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L. J. Schaaf

[Meal, Jabez]

(b Manchester, Sept 17, 1813; d Southwick, nr Brighton, March 6, 1901).

English photographer, active in the USA. He became established as a daguerreotypist in Philadelphia, PA, but returned to England in 1846, rapidly emerging as one of the top daguerreotypists in London. His association with the USA was tenacious; even Queen Victoria, a regular patron, said of him: ‘the oddest man I ever saw…but an excellent photographer…he is an American’. She was not alone in her observation of Mayall’s eccentric but charismatic behaviour.

Mayall’s forceful monochromatic portrait images were the equal of Antoine Claudet’s and successful competitors of William Kilburn’s hand-coloured daguerreotypes. Mayall exhibited portraits of the famous at his Daguerreotype Institution, and many of his sitters, including Sir John Herschel, Professor Alfred Swain Taylor (1806–80) and Sir David Brewster (1781–1868), were intimately connected with the early history of photography. Mayall also resolutely expanded the scope of the daguerreotype beyond portraiture. His panorama of Niagara Falls (...


Pontus Grate

(b Stockholm, March 9, 1807; d Naples, Jan 18, 1884).

Swedish painter, draughtsman and photographer. The son of a French emigrant, he studied at the Kungliga Akademi för de Fria Konsterna in Stockholm and then for several years, from 1825, with Antoine-Jean Gros in Paris. Mazer was not, however, notably influenced by the style of Gros, although he was entrusted with the underpainting in some of Gros’s historical compositions. Mazer is believed to have fought at the barricades in Paris during the revolution of 1830; several of his drawings show fighting in the streets. After a stay in Italy he spent the years 1835–8 in Sweden and Finland painting portraits. The tonality of these works is generally dark and their psychological expression sometimes intense. Several of them portray well-known Nordic writers and artists such as the poet C. J. L. Almquist (1835; Stockholm, Nordiska Mus.). From 1838 to 1854 Mazer lived in various parts of the Russian Empire: in St Petersburg, Yaroslavl’, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan’, Siberia and the Ukraine. He also spent three years in China. In his autobiographical notes and letters his activities during this period are well documented, but the many portraits he painted are largely untraced. Some, such as ...


Pedro Querejazu

(b La Plata [now Sucre], 1816; d Sucre, 1871).

Bolivian painter, photographer, museum founder, scientist, and soldier. He was self-taught as a painter and established a reputation through his work in various techniques. His major work was an album (1841–1860; Sucre, Bib. & Archv N.) composed of 116 watercolors of ordinary people, native and mestizo, fauna, flora, landscapes, and nature scenes of various regions of Bolivia. His work is spontaneous and naive, painted with an almost dry brush. The importance of his work lies principally in his realistic approach to his country and its natural environment. He also painted academic portraits, such as Casimiro Olañeta (1857; La Paz, priv. col.), and he established (c. 1845) the first Bolivian museum of cultural, mineral, plant, and animal specimens (dispersed after 1871). He took up photography towards the end of his life.

Chacón Torres, M. Pintores del siglo XIX, Bib. A. & Cult. Boliv.: A. & Artistas. La Paz, 1963....


(b Paris, 1868; d Hollywood, CA, Jan 6, 1949).

French photographer. He was brought up in Paris and during the 1890s also became established in London as part of a circle of aristocrats and socialites. In 1899 he married Olga Caracciolo, whose godfather was the Prince of Wales (later Edward VII). He soon became noted for his elegant photographic portraits, such as that of his wife Olga de Meyer (c. 1900; Rochester, NY, Int. Mus. Phot.). He had started exhibiting in London and Paris in 1894 and in 1898 was elected to the Linked Ring, Brotherhood of the. This rapid success was due to the influence of Whistler and the Aesthetic Movement in his works: he used diffuse back-lighting and soft focus to give an air of unreality both to his portraits and to his still-lifes (e.g. Still-life with Flowers, Providence, RI Sch. Des., Mus. A.). In 1901 Meyer was made a baron by Frederick-Augustus III, King of Saxony, at the request of his cousin Edward VII....


