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Christopher L. C. E. Witcombe

(Martínez [Martini; Martino] de)

(b ?Salamanca, Spain, 1478; d Rome, 5 July, 1562).

Spanish book and print publisher, active in Italy. Salamanca was in Rome by 1519 when he published Amadis de Gaula. Subsequently he published Ordo perpetuus divini officii secundu[m] Romana[m] Curia[m] (1520; printed by Antonio Blado), Esplandian (1525), La Celestina (c. 1525; with Jacopo Giunta), Antonio de Guevara’s Libro aureo de Marco Aurelio (1531), a Quignon Breviary (1535; with Giunta and Blado), Hernando da Salazar’s Las yglesias & indulgentias de Roma (1539), Las obras de Boscan (1547), a writing manual (1548; printed by the Dorico brothers) and Juan de Valverde’s Historia de la composicion del cuerpo humano (1556; with Antoine Lafréry). In 1538 he began also to publish prints. His address, often abbreviated (Ant. Sal. exc.), appears on the second or later state of over 250 prints. Of this number, at least 150 are by ...


Cheryl Leibold

American family of Philadelphia printmakers, printers, painters, and educators. John Sartain and his children, Emily and William, played an important role in the art world of Philadelphia for over a century. Their influence on American art lies primarily in the impact of their work example and leadership on others, and somewhat less from the value placed on their own artistic output. The patriarch, John Sartain (b London, 24 Oct 1808; d Philadelphia, PA, 25 Oct 1897), arrived in Philadelphia at the age of 22. By 1850 he was the city’s premier engraver of illustrations for a wide range of publications. His brilliant mezzotint engravings, often reproducing the work of others, brought graphic art into the homes of all classes. Reproductive engravings, either framed or in books, were widely popular before the advent of photography. Many writers promulgated the display of such prints as a means to refine and enlighten society. Sartain’s most successful endeavours in this field were his large and elaborate framing prints, commissioned by painters, collectors, and publishers to disseminate important works. The finest of these is ...


Christiaan Schuckman

(b Elberfeld, bapt Dec 26, 1660; d Amsterdam, 1713).

Dutch etcher, mezzotint engraver and publisher of German birth. He moved to Amsterdam while young and became a pupil of his future brother-in-law, Gerard Valck. With Valck he bought the property of the publisher Jan Jansz. in 1683–4. Schenck’s importance lies in his activities as a publisher of portraits and series of topographical prints, rather than in his achievements as an artist. Like Valck, he published various series of prints in colour. Except for a few portraits, most of his prints are reproductive. Almost 800 of the total of 986 prints attributed to him are mezzotints. However, most of the prints published under his name are etchings (e.g. the Finding of Moses, Hollstein, no. 987). Schenck successfully divided his business interests between the northern Netherlands and Germany, where he was mainly active in Leipzig. In choice of subject-matter and the selection of the artists whose work is reproduced, Schenck’s prints are representative of the taste predominant in the period between ...


David Alexander

Italian family of engravers and print publishers, active in London. Luigi [Lewis, Louis] Schiavonetti (b Bassano, 1 April 1765; d London, 7 June 1810) was a pupil of the painter Giulio Golini before learning to engrave. It is said that he made some imitations of Francesco Bartolozzi’s works for the engraver Gaetano Testolini, who passed these off as his own and was invited to England by Bartolozzi, with Luigi following in 1790. The critic William Paulet Carey wrote that ‘although not a pupil of Bartolozzi’ Luigi ‘had the advantage of his opinions and example’; he proved to be one of the ablest engravers of the day, capable of working in stipple, line and with the etching needle. The best-selling Cries of London, a set of thirteen stipple-engravings after Francis Wheatley, published (1793–7) by Colnaghi’s, were engraved under the direction of Luigi, who carried out six himself. By ...


(b Augsburg, c. 1455; d Augsburg, Feb 25, 1521).

German printer. Schönsperger was appointed imperial court printer to Habsburg, House of family §I, (3) , for whom he published a magnificent prayer book (1513) set in a specially-designed Gothic type and printed in ten copies on vellum. He also published the Emperor’s Theuerdank (1517). His son, Johann Schönsperger the younger (...


