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Gordon Campbell

German family of printers. Günther Zainer (b Reutlingen; d Buxheim, 13 April 1478) seems to have been trained in the workshop of Johann Mentelin (c. 1410–78) in Strasbourg, and in 1468 he established the first printing workshop in Augsburg. His publications include the first illustrated Bible (1475), the first printed edition of the De imitatione Christi of Thomas à Kempis and an edition of the 13th-century Golden Legend (Lombardica historia) of the Genoese hagiographer Jacopo da Voragine in which the lives of the saints are illustrated with 231 woodcuts. Johann Zainer (b Reutlingen; d Ulm, c. 1523), who was probably Günther’s brother, moved to Ulm in the early 1470s, where he established a printing workshop that specialized in illustrated books. In 1476 he published the first edition of Aesop’s Fables in German.

A. Fujii: Günther Zainers druckersprachliche Leistung: Untersuchungen zur Augsburger Druckersprache im 15. Jahrhundert, ...


Marjorie Trusted

( fl Ávila, 1499 d Ávila, 1524).

Spanish sculptor and architect . He may have trained in Italy, whence he introduced Italian Renaissance forms to New Castile, particularly in Ávila. In 1499 he established himself at Ávila as a carver in alabaster. He was also active as an architect, and in 1508 he was involved with the reconstruction of the cloisters in Ávila Cathedral. He carved the wall tomb (c. 1515) of Archbishop Alonso Carrillo de Albornoz in the chapel of S Ildefonso, Toledo Cathedral, a work with a strong Italianate influence perhaps partly due to the presence of Domenico Fancelli in Ávila. The monument is in the form of a triumphal arch, but all surfaces are carved with a profusion of decorative motifs reminiscent of the Lombard school. In 1518 de la Zarza completed the monument to Bishop Alonso de Madrigal, known as El Tostado, in the trasaltar mayor (the area behind the altar) of Ávila Cathedral. The seated figure of the bishop writing at a lectern is dramatically posed, and the work displays virtuoso carving of the drapery. In ...


Janice Shell


Italian family of painters . The earliest member of the family documented as a painter was Cristoforo (di Francesco) Zavattari ( fl Milan, 1404–9; d Milan, before 24 Jan 1414). Members of the family continued to work as painters in Lombardy until the mid-16th century. In 1404 Cristoforo was employed by the Fabbrica (Cathedral Works) of Milan Cathedral to examine and assess the value of stained-glass windows executed by Niccolò da Venezia fl 1391–1415); in 1409 he gilded a capital destined for one of the pilasters in the cathedral’s apse and several other figures. In February 1417 Cristoforo’s son, Franceschino (di Cristoforo) Zavattari ( fl Milan, before 1414; d Milan, 1453–7), was employed by the cathedral deputies to design and paint a large number of stained-glass windows, illustrating New Testament scenes; although he began work on the windows and was paid for what he did, nine months later the project was given to ...



Muslim dynasty that ruled in parts of the Yemen from the late 9th century ad to the 20th. The Zaydi imams traced their descent to the Prophet Muhammad and took their name from Zayd (d ad 740), the son of the fourth Shi‛ite imam. The Zaydi imamate in the Yemen was established by Yahya al-Hadi (854–911) who arrived there in 889, but his austere code of behaviour initially won little success and he was forced to leave. He returned in 896 and established his seat at Sa‛da, to the north of San‛a’. He won the allegiance of several tribes by acting as a mediator in tribal disputes, but his influence remained precarious. After his death his followers remained in the Yemen, and the Zaydi imamate continued to claim authority by divine right, although there was no strict dynastic criterion for the election of imams. Based in the north of the country, the power of the Zaydi imams varied over the centuries; occasionally it reached as far as San‛a’. The movement was forced underground by the advent of the ...


Gordon Campbell

(b, c. 1450; d before 1519).

Swiss glass stainer. His workshop in Zurich produced small heraldic panels in the Gothic style; the fine detail was achieved by scratching flashed glass with a quill. There are examples of his glass in the Schweizerisches Landesmuseum in Zurich and (since 2000) in the Metropolitan Museum in New York....


Hans Georg Gmelin

(b Nördlingen, 1455–60; d Nördlingen, c. 1520).

German painter . He is famed for the distinctive style of his altarpieces, which served as a model for Swabian painting in the early 16th century and was later much admired by the Romantics. Zeitblom’s family moved to Nördlingen under his grandfather Lienhard. There he married a daughter of the painter Friedrich Herlin, though no trace of Herlin’s work shows in Zeitblom’s altarpieces. In 1482 he became a citizen of Ulm, where he seems soon to have made contact with the leading master Hans Schüchlin, one of whose daughters later became his second wife. Besides his connections with leading families in Ulm, Zeitblom had noble patrons like the knight Georg von Ehingen, Peter von Hewen, and the families von Rechberg, von Limpurg and Öttingen, enabling his altarpieces to receive a wide distribution throughout the Swabian Alps and the Danube region of Upper Swabia.

Zeitblom’s characteristic style, which was developed but not decisively altered in his later work, is first apparent in the altarpiece from ...


Bertrand Jestaz

(b Venice, 1439; d Padua, May 8, 1501).