Donna Stein

(b Los Angeles, CA, July 11, 1949).

American photographer and writer. Misrach studied psychology at the University of California, Berkeley (1971), however, the political climate of the late 1960s; the West Coast photographic tradition of Edward Weston, Ansel Adams, Wynn Bullock and Dorothea Lange; and more particularly, a small exhibit of Roger Minick’s photographs stimulated Misrach to his “calling”. He purchased a Hasselblad camera and, essentially self-taught, embarked on a career as a fine art photographer.

Misrach is renowned for his epic works in which light, color and form convey an environmental message. Through different photographic strategies he has consistently addressed political and social issues. His earliest pictures record the riots, tear gassing and street people in Berkeley. By 1975, Misrach began his desert landscapes, creating a unique split-toning process for his night images. His monumental lifetime project, The Desert Cantos, is inspired by Ezra Pound’s poems, each theme named for its location or subject and numbered upon completion. With more than 28 different groupings (e.g. The Fires, The War [Bravo 20], Desert Seas, Clouds [Non-Equivalents], Las Vegas) that vary in focus, time span and the number of works, Misrach has photographed the deserts of California, Arizona and the Middle East, illustrating man’s impact on nature....


Jeffrey Martin

Medium on which a series of photographic images are recorded on a flexible plastic base in order to produce the illusion of movement when reproduced by projection through a lens or other means. Although ‘film’ has been used by the general public as a catch-all term for any moving image medium, it actually refers specifically to photochemical reproduction.

Three different types of film base have been used in motion picture production. The first, cellulose nitrate, was used from the time it was introduced by Eastman Kodak in 1889, through the early 1950s. Cellulose nitrate was durable, withstood repeated projection, and provided a high-quality image. It was also extremely flammable, requiring careful handling in shipping and storage, and the construction of special fireproof projection booths in theatres. It is always identified by the words ‘Nitrate film’ along one edge. Cellulose acetate film was first made available commercially in 1909, but was inferior in strength to nitrate film, and was not widely adopted for theatrical use. It was, however, used exclusively in smaller-gauge film for home and amateur use by the 1920s. In ...


Louis Kaplan


(b Boston, MA, May 1832; d Boston, MA, May 16, 1884).

American engraver, spirit photographer, and inventor. Mumler worked first as an engraver in the jewellery firm of Bigelow, Kennard, and Co. before taking up photography. In 1862, he claimed to have developed a haunted photographic self-portrait that contained the ‘spirit’ of a deceased female cousin, even though a more naturalistic explanation viewed it as a double exposure produced on an already used plate. Working with his wife Hannah, who was a clairvoyant and medium, Mumler went into business producing such spirit photographs as cartes-de-visite for the bereaved and the curious on a full-time basis.

The success of Mumler’s spirit photography must be understood in relation to the growth of Spiritualism as a popular religious movement and the belief that communication with the dead was possible. For Spiritualist leaders such as Andrew Jackson Davis (1826–1910), Mumler’s images offered visible proof of a new medium for spirit communication and communion. However, Mumler left Boston amid scandal when a few of the spirits in his photographs were found to still be alive. Relocating to New York in the late 1860s, he opened a studio at 630 Broadway....


J. P. Ward

[Muggeridge, Edward James ]

(b Kingston-on-Thames, April 9, 1830; d Kingston-on-Thames, May 8, 1904).

English photographer, active in the USA. He was the first to analyse motion successfully by using a sequence of photographs and resynthesizing them to produce moving pictures on a screen. His work has been described as the inspiration behind the invention of the motion picture.

Born Edward James Muggeridge, he immigrated around 1852 to the USA, where he first worked for a firm of publishers and later became a book dealer. After a stagecoach accident in Texas in 1860, he returned to England, where he took up photography. By 1867 he was back in California, describing himself as ‘Eadweard Muybridge, artist–photographer’. During the next five years he took over 2000 photographs, selling many of them under the pseudonym Helios. Muybridge made his name as a photographer with a successful series of views, Scenery of the Yosemite Valley, published in 1868. In 1872 he was commissioned by a former governor of California, ...



