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Frank L. Chance


(b Ōmi Province [now Shiga Prefect.], 1796; d Edo [now Tokyo], 1858).

Japanese painter, poet, and illustrator. The last master of the Rinpa school of decorative painting, he moved to Edo as a youth and became the leading pupil of Sakai Hōitsu, the instigator of the Rinpa revival in the early 19th century. Kiitsu was adopted into the family of Suzuki Reitan (1782–1817), another of Hōitsu’s pupils, and married his sister. When Reitan died, Kiitsu inherited his samurai rank and became a salaried retainer of the Sakai family. By the age of 30 Kiitsu was collaborating with Hōitsu on the compilation of Kōrin hyakuzu (‘One hundred pictures by Kōrin’). From mere imitation of Hōitsu, Kiitsu evolved a more personal style. He adopted the elegant compositions and brilliantly opaque colours of the Rinpa masters (see fig.), as in the exquisite pair of six-panel folding screens Cranes (Los Angeles, CA, Co. Mus. A.), but was also affected by the decorative naturalism of the Maruyama–Shijō schools (...


Pamela Reekie Robertson

(b Bearsden, nr Glasgow, March 20, 1875; d Kirkcudbright, Dumfries and Galloway, Aug 3, 1949).

Scottish illustrator, painter, designer and writer. She studied at Glasgow School of Art and taught book decoration there from 1899 to 1908. In 1908 King married the designer and painter Ernest Archibald Taylor (1874–1952) and moved to Manchester. They were in Paris from 1911 to 1915 and then in Kirkcudbright. One of the most successful and productive practitioners of the Glasgow style, she is best known for her book illustrations and covers. Designs are documented for over 130 publications. The most successful of these, such as an edition of William Morris’s The Defence of Guenevere (London, 1904), are delicate line drawings incorporating stylized figures and enriched with areas of intricate detail. These decorative works suggest an awareness of the work of Aubrey Beardsley, Edward Burne-Jones and Dante Gabriel Rossetti, as well as Sandro Botticelli and 19th-century Japanese woodblock prints. Her varied subject-matter included romantic legends, historic architecture and botanical studies. Following her contact in Paris with Léon Bakst’s ballet designs, and an introduction to batik printing, her style became more broadly handled and colourful. King also designed jewellery, silverware and fabrics for ...


(b Hamburg, Sept 14, 1876; d Pansdorf, nr Lübeck, May 13, 1954).

German painter, printmaker, poster and stage designer. He attended the Kunstgewerbeschule in Hamburg (c. 1894), and art academies in Düsseldorf and Berlin (c. 1897). In the first decades of the 20th century he exhibited with the New Secessionists. He drew and painted still-lifes and figures in landscapes and interiors in a strongly Expressionist style, which revealed his admiration for Cubism and for the work of Ferdinand Hodler. He was an assiduous worker; besides paintings, woodcuts and lithographs, he designed stained-glass windows, mosaics (e.g. Kaiser Wilhelm-Gedächtniskirche, Berlin), murals and painted ceilings. He also decorated the interiors of a number of Berlin theatres, as well as the Marmorhaus cinema (1913). Klein and Gerhard Marcks joined Gropius to organize the 1914 Deutscher Werkbund exhibition in Cologne.

In the post-World War I ferment of cultural and political activity, Klein, with Max Pechstein and others, founded the Novembergruppe in Berlin in ...


S. Träger and Sibylle Einholz

German family of artists. Ferdinand Karl Klimsch (1812–90) was a painter and printmaker. Of his sons, (1) Eugen Johann Georg Klimsch was a painter, printmaker and illustrator, Karl Ferdinand Klimsch (1841–1926) was a lithographer and landscape painter, and Ludwig Klimsch (1852–74) was a painter. Of Eugen’s sons, (2) Fritz Klimsch was a sculptor, Karl Klimsch (1867–1936) was a portrait and figure painter and printmaker, and Paul Klimsch (1868–1917) was a landscape and animal painter as well as an illustrator.

(b Frankfurt am Main, Nov 29, 1839; d Frankfurt am Main, July 9, 1896).

Painter, printmaker and illustrator. He received his first training from his father, Ferdinand Karl Klimsch. He was a pupil at the Höheren Gewerbeschule (1852–5) and the Städelsches Kunstinstitut (1855–9), both in Frankfurt am Main, and at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich (...