Linda Whiteley

(fl Paris, c. 1814–1850s).

French print publisher and dealer. By 1820 he was established in Paris as a dealer and was particularly associated with the work of Richard Parkes Bonington. He began to publish prints early in his career and, like his colleague John Arrowsmith, frequently employed the English artist S. W. Reynolds, whose mezzotints were admired in France during the 1820s. Schroth often published prints after popular Salon paintings by Paul Delaroche and Hortense Haudebourt-Lescot. His best-known print, published in 1827, was the Raft of the Medusa, engraved by Reynolds after the painting (1819; Paris, Louvre) by Gericault (see fig.). Schroth’s shop in the Rue de la Paix was under the patronage of the Duchesse de Berry. He specialized in prints of literary themes by the painters Delaroche, Alexander Colin (1798–1875) and Horace Vernet, and with Arrowsmith introduced the work of Constable to the French market. His relations with Constable were particularly cordial and sympathetic. It is evident from their correspondence that Schroth was an admirer of the free brushwork associated with the English school; this he contrasted favourably with the tighter execution common among contemporary French landscape painters. He had insufficient capital to keep it tied up in stock, and a financial crisis in ...


M. N. Sokolov

(Mikhaylovich) [Chemiakin, Mihail]

(b Moscow, May 4, 1943).

Russian painter, graphic designer, sculptor and publisher. One of the most important representatives of the St Petersburg tradition of nonconformist art, he was born to a military family and spent his early years in the German Democratic Republic. His family returned to the USSR in 1957 and until 1961 he studied at the secondary school of art attached to the Il’ya Repin Institute of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, Leningrad (now St Petersburg). His work combines the World of Art tradition with the surreal grotesque, portraying the world as a colourful carnival, intimidating in its terrifying metamorphoses, but drawing upon a wealth of artistic styles and psychologically striking tones. He was a master of the anarchic, bohemian life, and the poet Andrey Voznesensky (b 1933) described him as the ‘black prince of the Russian Underground’. After confrontations with the authorities, notably his participation in a group exhibition by underground artists of the ...


[Francis; Frantsisk]

(b Połack [Polotsk], c. 1485; d Prague, c. 1552).

Belarusian printer, woodcutter, scholar and Mystic. After early schooling in Połask, he graduated from Kraków University in 1506 and gained his doctorate in medicine at Padua University in 1513. In the interim he became secretary to John of Denmark (1481–1513) and acquired a grounding in the liberal arts, Classical languages, botany, astronomy, law and heraldry, as well as the mysticism of Pico della Mirandola (1463–94), whom he quoted. He mastered the south German style of woodcut and studied printing in northern Italy. There he moved in circles frequented by Albrecht Dürer, Johann Reuchlin, Paulus Riccius and Agrippa of Nettesheim and, like them, enjoyed the protection of the Habsburg emperor Maximilian. He shared the prevailing interest in allegory and the cabbala that had its centre in Prague, with its erudite Staronová (Old-New) synagogue. There, between 1517 and 1519, Skaryna translated and printed, in a Belarusian version of Old Slavonic, the Psalter and some 22 books of the Old Testament in a handsome typeface interspersed with rebuses and illustrated with a series of woodcuts and arcane decorated initials. Skaryna continued his work in Vilnius (...


Valerie Holman

(b Geneva, Aug 10, 1904; d Dully, Vaud, Sept 14, 1973).

Swiss publisher. He began his career in a bank and then worked as an entertainments organizer in luxury hotels in Switzerland where he encountered the writers, art collectors and bibliophiles who encouraged him in his ambition to become an art publisher. By 1928 he was running a small bookselling business and had adopted the changed orthography of his name. In 1931 he published his first book under the name Albert Skira Livres d’Art and his first Livre d’artiste, Ovid’s Les Métamorphoses (illustrated by Picasso; Lausanne). This was followed by seven others, including Stéphane Mallarmé’s Poésies (illustrated by Henri Matisse; Lausanne, 1932), Comte de Lautréamont’s Les Chants de Maldoror (illustrated by Salvador Dalí; Paris, 1934) and Virgil’s Bucoliques (illustrated by André Beaudin; Paris, 1936), all of which contained etchings in black and white. At the same time Skira was working on his project for a series of books on art to be illustrated entirely in colour, and the resulting 42 volumes of ...