Italian cardinal and patron . He was the nephew of Pope Paul II, whose patronage, with that of his successors, assured Zen a brilliant ecclesiastical career. He was renowned for his haughtiness, wealth and munificence; his status is reflected in the buildings and furniture that he commissioned. In Rome he had a palace (destr. 19th century) built next to the portico of St Peter’s, and he furnished and decorated the ‘casino’ of Cardinal Bessarion. His episcopal palace in Vicenza was enriched by a double loggia (1494) built over the courtyard in an advanced style.

In his will, Zen left considerable sums for the rebuilding of the choir of Vicenza Cathedral and that of the church of S Fantin in Venice; for the construction of a commemorative chapel in the basilica of S Antonio (Il Santo), Padua; and for his funerary monument in S Marco, Venice. Zen, inspired by Donatello’s high altar in Il Santo, ordered an altar laden with bronze statues to be built in each of these churches, but only the directives concerning his tomb were fulfilled, and these not precisely. A chapel was adapted by ...


Janice Shell

(b Treviglio, c. 1464; d Milan, Feb 10, 1526).

Italian painter and architect . In 1481 Zenale was already a qualified master and a member of the Scuola di S Luca, the painters’ guild, in Milan. In 1485 he and Bernardino Butinone were hired by Simone da San Pellegrino and other officials of S Martino, Treviglio, to paint a large altarpiece for the high altar (in situ); the carving of the frame was subcontracted to Ambrogio and Giovanni Pietro Donati. By January 1491 the altarpiece had been installed, and Zenale and Butinone made a final payment to the Donati brothers. The two-tiered polyptych, in an elaborate pedimented frame, shows the Virgin and Child, St Martin and the beggar and other saints. The architectural setting for each group, shown in steep perspective, is festooned with swags and encrusted with decorative patterning.

During the 1480s and early 1490s Zenale frequently worked with Butinone: from these years date the decorations, including Dominican saints, for the nave of S Maria delle Grazie, Milan (...


James Cahill

[Chin. Zhe pai]

Term used to refer to a school of Chinese painting within the Ming period (1368–1644). Derived from the south-eastern coastal province of Zhejiang, the name has been in common usage since the early 17th century. However, the definition and art-historical boundaries of the Zhe school are far from clear, since many of its artists are also included in the ‘Ming academy’, an equally problematic term loosely applied to a group of painters serving at the imperial court in the 15th and 16th centuries. It is true that the designation of a Zhe school as a local phenomenon has some validity in that many of its members, and notably its founder, Dai Jin, were from Zhejiang. Moreover, Zhe school masters followed an older, conservative stylistic tradition, that of the Southern Song (1127–1279) Academy ( see China, People’s Republic of, §V, 4, (i) ), centred from its beginnings in the Hangzhou region of Zhejiang. Nevertheless, the school also included artists from other parts of China and drew on different stylistic traditions. In the end it seems best to retain both the term ‘Zhe school’ and the term ‘Ming academy’, while admitting that they do not define either a truly local school, in the strict sense, or an organized academy....


Richard Edwards

[Shen Chou; zi Qi’nan; hao Shitian]

(b Xiangcheng, nr Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1427; d Xiangcheng, 1509).

Chinese painter, calligrapher and poet. He is generally considered to be the leading literati master of his time, the artist to whom the establishment of the Wu school is most often and aptly attributed. Wu was the ancient geographical area centred on the city of Suzhou, where Shen Zhou lived all his life. Artists of the Wu tradition (not a school in the strict sense) were literati or scholar-amateurs who emphasized the importance and interdependence of poetry, painting and calligraphy. Their aesthetic ideals and aims were thus in direct contrast with those of the professional and court painters of the Zhe school, the leading exponent of which was Dai Jin.

Shen’s ancestors suffered substantial losses in the turmoil that accompanied the end of the Yuan dynasty (1279–1368). When Shen’s great-grandfather, Shen Liangchen (1340–1409), established the family estates at Xiangcheng, c. 16 km north-east of Suzhou, on a flat plain honeycombed with watercourses, he laid the foundations for the family’s renewed prosperity. Shen Zhou represented a fourth generation of wealth, high social position and deep knowledge of China’s cultural traditions. Shen Liangchen had been a younger friend of the Yuan-period painter Wang Meng, and Shen’s grandfather, ...


Thomas Tolley

[ Marco di Ruggero ; Lo Zoppo ]

(b Cento, nr Bologna, ?1432; d Venice, ?1478).

Italian painter .

The earliest dated notice of Zoppo is an agreement of 24 May 1455 concerning his legal adoption by the Paduan painter Francesco Squarcione. The document indicates that at the time it was drawn up Zoppo had been living in Squarcione’s house for about two years and at 23 years old was already recognized as a painter of considerable ability. According to the agreement, Squarcione, who was childless and had recently become a widower, acknowledged Zoppo as his sole heir in return for Zoppo’s work in painting.

The contract, however, was short-lived. By October of the same year, Zoppo had left Squarcione and was living in Venice. Two documents record the terms by which the adoption agreement was to be annulled and the arrangements drawn up not only to compensate Zoppo for work he had executed for which Squarcione had received payment, but also to cover Squarcione’s costs for having provided Zoppo with lodging and artists’ materials. Clearly Zoppo quickly discovered that the conditions placed on him by Squarcione were not to his advantage. Like other young artists who came into contact with Squarcione, most notably Andrea Mantegna, who had a similar experience in the late 1440s, Zoppo soon realized that his success as an artist rested on gaining his freedom, even though this could be achieved only by relinquishing his rights to Squarcione’s substantial estate....