Hélène Bocard

[Tournachon , (Gaspard ) Félix ]

(b Paris, April 8, 1820; d Paris, March 21, 1910).

French photographer, printmaker, draughtsman, writer and balloonist. He was born into a family of printers and became familiar with the world of letters very early in life. He abandoned his study of medicine for journalism, working first in Lyon and then in Paris. In the 1840s Nadar moved in socialist, bohemian circles and developed strong republican convictions. Around this time he adopted the pseudonym Nadar (from ‘Tourne à dard’, a nickname he gained because of his talent for caricature). For his friend Charles Baudelaire (see fig.), Nadar personified ‘the most astonishing expression of vitality’. In 1845 he published his first novel, La Robe de Déjanira, and the following year he embarked on his career as a caricaturist, working for La Silhouette and Le Charivari and subsequently for the Revue comique (1848) and Charles Philipon’s Journal pour rire (1849), which later became the Journal amusant...


Daniela Mrázková


(b Minsk, Dec 26, 1869; d Moscow, June 13, 1958).

Russian photographer of Belorussian birth. He learnt portrait photography in the studio of the Italian firm Boretti in Minsk, afterwards working in Smolensk, Moscow, Odessa, Warsaw and Vilnius before leaving for the USA to further his experience. After working in New York, Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, he returned to Minsk in 1895 and opened his own portrait studio. In 1910 his work was used by the press, and his portraits of prominent personalities in politics, science and the arts were published in Solntse Rossii, one of the most prestigious magazines of the period. Unlike many of his profession he did not flee from Russia after the Revolution in 1917 but offered his services to the Soviet government. He made his portrait V. I. Lenin, Petrograd, 31 January 1918 (see 1982 exh. cat., p. 40) in order to familiarize the public with the leader’s face. In the fashion of the time the final print showed only the oval of the face with the bust sketched in. In spring ...


Italo Zannier

(b Tronzano Vercellese, nr Vercelli, Aug 2, 1816; d Venice, May 30, 1882).

Italian photographer. His interest in photography began after he completed his degree in law at the University of Pisa (1840). In 1857 he settled in Venice and opened a laboratory and studio in the Piazza San Marco. He concentrated on architectural views and on reproductions of works of art. At first he relied commercially on the photographic market that Carlo Ponti had created in Venice. He first received international recognition at the Troisième Exposition de la Société Française de Photographie, in Paris in 1859, where he exhibited a series of photographs, for which he used the dry collodion process. In 1862 he won a medal at the Great Exhibition of London.

Among Naya’s most important photographs are the series of Giotto’s frescoes in the Cappella degli Scrovegni in Padua, taken in 1865 before their restoration. In Venice he expanded his business and had several employees, with whom he carried out an exhaustive photographic documentation of the city, producing images suitable for both the tourist and the art historian. Many of these were collected into albums of various sizes. Naya also composed charming genre scenes of local folklore; although he staged some of the scenes in the studio, he achieved others by means of photomontage. These were very popular as souvenirs (see Zannier, pl. 22)....


Hélène Bocard

(b Grasse, May 9, 1820; d Grasse, Jan 16, 1880).

French photographer and painter. He trained as a painter with Paul Delaroche, Michel-Martin Drolling and Ingres, and he began an honourable career exhibiting regularly at the Salon from 1843 to 1853 with genre and historical scenes such as the Death of Abel (exh. 1852; untraced). He took up photography in 1844, initially as an aid to painting. In 1852 he set off to photograph the monuments of southern France. He brought back 100 calotypes (architecture, landscape and genre scenes; see fig.), some of which were published by Goupil with a text as Le Midi de la France (1854–5), and he then took photographs of Notre-Dame in Paris (1853) and Chartres Cathedral (1854–5). These were printed by heliogravure, a technique he perfected for the Duc de Luynes competition for a photographic printing technology (1856), for which he won second prize and was much praised. In ...


Jessica S. McDonald

(b Lynn, MA, June 22, 1908; d Santa Fe, NM, Feb 26, 1993).