Torsten Gunnarsson

(b Kalmar, Oct 11, 1858; d Stockholm, May 11, 1930).

Swedish painter, draughtsman and illustrator. From 1874 he studied at the Konstakademi in Stockholm, where he soon became a friend of Richard Bergh and Karl Nordström, both of whom were later prominent exponents of the more advanced Swedish painting of the 1880s and 1890s. After being forced to interrupt his studies because of illness, Kreuger trained from 1878 at the art school of Edvard Perséus (1841–90) in Stockholm before he travelled to Paris, where he stayed for the most part until 1887. He made his début at the Paris Salon in 1882, and he also resided in the artists’ colony in Grez-sur-Loing. During this period he painted such works as Old Country House (1887; Stockholm, Nmus.) with a free brushwork and sense of light that owed much to Jules Bastien-Lepage. In 1885 Kreuger was active in organizing the Opponenterna, a protest movement led by Ernst Josephson against the conservative establishment of the Konstakademi in Stockholm, and the following year he helped to found the ...


Torsten Gunnarsson

(Johan Ferdinand)

(b Karlskrona, Dec 11, 1850; d Stockholm, Oct 17, 1921).

Swedish painter and illustrator. He was educated at the Konstakademi in Stockholm, where his teachers were J. C. Boklund (1817–80), August Malmström and Johan Fredrik Höckert. In 1873 he travelled on a scholarship to Düsseldorf, and in the following year he went to Munich. There he was strongly influenced by the Old Masters (especially Rubens), as well as Hans Makart’s robustly theatrical style. Together they shaped Kronberg’s early works, for example Hunting Nymph and Fauns (1875; Stockholm, Nmus.), which caused a sensation when it was exhibited in Stockholm in 1876 and established his reputation. Kronberg left Munich in 1877 and settled in Rome, where, between trips to Egypt and Tunisia, he stayed until 1889, when he returned to Stockholm. During his years in Rome his style became increasingly austere. His exuberant Munich manner was replaced by a colder illusionism, which emphasized the historical details of subjects taken from the Bible and Shakespeare. Typical is ...


(b Tresanče, nr Debar, ?March 1819; d Tresanče, ?1872–3).

Macedonian painter. His autobiographical remarks in his manual on painting technology and iconography suggest that he studied wood-carving in his father’s workshop. Later he turned to icon painting and c. 1840 joined an itinerant group of Wallachian painters. After 1844 he became an independent icon painter, with his own workshop. In 1854 Krstev painted the portrait of Samuil, Abbot of Treskavec Monastery (Prilep, N. Mus.), thought to be his only attempt at rendering a secular subject. A prolific artist, he produced over 1500 icons and images for iconostases, processional icons, painted reliquaries, standards and pennants for churches, monasteries, refectories and secular residences in Macedonia, Albania, Bulgaria and Serbia. Krstev’s style blended the austerity of traditional Post-Byzantine symbolism with elements of Baroque ornament.

Skopje, N. & U. Lib. [MS. on painting technology and iconography] K. Balabanov: ‘Po povod sto godini od smrtta na Dičo Zograf Krstev od selo Tresanče’ [On the occasion of the hundredth anniversary of the death of Dičo Zograf Krstev from the village of Tresanče], ...


Jeremy Howard


(b Moscow, Feb 1, 1865; d Leningrad [now St Petersburg], July 1941).

Russian printmaker, illustrator and teacher. She first studied painting at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (1890–95), then settled in Paris (1895–1914), where she initially entered the Académie Vitty and began to be influenced by the Pont-Aven school (e.g. Breton Woman in Le Pouldu, 1897; St Petersburg, Soshal’skaya priv. col.). By 1902 Kruglikova had taken up etching under the guidance of Victor Roux-Champion (1871–1953). Experimenting in colour aquatints, she excelled in decorative landscape compositions. From 1906 she began to teach, at La Pallette and in her own studio on Rue Boissonade; her students included Maksimilian Voloshin, Veniamin Belkin (1884–1951), Ivan Yefimov (1878–1959) and Matvey Dobrov (1877–1958). In 1909 she turned to monotype as her foremost medium and in this attained her most expressive and original painterly effect (e.g. The Grand Fountains at Versailles and Tango at Luna-Park...


