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Hanno-Walter Kruft

[Gaggini; Gazini; Gazzini]

Italian family of sculptors, masons and architects. One branch of the family, which came from Bissone, Ticino, was active in Genoa from the 15th century. (1) Domenico Gagini initially worked there, as did his nephew (2) Elia Gagini and their relation (3) Giovanni Gagini. In the early 16th century Giovanni’s brother (4) Pace Gagini collaborated with Antonio della Porta (see Porta, della family, §1), his and Giovanni’s uncle, on work that included French and Spanish commissions. The Gagini workshop was organized along medieval lines: they produced works in collaboration, combining the skills of mason and sculptor. Their work was chiefly of a decorative and ornamental nature, figurative sculpture being of secondary importance. They remained active in Genoa until the 19th century.

Domenico, one of the most innovative members of the family, settled in Sicily between 1458 and 1463 and founded a separate branch that remained active until the 17th century. Domenico’s son ...

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Donald Myers

[Romano]

(b Monte Rotondo, nr Rome, 1520; d Florence, Sept 19, 1584).

Italian medallist, goldsmith and sculptor. The son of Pietro di Francesco, he was brought to Florence at a young age by Benvenuto Cellini, who described in his Vita how he found Galeotti in Rome in 1528. Galeotti accompanied Cellini to Ferrara and Paris in 1540 and worked in his Paris workshop with Ascanio de’ Mari (d 1566) in the Château du Petit-Nesle in 1548–9. He settled in Florence around 1552 and entered into the service of the Mint. He became a Florentine citizen in 1560. A payment to him from Cellini is recorded in January 1552, for chasing done on Cellini’s Perseus. A sonnet of 1555 by the historian and critic Benedetto Varchi (I Sonetti, Venice, 1555, i, 252) describes Galeotti as an equal rival of Domenico Poggini, another medallist also employed by the Mint. Briefly in 1575, Galeotti appears to have been an assistant engraver at the Papal Mint in Rome, taking the place of ...

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(b Breslau, c. 1555; d after 1592).

German sculptor, active in Sweden. The son of a painter, in 1569 he graduated from the University of Frankfurt an der Oder. In 1588 a ‘Hans Gantzow’ is mentioned in the group of German sculptors working on decorative sculpture under Hans van Steenwinkel the elder at Kronborg Castle in Helsingør. In 1592 a contract for the new pulpit for Lund Cathedral was drawn up between Ganssog and the cathedral chapter, and Ganssog completed the commission in October of that year. The signed and dated black limestone hexagonal pulpit, supported on a carved basket and surmounted by a baldacchino, is decorated with alabaster figurines and reliefs of scenes from the Passion (originally highlighted with colour and gilding). Here north German Renaissance ornament is combined with motifs ultimately derived from the ornamental designs of Cornelis Floris and Hans Vredeman de Vries, but invested with a more Baroque spirit. The similarity of some of the pulpit’s figural and decorative elements to Hans van Steenwinkel the elder’s monument to ...

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Hermann Maué

(b c. 1500; bur Nuremberg, April 22, 1574).

German medallist. On the occasion of being granted the citizenship of Nuremberg in 1523 he was described as a wood-carver. It seems likely that Nuremberg’s adoption in 1525 of the Reformed faith obliged Gebel to look for other work, since none now came from the Church. The first medal definitely attributable to him is also one of his most famous: that of Albrecht Dürer (Nuremberg, Ger. Nmus.), struck in 1527. It shows the painter with short hair and was to become for future ages the definitive portrait of him in old age. In 1528, after Dürer’s death, this medal was reissued with an altered reverse. In 1529 and 1530 Gebel travelled to the imperial diets in Speyer and Worms to obtain commissions for portrait medals.

Gebel did not belong to any guild but was among those practising the ‘freie Künste’: the fact that in 1534 he was singled out by name in Nuremberg city ordinances concerning medallists who were free craftsmen suggests that he was regarded as the most important Nuremberg medallist of his day, an assumption supported by his works, which include a silver medal of ...

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Dorothea Diemer

(b ’s Hertogenbosch, ?1540–50; d ?Munich, before 1621).

Dutch sculptor, active in Germany. He worked principally in Augsburg, Munich and Innsbruck as a sculptor in bronze, terracotta and stucco and introduced Giambologna’s courtly Mannerist style into southern Germany and the Tyrol. He is perhaps best known for the bronze figures he made for monumental fountains, among which is the Augustus Fountain in Augsburg.

Although there is only one recorded mention (for 1580 or 1581) of Gerhard’s connection with the court workshops in Florence, his style implies that he trained in Italy, probably at Florence. In 1581 he and the Florentine sculptor Carlo di Cesari del Palagio were summoned to Augsburg by the wealthy Fugger family to work on the tomb (since dismantled) of Christoph Fugger (d 1579), which was set up in the monastery church of St Magdalena. The two gilded bronze reliefs they made for this tomb—a Resurrection (London, V&A) and an Ascension (untraced)—were originally framed in red and white marble. A number of surrounding figures were also cast: two standing and two seated prophets, two putti with Instruments of the Passion, and the two larger kneeling angels that supported the structure (all London, V&A). Since these bronzes are Gerhard’s earliest authenticated works, they are a crucial guide to his artistic origins. They reveal his debt to Giambologna, a Flemish sculptor who was by then settled in Florence; but in addition, and this is particularly true of the ...

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Charles Avery

[ Bologna, Giovanni ; Boulogne, Jean ]

(b Douai, 1529; d Florence, 1608).

Flemish sculptor, active in Italy . Born and trained in Flanders, he travelled to Italy in 1550 to study the masterpieces of Classical and Renaissance sculpture. On his way home, he visited Florence (c. 1552) and was persuaded to settle there under the patronage of the Medici dukes, eventually becoming their court sculptor.

As a sculptor, Giambologna grafted an understanding of the formal aspect of Michelangelo’s statuary on to a thorough reappraisal of Greco-Roman sculpture, as it was being daily revealed in new excavations. Particularly influential were the ambitious representations of figures and groups in violent movement, and the technical finesse of late Hellenistic work, most of which had not been available to earlier generations (e.g. the Farnese Bull; Naples, Mus. Archeol. N.; excavated in 1546).

For half a century Giambologna dominated Florentine sculpture, carving an ever more impressive series of statue groups in marble: Samson Slaying a Philistine ...

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Rudolf Preimesberger and Michael P. Mezzatesta

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Adriano Ghisetti Giavarina

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Hanno-Walter Kruft

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Margarita Estella

(b ?Palencia, c. 1510; d Madrid, before April 4, 1576).

Spanish sculptor of Netherlandish origin. Around 1534 he was a pupil of Alonso Berruguete, with whom he collaborated on the choir stalls of Toledo Cathedral. In 1542 he produced the wooden altarpiece for the church of S Pedro in Cisneros, Palencia, and made another for the Corral Chapel in the Magdalena, Valladolid; both are bold, densely crowded compositions. Giralte opened an independent workshop in the town of Palencia in 1545 and lived there until 1550 when, after an unsuccessful dispute with Juan de Juni over the contract for the altarpiece of S Maria de la Antigua in Valladolid, he moved to Madrid. He was contracted by the Bishop of Plasencia, Gutierre de Vargas Carvajal, to carve the wooden altarpiece for his chapel, the ‘Capilla del Obispo’, formerly part of S Andrés (destr. 1936), Madrid. The design of the work is old-fashioned and clearly shows the influence of Berruguete. Giralte also carved the Bishop’s tomb and that of the Bishop’s parents, ...

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