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(b Seattle, WA, Aug 7, 1929).

American painter. Baer was educated at the University of Washington, Seattle. She worked during the spring and summer of 1950 on a kibbutz in Israel before moving to New York City, where she studied with the Graduate Faculty at the New School for Social Research from 1950 to 1953. In 1953, she married television writer Robert Baer and moved to Los Angeles, CA. Her son Joshua was born in 1955. By the late 1950s, she was working in an abstract painting style inspired by Abstract Expressionism, which she later rejected, and was peripherally associated with the activities of the avant-garde Ferus Gallery in Los Angeles.

In 1959, she began living with the artist John Wesley, whom she married in 1960 before moving back to New York City with him; they divorced in 1969. By 1960, her painting became more hard-edged and reductive. Two years later, she met Donald Judd and ...


Ellen Paul Denker

(b New York, Oct 27, 1886; d Columbus, OH, Feb 15, 1947).

American potter . As a student of Charles Fergus Binns at Alfred University, Alfred, NY, he was introduced to the practical aspects of running a pottery, and in 1904 Binns sent him to help Dr Herbert James Hall (1870–1923) to establish a pottery for occupational therapy at his sanatorium in Marblehead, MA. In 1908 the Marblehead Pottery was reorganized on a commercial basis. Baggs designed the wares, which were mostly simply shaped vases covered with muted matt glazes and contrasting stylized decorations. In 1915 Baggs purchased the pottery and continued to be associated with it until its closure in 1936. Between 1925 and 1928 he developed brilliant blue and green glazes while working as a glaze chemist at R. Guy Cowan’s, Cowan Pottery Studio in Cleveland, OH. In 1928 he became professor of ceramic arts at Ohio State University in Columbus. During the 1930s he revived interest in salt-glazing stoneware, and his ‘Cookie Jar’ (...


Gordon Campbell

(b 1689; d 1740).

American clockmaker. He was was born in England and emigrated c. 1710 to Boston, where he became the city’s first clockmaker; his products included eight-day clocks in pine and walnut cases. His business was carried on by his son Samuel till c. 1760. The most distinctive feature of Bagnall clocks is the relatively small size of the dial....


Christina Cameron

Canadian family of artists of French origin. The family dominated the artistic and cultural life of the city of Quebec for almost two centuries. They introduced the theories and practices of French classicism to Canada and sustained them well into the 19th century, when new styles and technologies took hold.

G.-F. Baillairgé: Notices biographiques, 4 vols (Joliette, 1891) A. J. H. Richardson and others: Quebec City: Architects, Artisans and Builders (Ottawa, 1984) C. Cameron and M. Trépanier: Vieux-Québec: Son architecture intérieure (Ottawa, 1986)

(bapt Blanzay, France, Oct 31, 1726; d Quebec, Sept 6, 1805).

Carpenter, sculptor and architect. As part of a campaign to improve the religious arts, Bishop Pontbriand, the sixth bishop of Quebec, brought Jean Baillairgé to New France in 1741. The craftsman applied his technical skills and basic knowledge of French academic classicism to his work in the colony, especially his carved decoration inside the churches of Quebec and its vicinity. His most important work was for Notre-Dame Cathedral (destr. ...


Raymonde Gauthier

(b Normandy, c. 1635; d at sea, 1698).

French architect and builder, active in Canada . He arrived in Quebec in 1675 and was contracted as a mason to the seminary of Quebec for three years. He probably assumed responsibility from 1675 for all buildings constructed on lands granted to the seminary, both within the town of Quebec and on the country estates owned by this association of French lay preachers. It is only from 1679, however, after his contract was terminated, that his name is found on legal documents associating him with private individuals or representatives of the civic authorities. In addition to his craft as a mason, Baillif also learnt to work in stucco. He appears to have been the only person then capable of creating decorative elements in this material, which was highly popular at that time both in the colony and in France. He came to dominate the building industry in Canada in the last quarter of the 17th century, and it appears that he alone in Quebec was able to provide both the plans on paper and the technical instructions required to construct large-scale religious and civil buildings, at least until the arrival (...


Richard Longstreth and John F. Pile

American architectural partnership formed in 1905 by John Bakewell Jr (b Topeka, KS, 28 Aug 1872; d San Francisco, CA, 19 Feb 1963) and Arthur Brown (b Oakland, CA, 21 May 1874; d Burlingame, CA, 7 July 1957). Both architects studied at the University of California, Berkeley, and then at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where they met. They then returned to the USA and went into partnership in San Francisco, with Brown in charge of design and Bakewell responsible for the daily running of the business and technical operations. The partnership’s early projects reflect late 19th-century French work, with large-scale elements, lavish sculptural decoration and, in some cases, theatrically rusticated surfaces. Such exuberant features remained a trademark, but by 1912 they were beginning to be tempered by a strong, rectilinear compositional frame. At its best, the expression fuses the dynamism and expansiveness of French Baroque with the elegant orderliness of designs by Anges-Jacques Gabriel and other 18th-century French Neo-classical architects....