Mariana Katzarova

[Sirak; Christov, Panayot Todorov]

(b Sliven, Oct 22, 1883; d Sofia, March 5, 1943).

Bulgarian painter, draughtsman, stage designer, writer, critic, editor and publisher. He studied (1908–12) under Léon Bakst at the Academy of Arts (Akademiya Khudozhestv) in St Petersburg and became a follower of the aesthetic concept of World of Art, dominated by the innovative decorative designs of Vera Komissarzhevskaya and Tairov. After he returned to Bulgaria, Skitnik was engaged in a variety of projects, writing poetry, critical reviews of exhibitions and plays and monographs on other artists such as Bencho Obreshkov. He also designed sets for the National Theatre (Naroden Teatâr) in Sofia. He painted mainly landscape and still-lifes in oils (e.g. Interior with Flowers, 1920), tempera (e.g. Russian Monastery, 1912), gouache (e.g. the Kiss of Judas, 1920; all Sofia, N.A.G.) and watercolour; he also drew in coloured pencil. During the 1920s and 1930s he became known in Bulgaria as an innovator who experimented with new problems of colour and form. Both his poetry and his original and highly emotional painting show his allegiance to the Symbolist movement. From ...


Geoffrey Ashton

(b Derby, 1752; d Doncaster, March 2, 1812).

English printmaker, publisher and painter. The youngest son of the landscape artist Thomas Smith of Derby (d Bristol, 12 Sept 1767), he was apprenticed to a linen draper at the age of ten and around 1767 became a linen draper’s assistant in London. He seems to have taught himself to paint miniatures and produced his first mezzotint in 1769, from Henry Benbridge’s portrait of General Pascal Paoli (San Francisco, CA Pal. Legion of Honor). Smith married and opened a draper’s shop in Exeter Exchange; about 1773 he began to engrave professionally and sold prints from the same shop.

Smith exhibited mezzotints at the Society of Artists from 1773 to 1777, most of which were copied from paintings by Royal Academicians. He was one of the most refined mezzotint engravers of the late 18th century; many of his plates, such as the Gower Family (1781) after George Romney or ...



Professional organization devoted to the study of architecture worldwide. Founded in 1940 by a small group of students and teachers attending summer session at Harvard University, the Society of Architectural Historians (SAH) has grown into the leading professional and scholarly organization in the world concerned with various aspects of the built environment. With a membership of around 2700, composed of architectural historians, architects, planners, preservationists, students, and other individuals interested in the subject, as well as nearly 1000 institutions worldwide, it publishes a scholarly periodical, the Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, whose topics range from antiquity to the present day around the world; a monthly electronic Newsletter; and a multi-volume book series of detailed guides to the architecture of the individual American states, Buildings of the United States (BUS). The Society sponsors an annual meeting, held each year in a different part of the USA or Canada, or occasionally elsewhere, where members present scholarly papers, discuss these papers and other architectural topics, explore the area via a series of tours, and learn of the award of a number of prizes for notable accomplishments in the field, as well as designation of Fellows of the Society for lifetime contributions to architectural history. These include four book awards, the Alice Davis Hitchcock, Spiro Kostof, Elisabeth Blair MacDougall, and Antoinette Forrester Downing, for architecture, the built environment, landscape architecture, and preservation, respectively; the Philip Johnson Exhibition Catalogue Award; the Founders’ Award for the best article published in the ...


