1890 to 1899 at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna under Christian Griepenkerl (1839–1916), Rudolf Carl Huber (1839–96) and August Eisenmenger (1830–1907). He produced the triptych Faith, Hope and Charity (1899; Giesshübl Church, nr Mödling, Lower Austria). In 1899–1900 he travelled in Italy on a Kenyon scholarship. He volunteered to fight with the Boers in South Africa; having contracted malaria he travelled on to Zanzibar via Madagascar. After a short stay in Bombay he returned to Vienna, where he exhibited studies from his long journey at the Galerie Miethke in 1902 (e.g. portrait of the Sultan of Zanzibar Tipotip, Vienna, Mus. Vlkerknd.). Between 1905 and 1935 (except during World War I), he was a teacher of free-hand drawing at a secondary school in Klosterneuburg. In 1905–6 one of his pupils was Egon Schiele, whose talent he fostered, taking him on outdoor painting trips and introducing him to oil painting. Many of Schiele’s very early works were preserved by Strauch (Vienna, Niederösterreich. Landesmus., on long-term loan in Tulln, Egon Schiele Mus.); several drawings show Strauch working at his easel. Landscapes and genre scenes from his immediate surroundings form the subject-matter of Strauch’s paintings, as in ...

Article

Mark Dike DeLancey

Term used to refer to architecture from the western Sudan, generally understood as encompassing Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and northern regions of Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Togo, and Benin. The term ‘Sudanic’ is derived from the Arabic phrase ‘Bilad al-Sudan’, or ‘Land of the Blacks’, used historically to denote sub-Saharan Africa. References to Sudanic architecture were first employed in the late 19th century, particularly by French colonial administrators and adventurers, to refer to the architecture of French West Africa. These commentators frequently likened the architecture of the region to that of Egypt, thereby endowing the French colony with a degree of prestige, particularly in the wake of waves of Egyptomania that washed across Europe in the 19th century.

Perhaps more controversial are the much more common references to the Sudanese style of architecture. While focused primarily in the regions referenced above, this interpretation may also incorporate works from surrounding regions such as Guinea, Senegal, and Nigeria. What exactly constitutes the Sudanese style has been the subject of extensive debate. The ...

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