American art historian, curator, museum director, educator, and photographer. In his unprecedented seven-decade career as the preeminent historian of photography in the United States, Newhall established the medium’s vital role in art history and advanced its status as an independent art. Born into a prosperous family in Lynn, MA, Newhall studied art history at Harvard University, finishing his undergraduate studies in the spring of 1930 and returning in the fall as a graduate student. He enrolled in Paul J(oseph) Sachs’s course ‘Museum Work and Museum Problems’, the first such course offered in the United States. When Newhall completed his master’s degree in 1931, Sachs helped him obtain short-term employment at the Pennsylvania Museum of Art (now the Philadelphia Museum of Art), and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, before recommending him for the position of librarian at the Museum of Modern Art (MOMA), New York, in 1935...


(b Chalon-sur-Saône, March 7, 1765; d Gras, nr Chalon-sur-Saône, July 5, 1833).

French inventor. Niépce and his brother Claude (1763–1828) were little-known scientists who developed a functioning internal combustion engine and a sugar extraction process, both of which were commercial failures. Their fortune became depleted by a lifetime of experimenting. Harmant (1980) has suggested that their photographic experiments originated in the late 18th century; certainly Nicéphore had used nitric acid to fix the images of the camera obscura on silver chloride paper by 1816. Although no known examples survive, this was an advance on the methods of Thomas Wedgwood, who was unable to preserve his images.

Heliography was invented by Nicéphore Niépce in 1824. The discovery probably stemmed from his interest in printmaking, which led him to seek to capture natural images on lithographic stone. Heliography used the light sensitivity of bitumen, dissolved in a solvent and coated on to a glass, metal, or stone plate. Prolonged exposure to sunlight in a camera (or under a waxed engraving) selectively hardened the bitumen, and subsequent washing with solvent removed the unexposed (and therefore unhardened) areas. The remaining bitumen formed a visible image that could be employed as a resist in etching or lithographic printing....


H. Alexander Rich

(b Philadelphia, PA, March 25, 1905; d New York, NY, April 12, 1997).

American photographer, writer, social advocate and patron of the arts. Best known for her professional and personal relationship with photographer Alfred Stieglitz, Norman was a lifelong lover and producer of art, whose interest in advancing the work of her fellow artists was rivaled only by her broader desire to effect social change. Born into an upper-class Philadelphia family, Norman (née Stecker) enjoyed the advantages of a childhood steeped in culture, from attending theater and the opera to visiting local art collections. Despite her own life of relative privilege, from an early age Norman exhibited a precocious awareness of social inequity and an eagerness to expand her horizons. As a young girl attending public school, she sensed the disparities between the opportunities afforded by her own upbringing and those available to others around her.

Frustrated by the fate of some of her fellow Philadelphians and feeling suffocated by the city itself, Norman believed that Philadelphia was too restrictive and longed to see the world beyond her native city. This perception was further bolstered when, as a student at the University of Pennsylvania, Norman took a course in modern art at the Barnes Foundation. The course was a transformative experience for Norman, igniting in her a true passion for art and a desire to immerse herself in the contemporary art world....


Stanley G. Triggs

(b Paisley, March 8, 1826; d Montreal, Nov 25, 1891).

Canadian photographer of Scottish birth. When he was 14 his family moved to Glasgow. He planned a career as an artist and took lessons in drawing and painting. He also learned daguerreotypy and practised the art as an amateur. He was eventually persuaded, however, to enter the family woollen goods business. In the summer of 1856 he emigrated to Montreal, Canada, followed by his wife and child in November of that year. By December he had started a photographic business at 11 Bleury Street, and in the next few years he achieved a very rapid rise to international prominence.

The basis of Notman’s business was portraiture, and from the beginning he attracted customers from all social levels including not only royalty, politicians and wealthy businessmen but also tradesmen, clerks and secretaries. He often invited interesting characters he had met by chance into his studio to be photographed. His first large non-portrait commission was for the Grand Trunk Railway in ...


Terence Pitts

(b ?Ireland, 1840; d Staten Island, NY, Jan 14, 1882).

