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John Baily

(b Maidenhead, Berks, June 8, 1776; d Birmingham, Jan 4, 1841).

English architect and writer. Born into a large middle-class Quaker family, he was denied access to universities and professions and was taught to avoid the ‘frivolity’ of the arts. He was trained by his father as an apothecary and surgeon, and he completed his studies in London in 1800. He disliked medicine and in 1803 entered into partnership with a London corn merchant. The business failed in 1807, and Rickman went to Liverpool. His wife, whom he had married in 1804, died before she could join him. He found work as an accountant, but his sense of loss drove him to make long expeditions into the surrounding countryside, during which he started to sketch local churches. He was a man of immense energy and acute observation, with a collector’s instinct for scientific enquiry. The resulting collection of drawings, which he carefully listed, tabulated and arranged in order, soon expanded to cover much of northern England....


Jean van Cleven

(b Nieuwpoort, Jan 3, 1786; d Ghent, April 5, 1864).

Belgian architect. He was the son of a carpenter; from 1803 he trained at the Academie voor Schone Kunsten in Ghent, where he was awarded a first prize in 1808. He went to Paris, where he worked in the important studio of Charles Percier(-Bassant) and Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine. Together with L. Renard, Tieleman-Frans Suys and others, he contributed to the Choix des plus célèbres maisons de plaisance de Rome et de ses environs (1809–12), with drawings by Fontaine and Percier. In 1811 he won the Prix de Rome but did not go to Italy for health reasons. The fall of the Empire brought him back to Belgium in 1815, and he was appointed City Architect and professor at the Academie voor Beeldende Kunsten in Antwerp. His entry for a competition in London to make a monument commemorating the Battle of Waterloo, and above all his design (1816) for the auditorium of Ghent University, instantly established his reputation. He returned to Ghent, where he held the post of City Architect from ...


Jean-Michel Leniaud

(b Paris, Feb 18, 1820; d Cannes, May 8, 1887).

French architect, restorer, teacher and writer. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, in the studio of Simon-Claude Constant-Dufeux. He was subsequently appointed junior lecturer and in due course the first professor of the history of the decorative arts at the Ecole Royale de Dessin (later the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs), where he remained for the whole of his teaching career. In 1844 he asked to be appointed Inspecteur des Travaux at Notre-Dame, Paris, a post for which he was recommended by the Broglie family. In 1848 he was appointed Diocesan Architect to Bayeux Cathedral and to diocesan buildings in Coutances, and shortly afterwards he became Auditeur to the Commission des Arts et Edifices Religieux. His later diocesan posts were at Séez (1854), Nevers (1857), Albi (1877–9) and Reims (1879). In 1883 Ruprich-Robert was unable to visit his construction sites due to ill-health and the following year he requested the appointment of deputies at Reims and Nevers, although he refused to relinquish his artistic control of the construction works....


Dinah Birch

(b London, Feb 8, 1819; d Brantwood, Cumbria, Jan 20, 1900).

English writer, draughtsman, painter and collector. He was one of the most influential voices in the art world of the 19th century. His early writings, eloquent in their advocation of J(oseph) M(allord) W(illiam) Turner and Pre-Raphaelitism and their enthusiasm for medieval Gothic, had a major impact on contemporary views of painting and architecture. His later and more controversial works focused attention on the relation between art and politics and were bitter in their condemnation of what he saw as the mechanistic materialism of his age.

Ruskin was the only child of prosperous Scottish parents living in London: his father was a wine merchant, his mother a spirited Evangelical devoted to her husband and son. Ruskin had a sequestered but happy childhood. He became an accomplished draughtsman (taught by Copley Fielding and James Duffield Harding) and acquired, through engravings encountered in Samuel Rogers’s poem Italy (1830), an early enthusiasm for Turner’s art. He was also an eager student of natural science, particularly geology. He travelled with his parents, seeing Venice for the first time in ...