Ellen Paul Denker

American glass factory founded in Pittsburgh, PA, by Edward Ensell and purchased by Benjamin Bakewell (1767–1844) and Benjamin Page in 1808. Its prominent role in the development of the American tableware industry in the 19th century made it the most famous glasshouse in Pittsburgh. Bakewell’s glasshouse produced the first successful lead crystal in America; it made the first American table glass ordered for the White House, Washington, DC, by James Monroe (1758–1831) in 1817 (untraced) and Andrew Jackson (1767–1845) in 1829 (Washington, DC, White House Col.); and it held the first recorded American patent for pressing glass (1825). The firm established Pittsburgh’s reputation for high-quality engraved glass; for example, in 1825, of the 61 workers in Bakewell’s factory, 12 were engravers and decorators. In addition to fancy table glass, the factory produced tubes for table lamps, globes, lanterns and apothecary’s equipment. Its glassware was free-blown, mould-blown, pressed lacy, pattern-moulded or cut and engraved (...


Elisabeth Roark

(b National City, CA, July 17, 1931).

American conceptual artist . After studying art at San Diego State College (1949–53) and the Otis Art Institute (1957–9), among other institutions, he began to develop his painting style, soon incorporating letters, words, and photographs in his works. By 1966 he was using photographs and text, or simply hand-lettered text, on canvas as in Semi-close-up of Girl by Geranium … (1966–8; Basle, Kstmus.). From 1970 he worked in printmaking, film, video, installation, sculpture, and photography. His work is characterized by a consciousness of language evident in his use of puns, semantics based on the structuralism of Claude Lévi-Strauss, and the incorporation of material drawn from popular culture. All are apparent in Blasted Allegories (1978; New York, Sonnabend Gal.), a series combining Polaroids of television images captioned and arranged to suggest an unusual syntax. Baldessari differed from other conceptual artists in his humour and commitment to visual images, often obscured by flat, brightly coloured geometric and organic shapes including round forms that he likened to bullet holes. Baldessari dramatized the ordinary, although beneath the apparent simplicity of his words and images lie multiple connotations....


Camara Dia Holloway

(b Virginia, 1825; d Honolulu, HI, May 3, 1904).

African American photographer. Ball’s parents, William and Susan Ball, were freeborn Americans of African descent. J. P. Ball learned how to make daguerreotypes from a black Bostonian, John P. Bailey. He opened his first photographic enterprise in Cincinnati, OH, in 1845. Black-owned businesses seemed viable in this abolitionist stronghold and key conduit to the West. After a failed first venture and time as an itinerant photographer, he returned and opened Ball’s Great Daguerrean Gallery of the West in 1849, which became one of the largest and most successful photographic studios in the region with an enthusiastic multi-racial clientele. Ball hired other African Americans as operators, including his brother, Thomas Ball, his brother-in-law, Alexander Thomas, and the African American landscape painter, Robert S. Duncanson.

An activist for abolition, Ball produced a painted panorama that illustrated the history of African enslavement in 1855 and authored the accompanying pamphlet to great acclaim. With a national reputation and important portrait commissions from such cultural icons as Frederick Douglass and Jenny Lind, Ball expanded with a second studio operated by his brother-in-law who had become a favorite with clients. Together they started an additional studio, the Ball & Thomas Photographic Art Gallery. Ball’s Cincinnati enterprises survived well into the 1880s in the hands of Thomas and other Ball relatives since they remained current with photographic technologies....


Pamela H. Simpson

(b Charlestown, MA, June 3, 1819; d Montclair, NJ, Dec 11, 1911).

American sculptor and painter, active also in Italy . Active in the mid-19th century, and for much of his career an expatriate in Italy, Ball is noted for his bronze portrait statues. Largely self-taught, he began as a painter in New England before turning to sculpture. In 1854 he settled in Italy and became an important part of the American expatriate community. He returned to Boston in 1857, but went back to Italy in 1865, where his house and studio became important stops for American artists and visitors. His pupils included Daniel Chester French and Martin Milmore (1844–83). Ball’s naturalistic style was little influenced by the Neo-classicism of contemporaries such as Hiram Powers. A pioneer in the popularization of mass-produced statuettes, he is best known for his public monuments, especially the equestrian statue of George Washington in the Boston Public Gardens and the Emancipation Group in Washington, DC.

Ball’s father was a sign painter, and both his parents were interested in music, a gift he shared. He supplemented his income early in his career by singing professionally. After his father’s death, he left school and worked at various jobs including cutting silhouettes and painting miniature portraits. His first sculpture success was with a cabinet-sized portrait of the Swedish soprano ...


Gordon Campbell

American silversmiths, active in New York. The company was founded by the silversmith Isaac Marquand in 1810, and traded as Marquand & Co. In 1839 the company was bought by Henry Ball, Erasus Tompkins and William Black, and was known as Ball, Tompkins & Black until 1851, when it became Ball, Black & Company. In ...


Damie Stillman and Beatrice B. Garvan

American city, the largest in the state of Maryland, with a population of just under 650,000 (and a wider metropolitan population of 2.7 million). Situated on the Patapsco River at the northern edge of Chesapeake Bay, Baltimore was named after the baronial title of the Calvert family. Established in 1729 as a tobacco port, it was incorporated as a city in 1797 and by 1800 was the third largest city in the country.

Damie Stillman

Baltimore’s architecture is a distinguished reflection of the city’s importance. Only a few buildings survive from the 18th century, including Mount Clare (1757–87) and Fort McHenry (1799–1805) designed by Jean Foncin (enlarged 1813–57), the defence of which in 1814 inspired the national anthem. The Federal period saw an outpouring of impressive buildings, especially the Roman Catholic Cathedral (1805–21; now Basilica of the Assumption) by Benjamin Henry Latrobe, a major example of international Neo-classicism. Also active here was Maximilian Godefroy, whose works include the Neo-classical First Unitarian Church (...


Mark Haworth-Booth

(b Newport Beach, CA, Sept 12, 1945; d Paris, Nov 22, 2014).

American photographer . He was a major force in the New Topographics movement in American photography and devised a technique that is cool, subtly considered, surgically executed and ironic. His principal photographic series, The New Industrial Parks near Irvine, California, Park City and San Quentin Point, together comprising the Industrial Trilogy, fuse Minimalist art conventions with cultural observation reminiscent of novelist Norman Mailer (1923–2007) in such works as The Executioner’s Song. His apparently expressionless but obsessive recording of industrial deserts takes on metaphorical overtones as a representation of an American wasteland. Baltz’s bleak vision of ‘landscape as real estate’ has found echoes in the work of many later photographic artists around the world. His work in the 1990s reflected his interest in surveillance and cybernetics. In 2003 Baltz became a Professor of Art at the University IUAV in Venice, Italy.

Baltz, Lewis The New Industrial Parks near Irvine, California...



Elizabeth K. Mix

(b Bristol, ?1974).

English graffiti and interventionist artist. Banksy is best known for stencilled graffiti that sometimes mimics government posts. His graffiti, both freehand and stencil, started appearing on trains and walls around Bristol in 1992–4. He apparently left Bristol for London late in 1999. The name ‘Banksy’ became formally associated with his work with the publication of his first book, Banging Your Head Against a Brick Wall (2001).

Banksy’s text-based graffiti has included the phrase, ‘caution, concealed trap doors in operation’, on London’s Millennium Bridge; ‘designated riot area’ in Trafalgar Square, and ‘this is not a not a photo opportunity’ at various tourist sites including Big Ben, the Eiffel Tower, and the Sydney Opera House. Many were fooled by his official-looking stencilled declaration that walls on Marylebone and Bayswater Roads in Westminster were ‘a designated graffiti area’. Other works contained unusual appropriations of public property—vandalized street signs, traffic cones, telephone booths, vehicles, and even farm animals. Banksy has termed his appropriation and manipulation of public advertisements ‘Brandalism’. A subtle use of found objects involves the painting of frames or dotted lines and scissors around the edges of objects, making the outlined objects appear to be either artworks or coupons ready to be clipped. In addition, Banksy has mimicked British pound notes (‘Banksy notes’ featuring Princess Diana) and oil paintings by William Bouguereau and Claude Monet, among other artists, by inserting incongruous objects (bombs, iPods, shopping trolleys) into copies of well-known paintings in a series of ‘Vandalized Oil Paintings’....


(b St Andrews, NB, 1833; d Providence, RI, Jan 9, 1901).

American painter . Bannister grew up in St Andrews, a small seaport in New Brunswick, Canada. His interest in art was encouraged by his mother, and he made his earliest studies, in drawing and watercolour, at the age of ten. After working as a cook on vessels on the Eastern seaboard, he moved in 1848 with his brother to Boston, where he set up as a barber serving the black community. During the 1850s and 1860s he learned the technique of solar photography, a process of enlarging photographic images that were developed outdoors in daylight, which he continued to practise while working in Boston and New York. Documented paintings from this time include religious scenes, seascapes and genre subjects, for example the noted Newspaper Boy (1869; Washington, DC, N. Mus. Amer. A.), a rare study of urban black experience.

In 1870 Bannister and his wife moved to Providence, RI, where his work flourished and his paintings were collected by such patrons as ...