American photographer. He was employed in the studio of Mathew Brady in Washington, DC, when the Civil War (1861–5) broke out. After photographing the early stages of the war in South Carolina, he left Brady’s studio to work for Alexander Gardner, and almost one half of the photographs in Gardner’s Photographic Sketchbook of the War (?New York, 1866/R1959) are by him. O’Sullivan’s war photographs, like Gardner’s, moved beyond the superficial documentation of battlefields and the mundane activities of armies (see fig.), and he began to photograph the grim reality of war; he is particularly noted for his photographs of battlefield dead (e.g. Field where General Reynolds Fell, 1863; see Snyder, 1981, p. 17).

In 1867–9 and 1872 O’Sullivan accompanied the geologist Clarence King (1842–1901) on his Fortieth Parallel Survey expeditions, photographing some of the West’s more extraordinary geological sites, natural resources and important mining areas. In the landscape of the West, King saw confirmation of his view that geological change came through catastrophic upheaval, and his theories probably influenced O’Sullivan’s approach to the landscape. O’Sullivan’s work for King depicts immense, arid, unpopulated spaces and freakish remnants of past geological eras. During ...


Mattie Boom

(b Amsterdam, Oct 17, 1834; d Amsterdam, April 25, 1905).

Dutch photographer. He may have developed his keen interest in photography after attending one of the international photography exhibitions held in the Netherlands in 1855 and 1858. At that time he was a carpenter by trade and built his first camera himself (Amsterdam, Gemeente Archf). In a makeshift studio in the back garden of his house in Amsterdam he took self-portraits and shots of family and friends. In addition he wandered through Amsterdam, carrying wet collodion negatives, to photograph the streets, buildings and people at work (Amsterdam, Gemeente Archf).

Olie was active as a photographer during two periods in his life: from 1860 to 1870 and from 1890 to 1905. It is obvious from his portraits that he had received some training in drawing and that he had a knowledge of painting. At the age of 17 he was apprenticed to an architect and trained as a draughtsman. Initially he worked as a carpenter and as a building supervisor. Thereafter he became a teacher and between ...


Mattie Boom

(b Groningen, Jan 20, 1816; d Amsterdam, June 8, 1885).

Dutch photographer. Originally a painter, he established a photographic studio in Amsterdam in 1851. However, his interests lay in areas other than the portrait photography that was practised in most studios. He became skilled in stereoscopic photography, which was becoming increasingly popular. He created one of the first Dutch stereoscopic images, a portrait of a woman with a stereoscope, made according to Daguerre’s process. He also created numerous stereoscopic images on glass using albumen. In the second half of the 1850s he published the series Views of Holland and Stereoscopic Views in the Netherlands (The Hague, Rijksdienst Beeld. Kst, and Leiden, Rijksuniv.). This series contains some of the earliest photographs of Amsterdam, Leiden, Haarlem, The Hague and Rotterdam. Stereoscopic images of groups and situations such as those made by the London Stereoscopic Company were rare in the Netherlands: Oosterhuis only occasionally ventured to make imitations of British still-lifes. His stereographs of actual events are exceptional: for example the unveiling of a new monument on the Dam in Amsterdam on a rainy day in ...


Lee Fontanella

Spanish photographic association formed by Hermenegildo Otero Goñi (b San Sebastián, before 1862; d San Sebastián, 14 April 1905) and Miguel Aguirre Aristiguieta (b San Sebastián, ?1868; d San Sebastián, 1924). The association between the two photographers began in 1879, when Aguirre was an apprentice. The business and archive became Aguirre’s own c. 1912. It is impossible to distinguish between the work of Otero and Aguirre from 1879. Otero began as one of the first resident photographers in the Basque city of San Sebastián. There he recorded the destruction of the city walls (1863–5) for urban reform and an official visit by Isabel II, and he made portraits of miquelet (or mountain) soldiers of the third Carlist War (San Sebastián, Mus. Hist. Mil.; I. Aguirre Franco priv. col.; see Fontanella, 1981). Both photographers worked first with wet collodion glass plates, but changed to gelatin dry plates toward the end of the century. Many of their negatives and apparatuses still exist. They photographed local types, festivals and events, the Exposition Universelle of ...