Mendel Metzger

Family of Jewish printers, active in Italy, Turkey and Egypt. They originated in Germany but emigrated to Lombardy and settled in Soncino near Crema in 1454, taking the name of the town as their patronymic. Their first printing press was set up in Soncino by Yoshua (d 1493) and Moses (d 1489), sons of Israel Nathan (d 1492?), a physician. The family was active between 1483, the date of Yoshua’s first book, and 1562, when the 184th and last publication was printed by his great-great-nephew in Cairo. Seven family members were printers: Yoshua, his brother Moses, Moses’s sons Solomon and Gershom [Hieronymus Soncinus] (d 1534), Gershom’s children Moses and Eliezer (d 1547) and Eliezer’s son Gershom (d 1562). Yoshua published only Hebrew books (42 editions, all incunabula) during his short career (1483–9 in Soncino, 1489–92 in Naples). Gershom’s career, however, was one of the longest (...


Christine van Mulders


(b Haarlem, c. 1580; d Haarlem, Aug 16, 1657).

Dutch engraver, etcher, draughtsman, painter and publisher, active in Flanders. By 1615–16 he was apparently in Antwerp, working in the studio of Rubens; he later studied engraving with Jacob Matham. In 1619 he became a member of the Antwerp Guild of St Luke and in 1620 was granted citizenship, from which time he worked chiefly with Rubens. In 1624 he entered the service of King Sigismund III of Poland, who was then in the southern Netherlands, and, according to the inscription on an engraved portrait of the artist, he was still a court painter in 1628, the year he left Antwerp to return to Haarlem, where in 1633 he married. In the same year he became a commissioner of the Haarlem Guild of St Luke.

Soutman achieved great renown with his many reproductive prints after Rubens’s designs; these are executed in a refined combination of engraving and etching with a delicate pointillist style. Soutman’s style and technique were incapable, however, of reproducing the subtleties of Rubens’s work; his shadows lacked the combination of substance and transparency necessary to replicate Rubens’s use of line and colour. Soutman attempted to reproduce Rubens’s use of light with heavy contrasts and exaggerated outlines. While he was in Antwerp, Soutman produced mostly engravings after Rubens’s religious works executed before ...


Judith K. Golden

Anonymous collection of in-depth typologies, based on the idea that every event in the New Testament was presaged by an event in the Old Testament ( see Typological cycles ). The Speculum humanae salvationis appeared first in manuscript form, then as Block-book s and later as incunabula. Chief among possible sources for the text is Ludolphus of Saxony (c. 1300–77), with Conradus of Altzheim, Vincent of Beauvais, Henricus Suso and Nicholas of Lyra among others also suggested authors. Like copies of the earlier Biblia pauperum, tituli and captions identify events and figures, however the Speculum humanae salvationis augments these pictures with a text that explains the illustrations. Between the early 14th century and the end of the 15th, several hundred copies, nearly all illustrated, were produced and translated from the original Latin into German, French, English, Dutch and Czech.

Typically the manuscripts include a Prologue and Prohemium, of text only; followed by forty-two chapters with four miniatures atop four text columns each of twenty-five lines; closing with three chapters with eight miniatures devoted to the Seven Stations of the Passion, the Seven Sorrows and the Seven Joys of Mary, these last three chapters not being typological. Some manuscripts omit opening texts or the final three chapters. Each opening provides a meditative, typological diptych of four images and clarifying text, for example Christ and the Last Supper as the first image, followed by Moses and the Miracle of Manna; Moses and Passover; Abraham blessed by Melchisedek. The first image contains gospel citations; the last three have captions indicating their relationship to the first....


Sepp Kern

(b Pulsnitz, nr Dresden, Jan 28, 1938).

German printmaker, publisher and art dealer. He was self-taught as an artist and produced his first prints and posters in 1960. In 1965 he founded the publishing house Edition Tangente in Heidelberg (now Edition Staeck). In his mass-produced posters, postcards and stickers, aimed at a large audience, he used mainly collage and photomontage techniques. In terms of the social–critical message, the relation between image and text is of prime importance: Albrecht Dürer’s portrait drawing of his 63-year-old mother (1514; Berlin, Kupferstichkab.) was provocatively reproduced on a poster with the caption ‘Würden Sie dieser Frau ein Zimmer vermieten?’ (see 1978 exh. cat., no. 45). In the 1970s, when he actively worked for the political left, he achieved a great deal through irony. He also made purely textual posters (e.g. ‘Die Reichen müssen noch reicher werden’ and ‘Die Mieten müssen steigen—wählt christdemokratisch!’; see 1974 exh. cat., pp. 89–90). In numerous exhibitions and through his publishing house, he attempted to display the political components of art, and this led to a collaboration with ...