Jill Allibone

(b Worthing, W. Sussex, Oct 17, 1799; d Fernhurst, W. Sussex, Dec 17, 1881).

English architect. The most important practitioner in the early archaeological phase of the Gothic Revival in England, he was intended for a career in the army but, despite initial parental opposition, became a pupil of John Paterson (d 1832) of Edinburgh, the Clerk of Works for the Adam brothers in Scotland, with whom he worked on the restoration of Brancepeth Castle (1817–21), Durham. Elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries in 1824, Salvin was by this date already respected for his knowledge of medieval fortifications, which he acquired by diligent study of ancient buildings and the compilation of sketchbooks and scrapbooks. His professional practice began with commissions for three important country houses: Mamhead Park (1826–37), Devon, Moreby Hall (1828–33), N. Yorks, and Harlaxton Manor (1831–7), Lincs, a prodigy house for the eccentric collector Gregory Gregory. His most successful smaller country house was Scotney Castle (...


Jutta Schuchard

(Wilhelm Ernst)

(b Kassel, Jan 18, 1844; d Carlsfeld, nr Brehna, May 5, 1908).

German architect, teacher and writer. He was one of the best-known architects and university teachers in Germany in the late 19th century and is regarded as one of the most important exponents of the German Gothic Revival. He first studied engineering (from 1858) at the Höhere Gewerbeschule in Kassel, but he changed to architecture (1860–62) and was strongly influenced by the teaching of Georg Gottlob Ungewitter. After completing his studies he taught (1862–4) at the Baugewerkschule at Holzminden. His great didactic talent made him a renowned and respected teacher of architecture, a noted pupil being Max Berg; he was also a gifted writer, most of his numerous publications being devoted to architectural history. Of particular significance were his contributions on timber buildings, which notably advanced the technical and historical understanding of the subject.

Schäfer obtained his first practical experience as an architect with Conrad Wilhelm Hase in Hannover (...


Rand Carter

(b Neuruppin, Mark Brandenburg, March 13, 1781; d Berlin, Oct 9, 1841).

German architect, painter and stage designer. He was the greatest architect in 19th-century Germany, and his most important surviving buildings in Berlin (see Berlin, §I, 3) and Potsdam (see Potsdam, §1) show his sense of German idealism and technical mastery. He became Geheimer Oberlandesbaudirektor of the Prussian state and influenced many architects in Germany and abroad.

Schinkel’s father, a Lutheran pastor, died after attempting to save victims of a fire in 1787 that destroyed most of Neuruppin, a town 27 km north-west of Berlin. Much of Schinkel’s boyhood was spent in a town under reconstruction, a model of royal benevolence and rational planning. In 1794 his mother and her six children moved to Berlin to a home for the widows of Lutheran pastors. At the 1797 Akademie der Künste exhibition in Berlin the 16-year-old Schinkel was so fascinated by a project for a monument to Frederick II of Prussia...


F. Bor

(b Hamburg, 1846; d Stuttgart, Sept 1912).

Hungarian architect of German birth. In 1868 he settled in Pest, working as a mason. In 1871 he joined Miklós Ybl’s office as an assistant foreman supervising the construction of the Opera House, Budapest. Schmahl started his own practice in the 1880s, designing first in the Italian Renaissance Revival style, for example the Polyák House (1883; with sgraffito decoration by Károly Lotz) and the Haggernmacher Palace (1883; with rich sculptural decoration), both in Andrassy Street, Budapest. There followed a few residential blocks in a milder German Renaissance Revival style, and after 1890 his buildings began to reveal the influence of North Italian Gothic. He was among the first in Budapest to build combined commercial and residential blocks, where the ground-floor and first floor were separate from the residential upper storeys. A leading example is his Gothic Revival Stern House (1892), Rákóczi Street, Budapest. His theatre (...


Susanne Kronbichler-Skacha

(b Frickenhofen, Oct 22, 1825; d Vienna, Jan 23, 1891).

German architect, active in Austria. He received a solid training in Gothic architecture from the masonic lodge of Cologne Cathedral, and he also practised as a freelance architect in Germany and taught (1857–9) at the academy in Milan, before moving to Vienna in 1859. There he was able to build Gothic Revival churches and became an important figure in Viennese historicism through his strong artistic personality and profound knowledge of Gothic architecture, complementing the elegant Renaissance Revival style of Theophilus Hansen, Henrich von Ferstel and others.

Schmidt’s Viennese churches are characterized by their wide, homogeneous and spacious interiors, either in a hall church, as in the two churches for the Lazarist Order—the Immaculate Conception (1860–62) and St Severin (1875–8)—or, less often, a basilica as at St Othmar (1866–9) and St Brigitta (1867–73). The interiors were combined with a richly structured and sometimes incongruous exterior. The most important and most interesting of his churches is the ...


Alfred Willis

American family of architects, of German origin. Charles Julius Schweinfurth (b Reutlingen, Germany, 1827; d Cleveland, OH, 12 Oct 1909) trained as an engineer in Germany and moved to the USA, settling in Auburn, NY, in 1852. He was active there as a designer and manufacturer of architectural ornament, and he had four sons who all became architects. Charles F(rederick) Schweinfurth (b Auburn, 3 Sept 1856; d Cleveland, OH, 8 Nov 1919), the eldest son, worked in New York and Washington, DC, before setting up a successful practice in Cleveland in 1883. There he designed numerous residences, churches, college buildings, and bridges. Most of his earlier buildings in Cleveland, for example the Calvary Presbyterian Church (1887–90), were in the Romanesque Revival style of H. H. Richardson, which Schweinfurth was chiefly responsible for introducing to Cleveland. His later works there (e.g. Trinity Episcopal Cathedral, 1901–7...


Betzy Dinesen

(b Eton, Berks, April 13, 1838; d Winsford, Somerset, April 7, 1891).

English architect and writer. In 1858 he entered the office of G. E. Street, and in 1863 he moved to Penzance, where he joined the practice of his brother Edmund Sedding (1836–68), who had also trained under Street. He then practised in Bristol (1868–74), engaged principally on embroidery design and minor commissions but achieving recognition with the church and vicarage of St Clement (1871–3; tower added 1890–93), Boscombe, near Bournemouth, Hants. The furnishings were added over the next few years to Sedding’s designs, as the first vicar of the new parish was Sedding’s brother-in-law. The church is Gothic, while the vicarage (destr. 1965) was in the manner of R. Norman Shaw, with an elaborate oriel window and splendid chimney-stacks. In 1874 Sedding set up his office in London, specializing in church design and restoration. He was a devout Anglican and had original ideas for the liturgical setting of the Eucharist. He used a range of styles, generally favouring Gothic Revival forms and Arts and Crafts detail, and designed many church furnishings himself. In ...


Jean-Michel Leniaud


French family of architects. François-Léonard Seheult (b Nantes, 11 April 1771; d Nantes, 1 March 1840) belonged to a family of painters and architects active in Nantes from the 17th century. He trained (1786–9) at the Académie in Paris under Antoine-François Peyre and travelled in Italy, where he measured small villas and farmhouses, which subsequently formed the basis for many of his designs. Returning to Nantes, he worked in the Neo-classical style. His buildings include the château of Montis (1810) and the Hôtel Seheult (1824) at 8, Rue de l’Héronnière, Nantes. His son Saint-Félix Seheult (b Nantes, 7 March 1793; d Nantes, 25 March 1858), whom he taught, built a number of private commissions, including the château of Halay, near Clisson, the Château Fonds-des-Bois and, in Nantes, several houses in the Rue d’Orléans (now Rue du Peuple) and various hôtels particuliers...


(b Padua, April 27, 1803; d Padua, Feb 26, 1880).

Italian critic, art historian, architect, and teacher. He was one of the most important writers in mid-19th-century Italy on Gothic art and architecture—an interest stimulated by his support for the Catholic Revival and manifested in his Gothic Revival architectural designs.

