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[République du Chad]

Country in north-central Africa, bordered by Libya to the north, Sudan to the east, Cameroon and Central African Republic to the south and Niger and Nigeria to the west. Chad became independent in 1960. The capital is N’Djamena (formerly Fort Lamy). Chad has a sparse population of 5,538,000 (UN estimate, 1989) in its area of c. 1,284,000 sq. km. French and Arabic are the official languages, but more than 100 other languages and dialects are spoken by the diverse population. Islam is dominant in the north and east and in most major towns, while in the south there are also some Christian communities as well as those following traditional African religions. The climate ranges from full desert in the north to savannah in the south. The majority of the population pursues nomadic herding or subsistence agriculture. The area of Chad was occupied by a number of peoples and civilizations before coming under French control in ...


Richard Fardon

Term denoting both a people, whose pre-19th-century homelands stretched from the western fringes of the Shebshi Mountains in present-day Nigeria to the River Faro in present-day Cameroon in the east, and a 20th-century self-identification of a number of groups in both north-eastern Nigeria and north-western Cameroon. This complex ethnic term derives from the names Sama in Daka and Samba in Leko. It was popularized as an inclusive ethnic term during the colonial period and has since been used by Chamba for self-identification in national contexts. Linguistic, political, social and cultural variation among Chamba groups is very marked and makes generalization difficult (for a detailed account, see Fardon, 1988). Chamba art forms, mainly masks and figure sculpture, have been relatively understudied in the field. Museum collections have yet to be adequately researched, but Chamba art may be found in the Linden Museum, Stuttgart, the Museum für Völkerkunde, Hamburg, the British Museum, London, the Museum für Völkerkunde, Berlin, the Museum of the Philadelphia Civic Center, Philadelphia, PA, the National Musuem, Jos, and the National Museum, Lagos....


T. W. Potter

[Phoen. Iol; Lat. Caesarea; Fr. Charachel]

Algerian seaport with a sheltered anchorage and a hinterland of fertile valleys, set amid high mountains. It was settled at least as early as 600 bc, probably by Carthaginians, who called it Iol. It rapidly grew into a prosperous trading post that had town defences by 200 bc. Its most illustrious ruler was Juba II of Mauretania (reg 25 bcad 23), who, educated in Rome and a friend of Augustus, sought to make his city as Greco-Roman in appearance as possible. Iol was renamed Caesarea, and, with the help of imported craftsmen, many public buildings of Roman type were built, including a theatre, an amphitheatre, a forum, a palace and huge town walls. Juba also acquired much fine Classical sculpture (Cherchel, Mus. Archéol.) and some ancient Egyptian objects.

In ad 40 Caesarea was made capital of the province of Mauretania Caesariensis, and under Claudius (reg ad 41–54) it was awarded colonial rank. Its continued prosperity is attested by the remains of a 45 km-long aqueduct, probably built in Hadrian’s reign (...


S. J. Vernoit

(b Boujad, Oct 2, 1934; d Casablanca, Aug 17, 1967).

Moroccan painter. He studied in Paris at the Ecole des Métiers d’Art from 1956 to 1959 and in 1960 enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. During this period he also had his first solo exhibition, at the Atelier Lucienne Thalheimer in Paris (1959). In 1961 he received a scholarship to study at the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw for one year and while there exhibited work at the Krzywe Koło Gallery. On returning to Paris, he began to research the signs and motifs of Moroccan art with a bursary from UNESCO. These studies inspired his paintings, which he continued to exhibit regularly in one-man shows in Casablanca, Paris, Rabat, Tangiers and Karlstad, Sweden. He also exhibited work at numerous group exhibitions, including the Salon de Mai, Paris. In his early paintings he was inspired by the art of Klee and Roger Bissière, and he worked on small collages of jute, a technique that Klee had used. From ...



J. W. Taylor

Large box container with a hinged lid. When the lid is domed, or if the chest is reinforced, it can also be known as a coffer. Chests are among the earliest furniture types and commonly served in ancient Egyptian homes as storage for clothing, linen and valuables. The shape and size of these chests often depended on their function. Some types, which could be quite complex, were known during the Old Kingdom (c. 2575–c. 2150 bc) and survived virtually unchanged over the succeeding centuries. The ancient Egyptian chest comprised a rectangular box supported on legs and covered by a lid, which could be flat, gabled, domed or sloping. Cords wound around projecting knobs on the lid and side of the chest held it closed; if necessary, this fastening could be sealed with a lump of mud for greater security. Favoured materials for making chests include native acacia and ...


Marie-Louise Bastin

Bantu-speaking ethnic groups, especially the Chokwe, Lwena, Songo and Ovimbundu, occupying much of Angola and parts of Zaïre and Zambia. These groups are related by origin and history. Their major art forms are wood sculptures, stools and wood and resin masks, though they also produce metalwork, basketwork and ceramics.

According to their oral traditions, these peoples were formed in the beginning of the 17th century as a result of an earlier migration of some Lunda aristocrats and their supporters from the Kalanyi River area of south-east Zaïre. Having conquered the indigenous peoples, the Lunda gradually assimilated with them, adopting many of their customs, while at the same time organizing them into separate tribal areas, each ruled over by a sacred chief. The Lunda conquerors do not seem to have brought with them an important artistic tradition, but the system of chiefs and chiefly courts they established, comprising both lay and religious figures, provided the inspiration and impetus for the development of the pre-existing indigenous sculptural traditions. The courts of the chiefs became the major sources of patronage for the arts....


Sheila S. Blair and Jonathan M. Bloom

Large areas of the world that came under Muslim sway beginning in the 7th century—notably the Iberian peninsula, North Africa, Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia, and Central Asia—had sizeable Christian communities, and it took several centuries for Muslims to become the majority population in these regions. Christian minority communities continue to survive—and even flourish—in such regions as Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey and Iraq. Christians—as well as Jews, Zoroastrians and others—shared the visual vocabularies of their Muslim neighbors, if not their faith, and it is often difficult if not impossible to distinguish a work of “Islamic art” made for a Muslim from one made for a non-Muslim. Indeed, many of the craftsmen making “Islamic art” may have been Christians or Jews, for Islamic art has been defined as the art made by artists or artisans whose religion was Islam, for patrons who lived in predominantly Muslim lands, or for purposes that are restricted or peculiar to a Muslim population or a Muslim setting. In some times and places, Muslims and Christians violently contested the same spaces, whether during the “Reconquest” of the Iberian Peninsula or the Crusades in the Levant. Despite the bellicosity, in both cases artistic interchange created such distinctive traditions as ...


Joanna Grabski

(b Dakar, December 29, 1969).

Senegalese painter and installation artist. He graduated from the Ecole Nationale des Beaux-Arts, Dakar (1996). The subconscious mind and changing visual landscape of urban Africa are the main themes of his work. His large paintings of the late 1990s were characterized by a combination of figuration, abstraction and written text suggesting wall graffiti. In ...


Susan T. Goodman

(b Meknès, Morocco, 1942).

Israeli painter and mixed-media artist of Moroccan birth. He emigrated to Israel in 1949 and studied art at the Bezalel Academy of Art and Design in Jerusalem (graduating in 1971) and the Central School of Art in London before receiving a BA degree in Social Science and History of Art at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem (1973). His mixed-media works of the 1970s conveyed his sense of physical dislocation at being estranged as a Moroccan refugee in Israel; the human figure appeared as an essential element of this theme of displacement and homelessness. In 1975 he returned to drawing and painting in works such as Analogical Work on Computers (1977; Tel Aviv Mus. A.), in which faceless, generalized figures function as symbols in a non-specific space. From 1975 to 1977 Cohen Gan lived in New York, where he studied at Columbia University (MFA, 1977), before settling in Tel Aviv, where he combined scientific systems with introspective autobiographical references in narrative paintings such as the series ...


Allison Moore

(b Eersterust, March 21, 1940; d New York City, Feb 18, 1990).

South African photojournalist, active also in the USA. Cole, of Bapedi ethnicity, grew up in a black township near Pretoria. His father was a tailor and his mother a washerwoman. One of six children, he suffered from malnutrition. Cole hoped to become a doctor, but the Bantu Education Act (a 1953 segregation law) prevented this, so he left school at the age of 16 and eventually worked for a Chinese studio photographer before being hired in 1958 at Drum, a picture magazine about black life. At that time he began a correspondence course from the New York Institute of Photography.

Cole was inspired by the American Civil Rights movement to document the horrors of apartheid in the hope of fomenting political action. In 1959 he began photographing black South African life. Under the hierarchical system of racial categorization in his home country, Cole was considered ‘black’, which greatly limited his access to spaces and events. However, Cole convinced the authorities that he was ‘Coloured’ (mixed race) and thereby increased his journalistic access. He hid his camera and disguised himself in order to document scenes that the authorities hoped to censor. In ...


Anthony D. King

Enclosed and secure space, generally walled or fenced to keep intruders out and also, in different contexts, to keep inhabitants in. In the East and other post-colonial regions, ‘compound’ designates an enclosed space with one or more buildings, frequently occupied by people sharing a nationality or ethnicity other than that of the country in which the compound exists. It can also mean a separate space occupied by members of a kin group.

Like the terms bungalow, godown (warehouse or storeroom) and verandah, compound has its origin in political and cultural processes inherent to colonialism. The word’s origins can be traced, geographically, to the Malay Peninsula, India and China in the 17th century, and, linguistically, to Portuguese, French, Spanish, Malay, Dutch, Javanese and English, all of these having colonial significance. Though of disputed origin, ‘compound’ is generally accepted as an Anglo-Indian term derived from the Malay word kampung or kampong, meaning an enclosure, a fenced-in space or an area of a town....


Daniel J. Crowley

[République du Congo, formerly Moyen-Congo]

Country in Central Africa bordered by the Central African Republic to the north, the Angolan enclave of Cabuda to the south, Zaïre to the east and Gabon to the west, where there is also a short Atlantic coastline. It occupies 342,000 sq. km and has a population of 1,941,000 (UN estimate, 1989). The capital is Brazzaville, and the country is sometimes known as Congo–Brazzaville. Congo became a member state of France in 1958, before gaining full independence in 1960. The People’s Republic of Congo was under communist rule until 1990, since when a new constitution has been put into effect. About half the population are of the Kongo ethnic group, who also live in Zaïre and Angola, and another 20% are the Teke, famed for their traditional sculpture. This entry covers the art produced in Congo since colonial times. For earlier art of the area see Africa §VII 6....


Lucy-Anne Hunt, Hero Granger-Taylor and Dominic Montserrat

A disputed term adopted by art historians to denote early and medieval Christian art in Egypt as well as art undertaken for pagan patrons in Late Roman and Early Christian Egypt. ‘Copt’ derives from the pharaonic name for Egypt via the Greek aigyptos and the Arabic qibṭ, the word used by the Muslim Arab invaders after ad 641 to refer to the Christian inhabitants of Egypt; in modern usage the term is also applied in a narrow sense to the Monophysite national church.

Lucy-Anne Hunt

According to tradition, St Mark brought Christianity to Egypt in the reign of Nero (reg ad 54–68). Its rapid spread was undoubtedly accelerated by the deteriorating conditions that had prevailed in the country since the Roman conquest of 30 bc. Already by ad 190 the first important institution of religious learning in Christian antiquity, the Catechetical School, had been established in Alexandria; its emergence coincided with the first direct attacks on the city’s Christians. These continued under subsequent Roman emperors, culminating in the persecutions under Diocletian (...


Gordon Campbell

Variety of chalcedony, a semi-transparent quartz, of a deep dull red, flesh, or reddish white colour. It has been carved since the time of the ancient Egyptians, for whom supplies were available as pebbles that could be collected in the Eastern desert.

M. M. Bullard and others: ‘Lorenzo de’ Medici’s Acquisition of the Sigillo di Nerone’, ...


Silvia Lucchesi

(b Tunis, Aug 15, 1909; d Rome, Sept 6, 2004).

Italian painter. He studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Tunis. From 1930 to 1937 he settled in Paris, travelling frequently to Tunisia and Italy. His first experiments in non-figurative art date from c. 1934. During this period he became part of a circle of Milanese abstract artists, including Lucio Fontana and Osvaldo Licini, who were linked to the Galleria Il Milione, where Corpora exhibited in 1939. In 1945 he settled in Rome. