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J. M. M. Kylstra-Wielinga

Dutch 18th-century manor house near Warmond in the province of South Holland. It was constructed on the site of fortifications dating from c. 1250, incorporating traces of medieval architecture. The original timber structures were replaced by buildings that were subsequently damaged by fire in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries and rebuilt each time on the old foundations. A 16th-century drawing makes it possible to reconstruct the medieval original, when the castle consisted of a square ground-plan of four wings and four corner towers set around an interior court, the whole surrounded by a moat. The living-quarters were in the north and east wings. The massive west tower was once assumed to have been the keep, but the thickness of its walls (0.9–1.2 m) and its dimensions (7×7 m) are too small for this purpose. In 1629 the castle was given a new entrance range by Salomon de Bray, featuring pilasters and a broad pediment. The south tower, originally octagonal, was replaced by a square one after ...


Ernst Ullmann

Castle near Eisenach, Germany. It represents the claims to power and the self-assurance of the medieval landgraves of Thuringia. A centre of court culture in the 13th century—a legendary contest for the Minnesänger, or singers of courtly love, is supposed to have taken place in 1206–7—it was also the home from 1211 to 1227 of St Elizabeth , wife of the Landgrave Ludwig IV. In 1262 the castle passed to the House of Wettin, and it belonged to the Electors of Saxony from 1423 to 1547. Martin Luther lived there from 1521 to 1522, translating the New Testament into German. In 1741 the castle came into the ownership of the Dukes of Saxe-Weimar and became a symbol of German history and culture, inspiring the work of Goethe, Liszt, and Wagner. The Wartburgfest of German student fraternities took place there in 1817.

Founded by Ludwig der Springer, the castle is first mentioned in ...


Dethard von Winterfeld

Former abbey church, c. 20 km north-west of Chemnitz, Germany. Count Dedo von Groitzsch (d 1190) had the church built for the Augustinian abbey of Heiligen Kreuz at Zschillen between 1160 and 1180. There was a consecration in 1168, probably only of the east part. From 1278 to 1543 the church belonged to the Teutonic Order and was rededicated to SS Maria und Johannes Evangelista. It is clear from the structure that the church was built in stages from east to west. The five-bay basilica originally had a flat ceiling supported on squat piers. The crossing arches are supported on cruciform piers and the transepts, almost square, have eastern apses; of the south apse only the arch survives. The chancel is slightly rectangular and is closed by a semicircular apse. The northern side apse is incorporated in a two-storey annexe to the chancel, presumably intended as the sacristy. The hall crypt below the chancel, which extended as far as the crossing, was demolished in ...


Reinhard Zimmermann

German castle on the River Tauber in the province of Baden-Württemberg; the seat of the Counts (later Princes) of Hohenlohe. In 1586 Wolfgang II, Count of Hohenlohe (1546–1610), began the conversion of the medieval moated castle into a prestigious residence. The design by Georg Robin (d 1590) probably envisaged a building on the ground-plan of an equilateral triangle, but only the south wing (1595–1603), built by Wolf Beringer, was completed. Its exterior was adorned with six scrollwork gables (1598). The large Rittersaal, one of the most elaborate of the period, has a coffered wooden ceiling by Elias Gunzenhäuser ( fl 1583–1606), the coffering filled with realistic hunting scenes (1600–01) by Balthasar Katzenberger ( fl 1600–13). The Renaissance garden (c. 1600) beyond the moat was replaced in 1708 by a Baroque garden designed by Daniel Mathieu. Garden sculptures (...


Christina Thon

Pilgrimage church situated 3 km south-east of Steingaden in Upper Bavaria, Germany. An outstanding work of Bavarian Rococo, it stands in a forest meadow against a background of the Trauchgau Mountains. It is the last collaborative work of the brothers Johann Baptist Zimmermann and Dominikus Zimmermann. About 1743 Abbot Hyazinth Gassner (d 1745) of the Premonstratensian monastery of Steingaden commissioned Dominikus Zimmermann to design a church to house a miraculous image of the Flagellation; Wies Church was executed in 1745–57. The nave, an elongated oval surrounded by eight pairs of supports in an alternately wide and narrow spacing ( see fig. ), opens on to an ambulatory. On the west side a vestibule with organ gallery was added, to the east a long choir with an apsidal end, flanked at ground-floor level by an ambulatory and on the upper floor by galleries. On the east side a tower and the priest’s house adjoin the building....


Christopher Wilson and Mark Stocker

English castle and royal residence in Berkshire.

One of a series of castles that William I (reg 1066–87) established around London, Windsor occupied the nearest strong point in the Thames Valley to the west of the city. From William’s reign date the motte and also the distinctive elongated arrangement of lower, middle, and upper baileys that exploits the lie of the land at the top of a great chalk cliff south of the river. By the reign of Henry I (reg 1100–35) the creation of a large hunting forest, together with the proximity of London, made this a favoured royal residence as well as a fortress. The Round Tower, the stone shell-keep on the motte, may date from this time. The systematic replacement of timber defences by stone walls with rectangular interval towers was begun by Henry II in 1165, but work on the lower bailey was unfinished at his death in ...


Margaret Moore Booker

(World’s Columbian Exhibition, Chicago)

Landmark structure built for the World’s Columbian Exposition held in Chicago in 1893 that was administered, designed, and decorated entirely by women. The Woman’s Building was the most publicized exhibition of women’s art in the 19th century.

A national competition for the building was held, to which 13 designs were submitted by women architects. Sophia G. Hayden (1868–1953) of Jamaica Plains, MA, won first place; her impressive three-story Italian Renaissance-style structure—featuring center and end pavilions, multiple arches, and columned terraces—blended perfectly with the classical architecture of the Exposition. Praised for its “delicacy of line and grace of detail,” the building was recognized by national architectural journals.

Built for $200,000 on the west side of a lagoon, it was approximately 120×60 m and contained a large central Hall of Honor surrounded by meeting rooms (where conferences were held on advancing the rights of women), a library (designed by Candace Wheeler), and a roof-garden restaurant....



J. J. Martín González

Hieronymite monastery, near Plasencia, province of Cáceres, Spain. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor ( see Habsburg, House of family §I, (5) ), retired to Yuste after his abdication in Brussels in 1556, and he lived there from February 1557 until his death on 21 September 1558. The building was begun in 1415 and was built under the patronage of the Condes de Oropesa (Alvarez de Toledo); part of the existing monastery dates from this time. Following the Emperor’s choice of Yuste, he sent plans for a new wing and detailed instructions for his personal requirements, and the enlargement was carried out in 1554–5 by Fray Antonio de Villacastín (1512–1603). It has been said that its style is derived from the house where Charles V was born in Ghent. The palace of Yuste was constructed of brick and masonry in a series of monolithic blocks along simple lines and without decoration. It is built on two floors with similarly disposed rooms, one floor for winter and the other for summer. Each floor contains a central corridor with access to the four rooms. Because of the Emperor’s poor health a ramp connected the ground floor to the first floor. On the first floor the ramp leads to a spacious terrace overlooking the magnificent landscape and valley of La Vera, from which there is access to the choir of the church, which the Emperor used. On the right of the entrance on each floor are an antechamber and chamber communicating with two other small rooms, belvederes resembling those in the towers of the Alhambra in Granada....


H. Soukupová

[Ger. Klingenberg]

Castle in the southern Czech Republic. It was the private seat of Vaclav I (reg 1230–53) and Přemysl Ottokar II. First mentioned in 1234, it was founded at a strategically important position above the confluence of the Vltava and Otava rivers. To the east and west the headland is protected by abrupt cliffs, with the Otava on the north side. The oldest part of the castle is the great square tower built of rusticated ashlar masonry typical of Hohenstaufen architecture. It faces the south end of the headland and is protected by a moat. On the ground floor it had a single rib-vaulted bay, the ribs descending to pyramidal consoles. The square wall-ribs and the vault webs are of brick with surviving impressions of the original wooden centering. The space was lit by two arrow-slits and was accessible through a passageway with two doorways with pointed arches. The living-room on the first floor had groin vaults supported by corbels on a string course. There were further rooms to the east and west of the tower. The south range retains its early form, with two rib-vaulted rooms on the ground floor and an asymmetrical wooden-roofed entrance hall leading from the courtyard, giving access to the ground floor of the tower and to two rooms of the palace. The resemblance of the tower vault mouldings to those in the Cistercian abbeys at Zwettl and Lilienfeld indicate that the first masons’ workshop in Zvíkov came from the Danube area of what is now Austria....