He belonged to a noble family awarded the title of marchese by the House of Este princes in Modena, with permission to add Estense to the name Selvatico. He enrolled in the Faculty of Jurisprudence in the University of Padua, mainly to satisfy his family, but he never took his degree. Instead he began to study the history of art and culture with the Abbot Ludovico Menin, a local scholar, and took painting lessons with Giovanni Demin (1786–1859), whose work was known for its late Neo-classicism and incipient Romanticism. More important, however, was his meeting with Giuseppe Jappelli, the architect who adorned Padua with such masterpieces as the Caffè Pedrocchi and whose stylistic eclecticism was very significant at that time. Selvatico painted a few pictures, none of which survived; he also produced some architectural work, which, although not particularly remarkable, can be clearly documented. He began to participate in the cultural life of his city and entered the Accademia di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti in Padua while still a young man. He also visited the most famous cities and monuments in Italy and went to Paris, London, and Germany; evidence of these travels can be seen in his later practical and theoretical work. He was influenced not only by artistic movements but also by more general social and cultural developments, which, because of the Industrial Revolution, were further advanced in France and England than in Italy....


Hugh Maguire

(b Dublin, c. 1801; d Dublin, c. 1873).

Irish architect. He was born into a family of architects and builders; little is known about his training although he appears to have studied with his father, with whom he later formed a partnership. Despite his appointment as Dublin City Architect (1829–42) he specialized in church architecture and worked in the Dublin Archdiocese for the Church of Ireland’s Board of First Fruits until its abolition (1834). His church plans are simple and generally rectilinear, and his exteriors are characterized by strong vertical lines that suggest great upward thrusts, although the typical church is not particularly tall. The vertical emphasis is obtained by the employment of closely grouped pinnacles, buttresses and lancet windows. His most famous church is St Mary’s Chapel of Ease (the Black Church, 1830), Dublin. It is situated on an island site near the northern boundary of the 18th-century city and is in an adventurous Early Gothic Revival style in black Dublin calp (limestone), which contrasts with the red-brick Palladian and Neo-classical buildings in the vicinity. The interior is remarkable for its great parabolic vault, interrupted by lancet windows. The exterior of the similarly sited Monkstown Church (...


George McHardy

(b Edinburgh, May 7, 1831; d London, November 17, 1912).

English architect of Scottish birth. He was one of the most versatile and influential architects of the late Victorian age. He began working in the Gothic Revival style, in which he designed a number of original churches; the prolific output of his maturity is domestic work in the Old English and Queen Anne Revival styles with which his name is most closely associated; and his adoption after about 1890 of an altogether heavier style shows him to be a proponent of the Baroque Revival of the Edwardian age.

Shaw’s mother was Scottish and Presbyterian, his father an Irish Protestant who died in 1833 leaving the family heavily in debt and Shaw to be brought up presumably in impoverished gentility. About 1846 the family moved to London, where Shaw worked in an unknown architect’s office until, in or before 1849, he was articled to William Burn, a fellow Scot who was a competent and successful country house architect. Here Shaw met W. E. Nesfield (...


(b Pateley Bridge, Yorks, Sept 9, 1821; d London, Feb 5, 1889).

English painter, printmaker and writer. After being educated at a school for the sons of Methodist ministers, he was articled to the Gothic Revival architect Edward James Willson (1787–1854) in Lincoln. Willson allowed him to spend much of his time drawing the paintings and sculptures in Lincoln Cathedral and after three years let him leave to become a painter. Smetham then worked as a portrait painter in Shropshire before moving to London (1843), where he studied as a probationer at the Royal Academy Schools and met Dante Gabriel Rossetti, who became a close friend. In 1851 he made his début at the Royal Academy and was appointed drawing-master at Normal College in Westminster, London, a post he retained for the next 26 years. He met John Ruskin in 1854, who was greatly impressed by his work. The first of his many breakdowns occurred in 1857. His early work remains largely unknown, but such paintings as ...


Michael J. Lewis

(b Cologne, April 9, 1819; d Cologne, Aug 2, 1898).

German architect. A self-taught designer, he dominated the Catholic church architecture of the Rhineland in the second half of the 19th century and was a leading figure in the German Gothic Revival. Following an apprenticeship as a builder and joiner, he entered the Cologne Dombauhütte (Cathedral Building Lodge) in 1841, becoming a supervisor of construction in 1845. By 1847 he had begun to design, drawing on both English theory and German regional tradition. He was advised by his friend and mentor August Reichensperger. Statz’s first work, the Marienkapelle (1847–56) at Nippes near Cologne, was a small brick and stone chapel recalling the model churches sanctioned by the English Ecclesiological Society. His design for St Hedwig’s Catholic Hospital (1851–5) in Berlin similarly united asymmetrical English planning and massing with characteristic north German brick details.

Statz erected or restored several hundred churches during his lifetime, chiefly in the Rhineland. A conservative designer, he clung to established forms and solutions, his designs being determined more by construction than by a sense of visual composition. He consistently raised vaulted basilicas with western entrance towers, such as his Mauritiuskirche (...


József Sisa

(b Pest [now Budapest], Oct 29, 1839; d Budapest, Aug 31, 1902).

Hungarian architect. He studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna, as a pupil of Friedrich von Schmidt, who was a strong advocate of Gothic Revival architecture. Steindl’s repeated attempts to build in this style after his return to Hungary in 1868 were unsuccessful because of the Hungarians’ dislike of the Gothic idiom for its German and clerical connotations. Between 1868 and 1870 he prepared four different sets of designs for the New Town Hall (1870–73), Pest, ranging from Gothic to Renaissance Revival styles. Initially his Gothic design was selected, but after building began he was required to draw up new designs, and the building was completed in an Italian Renaissance style. The New Town Hall had novel features, such as the polychrome brick façade with faience ornaments and a cast-iron double-return staircase. Steindl went on to design several Italian Renaissance Revival buildings in Budapest, such as the Commercial and Industrial Bank of Buda (...


Roderick O’Donnell

(Aloysius Scott Nasmyth)

(b Southport, Lancs, 1858; d London, Dec 25, 1925).

English architect. He was the brother of the painter and critic Adrian Scott Stokes (1854–1935) and the nephew of S. N. Stokes (1821–91), a founder-member of the Cambridge Camden Society, who became a Roman Catholic. He came to London as a pupil of the Catholic church architect S. J. Nicholl (1826–1905). He was later a clerk of works under G. E. Street and an assistant to T. E. Collcutt, Bodley & Garner and J. P. St Aubyn (1815–95). He won the Pugin travelling scholarship in 1880 and toured Germany and Italy in 1881–2. He established himself as one of the most innovative church architects of the day with St Clare (1880–90), Sefton Park, Liverpool, where his use of internal buttresses, wall passages and a free Decorated Gothic style all contrasted sharply with the conservatism of much late 19th-century Catholic church architecture. His unexecuted scheme (...


Peter Howell

(b Woodford, Essex, June 20, 1824; d London, Dec 18, 1881).

English architect. Widely regarded as the greatest British architect of his time, he played a crucial role in the development of the Gothic Revival between A. W. N. Pugin in the 1840s and its High Victorian climax. Street brought earnest conviction and great self-confidence to his work and won admiration even when his ideals were no longer considered fashionable. His concern for detail was prodigious: the Fellows of Magdalen College, Oxford, for example, were assured in 1879 that if they accepted his design for new buildings, ‘every detail, even the smallest, would, as his custom is, be drawn by him’, although this meant that his assistants and pupils had no opportunity to make independent designs. Through his many articles, books on Italian and Spanish architecture and lectures at the Royal Academy, Street wielded enormous influence and his buildings were greatly admired.

His father was a London solicitor, who retired in ...