Myroslava M. Mudrak

[Krichevsky, Vasily]

(b Vorozhba, Kharkiv province, Jan 12, 1873; d Caracas, Venezuela, Nov 15, 1952).

Ukrainian architect, painter, illustrator and collector. He received no systematic artistic education and first became known because of his interest in Ukrainian folklore. His prizewinning design for the City Council building in Poltava (1900) formed the basis of a new style, founded on traditions of Ukrainian folk art, and initiated a movement in Ukrainian architecture. Among his other buildings are the People’s House in Lokhvitsa (1904) and the Shevchenko Memorial Museum in Kaniv (1931–4). As a painter, he was influenced by the French Impressionists. The pure, harmonious colours of his southern Ukrainian landscapes convey the lyrical atmosphere of his native land, and he took part in the annual exhibitions of the Union of Russian Watercolourists in St Petersburg (1899–1902) and in the exhibitions of Kiev painters (1910–13). Krychevsky was one of the founders of contemporary Ukrainian book design, reviving the technique of the woodcut and producing over 80 cover designs. He produced set and costume designs for 15 plays and operas in the Sadovs’ky Theatre in Kiev (...


Christoph Brockhaus

(Leopold Isidor)

(b Leitmeritz, northern Bohemia [now Litoměřice, Czech Republic], April 10, 1877; d Schloss Zwickledt, nr Wernstein, Aug 20, 1959).

Austrian draughtsman, illustrator, painter and writer. In 1892 he was apprenticed in Klagenfurt to the landscape photographer Alois Beer. Though learning very little, he remained there until 1896, when he attempted to commit suicide as a result of his unstable disposition. A brief period in the Austrian army in 1897 led to a nervous collapse, after which he was allowed to study art. In 1898 he moved to Munich, where he studied first at the private school run by the German painter Ludwig Schmidt-Reutte (1863–1909) and then briefly at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in the drawing class of Nikolaus Gysis in 1899. In Munich he first saw the graphic work of James Ensor, Goya, Max Klinger, Edvard Munch, Odilon Redon and Félicien Rops, finding Klinger’s work closest to his own aesthetic. He also read Arthur Schopenhauer’s pessimistic philosophy, which he found attractive, and befriended many artists, including the Elf Scharfrichter circle around Frank Wedekind. His work of the period largely consisted of ink and wash drawings modelled on Goya’s and Klinger’s aquatint technique. By their inclusion of fantastic monsters and deformed or maimed humans, these drawings revealed Kubin’s abiding interest in the macabre. Thematically they were related to Symbolism, as shown by the ink drawing ...


Danielle Peltakian

(b Brooklyn, NY, Oct 27, 1877; d White Plains, NY, July 13, 1949).

American painter, illustrator and lithographer. As an organizer of the Armory Show (1913) alongside Arthur B. Davies, he played an integral role in unveiling European modernism to the USA. While he painted landscapes of Maine, Cézanne-inspired still lifes and a series based on the American West, his expressive portraits of circus and vaudeville performers remain his best-known works.

In 1901, he trained at the Académie Colarossi in Paris, but soon transferred to the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich where he studied under Barbizon painter Heinrich von Zügel (1850–1941) until 1903. Upon returning to New York in 1903, he worked as an illustrator for publications such as Life and Puck, exhibited at the Salmagundi Club (1905) and organized artists’ balls for the Kit Kat Club. Working in an Impressionist style, he participated with Robert Henri in the Exhibition of Independent Artists (1910)....


Petr Wittlich


(b Opočno, Sept 22, 1871; d Puteaux, Paris, June 21, 1957).

Bohemian painter and graphic artist, active in France. A pioneer of European abstract painting, he first trained at the School of Arts and Crafts at Jaroměř under Alois Studnička (1842–1927). From 1887 until 1891 he studied at the Prague Academy of Fine Arts under Professor František Sequens (1836–96), a late Nazarene, who directed an atelier of religious painting. He continued his studies at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, Vienna (1892–3), under Professor August Eisenmenger (1830–1907). In 1894 he met the painter and natural philosopher Karl Diefenbach (b 1851), who impressed him with his ideas of a return to nature. Kupka’s paintings of this period (e.g. Quam ad causam sumus?, ?1894) are untraced. In 1895 he settled in Paris, earning his living as an illustrator for periodicals. In 1899 he exhibited a genre painting, the Bibliomaniac (Prague, N.G., Trade Fair Pal.), at the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts without notable success. He first achieved fame with his satirical cycles in anarchistic style, ...