William L. Hendricks

Christian Nonconformist denominations, basically Calvinist in theology. The Baptist tradition has roots in 16th-century Swiss Anabaptism and among the English Baptists of the 17th century. Their distinctive beliefs include baptism by immersion of self-professed believers, the separation of Church and State, the priesthood of all believers and a stress on biblical authority. Congregationalists, related to the European Reformed tradition and English separatists, are distinguished by the congregational form of church government and freedom for all believers using the Church and commonwealth as instruments of a theocratic society. Churches were established in North America in the early 17th century: the Congregationalists (Pilgrims and Puritans) in 1611 and 1623 and the Baptists in 1638–9. Both traditions made missionary inroads in Africa and the East, while Baptists also found converts in Europe, notably in 19th-century Russia. By the second half of the 20th century there were more than 50 groups of Baptists in the USA. American Congregationalists became part of the United Church of Christ in ...


Matico Josephson

(b Lithuania, 1920; d New York, March 6, 1998).

American painter and teacher of Lithuanian birth. Baranik migrated to the United States in 1938 and served in the US Army in World War II. He studied at the Art Institute of Chicago (1946–8) and at the Art Students League in New York, where he met painter May Stevens, whom he later married. Stevens and Baranik lived in Paris from 1948 until the end of 1951, initially studying at the Académie Julian; Baranik then studied in the atelier of Fernand Léger (1881–1955).

In 1952, Baranik first showed at the ACA Gallery in New York, which represented prewar realist school painters. He left the gallery in 1955, joining the Roko Gallery by 1958. Through contact with the Abstract Expressionists, and especially with fellow Lithuanian Ad Reinhardt (1913–67), Baranik moved away from the rough materiality of his Parisian work. In the 1960s, figural elements appear on large canvases that he treated like color field paintings....


Lawrence E. Butler

(b Bellefonte, PA, May 24, 1863; d New York, April 24, 1938).

American sculptor and collector. Son of a Presbyterian minister, Barnard grew up in the Midwest and began studying at the Chicago Academy of Design in 1880 under Douglas Volk (1856–1935) and David Richards (1829–97). Here he was first introduced to plaster casts of Michelangelo’s works and to the casts of Abraham Lincoln made by Leonard Volk (1828–95) in 1860, both clearly influential on his subsequent career. In 1883 he went to Paris, where he enrolled in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and worked with Pierre-Jules Cavelier. Barnard’s sculptures are noted for their spiritual, allegorical, and mystical themes and were done in the expressive modelling style of the period.

Alfred Clark, wealthy heir to the Singer fortune, became Barnard’s patron in 1886. Through Clark and his Norwegian companion Lorentz Severin Skougaard, Barnard was introduced to Nordic themes. Clark commissioned important marble pieces including Boy (1884...


R. L. Harley

(b CT, Dec 23, 1819; d Cedarville, NY, Feb 4, 1902).

American photographer . Barnard began to take photographs c. 1842 and opened a daguerreotype studio in Oswego, NY, in 1843. His two views of a fire at Ames Mills, Burning Mills at Oswego, NY, [5 July] 1853 (Rochester, NY, Int. Mus. Phot.), are remarkable examples of early daguerreotype reportage. In the same year he was secretary of the New York State Daguerrean Association. After purchasing Clark’s Gallery, Syracuse, in 1854, he began to produce ambrotypes; in the latter half of the decade he learnt the collodion process.

Barnard took photographs in Cuba in 1860, but these works are untraced. Shortly before the American Civil War (1861–5), he was employed by Mathew B. Brady in New York and, possibly, Washington, DC. Barnard made some of his earliest known collodions with J. B. Gibson at Bull Run, VA, the site of the first major land battle of the Civil War (e.g. ...


M. Sue Kendall

(b Philadelphia, PA, Jan 2, 1872; d Chester County, PA, July 24, 1951).

American chemist and collector. Barnes made his fortune after discovering the drug Argyrol in 1902. By 1907 he had become a millionaire. He and his wife moved to the suburb of Merion on Philadelphia’s affluent Main Line and with his new income began to collect paintings of the Barbizon school. In 1910 he renewed contact with a former school friend, William J. Glackens, who introduced him to the works of Maurice Prendergast, Alfred H. Maurer and Charles Demuth, and who encouraged Barnes to collect Impressionist and Post-Impressionist paintings instead of Barbizon works. In 1912 Barnes gave Glackens £20,000 to go to Paris and buy whatever art he saw fit. Glackens, with the help of Maurer, acquired for Barnes works by Renoir, Degas, van Gogh, Cézanne, Monet, Gauguin, Pissarro, Sisley and Seurat. In Paris, Glackens introduced Barnes to Gertrude and Leo Stein, through whom he became familiar with the work of Picasso and Matisse....