Mary Ann Smith

(b Osceola, WI, March 9, 1858; d Syracuse, NY, April 20, 1942).

American designer and publisher. During most of the period 1875–99, he worked in various family-owned furniture-manufacturing businesses around Binghamton, NY. He travelled to Europe in the 1890s, seeing work by Arts and Crafts designers. In 1898 he established the Gustave Stickley Company in Eastwood, a suburb of Syracuse, NY. The following year he introduced his unornamented, rectilinear Craftsman furniture inspired by the writings of John Ruskin and William Morris. He adopted a William Morris motto, ‘Als ik kan’ (‘If I can’), as his own and used the symbol of a medieval joiner’s compass as his trademark. In 1903 he dropped the ‘e’ in the spelling of Gustave.

Stickley published The Craftsman Magazine (1901–16), a periodical devoted to the Arts and Crafts Movement (see Craftsman Movement). The first issue was dedicated to Morris, the second to Ruskin. Most issues contained articles and illustrations of Craftsman furniture by Stickley. The periodical contained information on American and foreign designers, Japanese and Native American crafts, manual arts education, socialism, and gardens. The architect ...


Judith Zilczer

(b Hoboken, NJ, Jan 1, 1864; d New York, July 13, 1946).

American photographer, editor, publisher, patron and dealer. Internationally acclaimed as a pioneer of modern photography, he produced a rich and significant body of work between 1883 and 1937 (see fig.). He championed photography as a graphic medium equal in stature to high art and fostered the growth of the cultural vanguard in New York in the early 20th century.

The first of six children born to an upper-middle-class couple of German–Jewish heritage, Stieglitz discovered the pleasure of amateur photography after 1881, when his family left New York to settle temporarily in Germany. His father, Edward Stieglitz, had retired from a successful business in the wool trade with a fortune that enabled him to educate his children abroad. In 1882 Alfred enrolled in the mechanical engineering programme of the Technische Hochschule in Berlin, but he spent his spare time experimenting with photography in a darkroom improvised in his student quarters. His self-directed experiments led him to study photochemistry with the eminent scientist Hermann ...


Véronique Meyer

French family of artists. Louis Surugue [de Surgis] (b Paris, c. 1686; d Grand-Vaux, nr Savigny-sur-Orge, 6 Oct 1762) was a draughtsman, etcher and engraver, print-publisher and print-seller. He trained with Bernard Picart, whom he followed to the Netherlands in 1710. He returned to France in 1715, to combine his work as a printmaker with publishing and selling prints. In 1730 he was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale, and on 30 July 1735 was received (reçu) on presenting as morceaux de réception engraved portraits of the painters Joseph Christophe after François-Hubert Drouais, and Louis de Boullogne the younger after Antoine Mathieu. In the same year he purchased the post of Contrôleur Général des Rentes at the Hôtel de Ville, Paris. He contributed to most of the engraved collections which appeared during his lifetime: the Recueil Crozat (2 vols, Paris, 1729–42); the Galerie Royale de Dresde...


Marjorie Devon

Printing company based in Los Angeles, CA. The Tamarind Lithography Workshop, Inc. and the subsequent Tamarind Institute are recognized for their role in the preservation of the art of Lithography in the United States and abroad. While fostering the collaboration between an artist and a skilled master printer to make fine art lithography accessible to artists who work primarily in other media, Tamarind has established the highest quality standards for the field and initiated now commonly-followed procedures such as documenting edition details and affixing the symbols of the workshop and the printer on each impression. Tamarind’s research and experimentation have resulted in the development and refinement of processes and materials that have expanded the creative potential of the medium. Tamarind-trained printers hold teaching positions and have staffed or founded studios around the world. Hundreds of artists have made thousands of lithographs in collaboration with Tamarind printers and Tamarind lithographs have been exhibited in more than 50 countries....