N. A. Yevsina


(b Nikol’skoye-Cherenchitsy estate, nr Torzhok, 1751; d Moscow, 2/Jan 3, 1804).

Russian architect, theorist, illustrator, poet, Musician and inventor. An enlightened dilettante and encyclopedist from a princely family, he studied architecture on his own and travelled in western Europe (1775, 1776–7), above all in France and Italy. On his return to Russia L’vov worked at the Foreign Ministry and acquired a reputation as an architect from the early 1780s. His earliest works—the Neva Gate (1780–87) of the Peter and Paul Fortress in St Petersburg, the single-domed cathedral of St Joseph (1780–98) in Mogilyov and the similar five-domed church (1785–96) at the monastery of SS Boris and Gleb in Torzhok—are characterized by their austere simplicity, spareness of form and pronounced monumentality. They became the model for many Russian Neo-classical churches of the late 18th century and the early 19th. L’vov’s works for St Petersburg include the Post Office (1782–9), unexecuted designs for the Cabinet on the Nevsky Prospect (...


José Manuel Arnáiz

(b Puerto de Santa María, nr Cádiz, Nov 12, 1825; d Madrid, June 3, 1877).

Spanish painter. At the age of 15 he worked as an illustrator and then embarked on a military career that took him to Italy. Having abandoned this in order to devote himself entirely to painting and drawing, he continued to travel, visiting Morocco with Mariano José Bernardo Fortuny y Marsal in 1863 and later Egypt, Palestine and the Far East. He also spent long periods in Paris and Bordeaux. Lameyer’s painting was inspired by Francisco de Goya in its bold brushwork and glowing colour, but he is also recognized for his masterful use of line. His paintings reflect the exotic world encountered on his journeys; his best-known pictures are Fighting Moors, Moroccan Interior (both Madrid, Prado) and Travellers in the Desert (Madrid, Mus. Romántico). Lameyer was also notable as a copyist of paintings by Goya, some of his copies being long mistaken for Goya’s own work.

Thieme–Becker M. E. Gomez Moreno...


Ricardo Pau-Llosa

(b Cuba, 1818; d Cuba, after 1860).

Cuban lithographer and painter. Cuba’s mid-19th-century boom in printmaking was due to the packaging and advertising needs of its tobacco industry. Laplante was the finest Cuban lithographer of the period, collaborating often with Luis Barañano (fl 1856), Federico Mialhe (1825–1889), and other artists, and realizing the thirty-eight lithographs that illustrate Justo Cantero’s Vistas de los principales ingenios de Cuba (1857). Laplante’s detailed depictions of rural life in Cuba, particularly the sugar plantation, are invaluable windows into the period, as are paintings such as Trinidad, General View from the Loma de la Vigía (1852; Havana, Mus. N. B.A.).

Castro, M. de. El arte en Cuba. Miami, 1970, p. 38.Libby, Gary Russell. Two Centuries of Cuban Art, 1759–1959. Sarasota, FL, Ringling Mus. A.; Daytona Beach, FL, Museum of Arts and Scienes, 1980. Exhibition catalog.Ades, Dawn, Brett, Guy, Carlin, Stanton Loomis, and O’Neill, Rosemary...


Alberto Cernuschi

(b Narbonne, 1875; d Fontenay-aux-Roses, nr Paris, 1931).

French painter, watercolourist and illustrator. Laprade had good basic training, first at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts at Montauban and later at the Académie Carrière in Paris. He exhibited first at the Salon des Indépendants in 1901 and later showed his work regularly at the Salon d’Automne and at the Salon des Tuileries. A Post-Impressionist who looked above all to the example of Cézanne, he was also a great admirer of the work of 18th-century French painters, and it is their example that accounts for his loose, fluid brushstrokes, subdued colours, delicacy and tendency to sentimentality. He travelled often to Italy, making three prolonged visits there from 1908 to 1914, and underwent the influence of Italian artists such as Giovanni Fattori and Filippo Carcano. In his pictures he treated both intimiste interiors and melancholic landscapes, for example The Corn (1919; Paris, Pompidou) and the watercolour Les Alyscamps (Montpellier, Mus. Fabre). He also produced a number of suggestive views of French cities, for example ...


Brita Linde


(b Stockholm, May 28, 1853; d Falun, Jan 22, 1919).

Swedish painter, illustrator and printmaker. He came from a poor family and studied (1866–76) at the Konstakademi in Stockholm, supporting himself throughout this period. From 1871 to 1878 he contributed illustrations to the comic journal Kaspar and the Ny illustrerad tidning. From 1875, for several decades, he was a prolific book illustrator, his most renowned work in this field being his drawings for Fältskärns berättelser (‘The Barber-surgeon’s tales’; pubd 1883–4) by Zacharius Topelius, and the Rococo-inspired watercolours for the Samlade skaldeförsök (‘Collected attempts at poetry’; pubd 1884) by the 18th-century Swedish author Anna Maria Lenngren. It was only later, however, that Larsson produced most of his own prints.

From 1880 to 1885 Larsson lived in France, first in Paris, then from the spring of 1882 in Grez-sur-Loing, a village south-east of Paris where a Scandinavian artists’ colony had been established. Under the influence of the French ...


(b Fourquevaux, Haute-Garonne, March 28, 1838; d Paris, March 23, 1921).

French painter, illustrator and teacher. At an early age he took lessons from a Piedmont painter, Pédoya, who had come to Fourquevaux to decorate the village church. Pédoya was a harsh teacher, and Laurens moved to the nearby Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Toulouse. There he studied under Jean-Blaise Villemsens (1806–59), the professor of sculpture, who took a great interest in him. In 1858 he won the Prix de la Ville de Toulouse, which paid for him to complete his studies in Paris. There he was a pupil first of Alexandre Bida (1823–95) and then of Léon Cogniet. After a single unsuccessful attempt to win the Prix de Rome, he made his début at the Salon in 1863 with the Death of Cato (1863; Toulouse, Mus. Augustins), which already revealed his fascination for historical subjects.

Laurens’s first major success at the Salon came in 1872 with ...


Bernadette Thomas

(b Brussels, July 16, 1806; d Brussels, Nov 12, 1875).

Belgian printmaker, illustrator and painter. He studied under the sculptor Charles Malaise (1775–1836) at the Académie in Brussels from 1820 to 1823. From 1823 he worked for the Dewasme-Pletinckx Co. at the same time as Jean-Baptiste Madou and in the lithographic studios of Goubau. With the painter Théodore Fourmois he executed in 1839 an album depicting the abbey ruins at Villers-la-Ville. He illustrated several successful books including Les Environs de Brussels (12 lithographs; Brussels) and La Légende de Thyl Uilenspiegel (woodcuts; Brussels, 1868) by Charles de Coster.

Lauters was appointed professor of engraving in 1836 at the newly formed Ecole Royale de Gravure (which became part of the Académie in 1848). Lauters made his début as a painter at the Salon of 1841 in Kortrijk and regularly exhibited picturesque Belgian landscapes at the Brussels Salon. These are generally small in size and depict woodland scenes or river banks. He also executed some portraits, townscapes and genre scenes, and painted on porcelain, but he is principally known for his prints and illustrations. He was in addition drawing-master to members of the Belgian royal family....


(b Roermond, Aug 25, 1864; d Amsterdam, April 15, 1932).

Dutch architect, theorist, industrial designer, illustrator and teacher. He grew up in the artistic milieu around P. J. H. Cuypers and probably received most of his artistic education in this environment. Between 1880 and 1887 Lauweriks attended various drawing courses including in 1885–7 those at the Rijksnormaalschool voor Teekenonderwijzers in Amsterdam. In 1889 he became decoration draughtsman in Cuypers’s office. In 1891 he became a member of the architectural society Architectura et Amicitia and from 1893 was editor of the society’s journal Architectura. At the same time, together with his friends and colleagues K. P. C. de Bazel and Herman J. M. Walenkamp, he became involved with ethical–anarchist groups and produced illustrations for Licht en waarheid, the journal of the anarchist group Wie Denkt Overwint (Who thinks conquers).

On 31 May 1894, with de Bazel, Lauweriks joined the Theosophical Society. This brought him into strong conflict with Cuypers. He left the latter’s office in ...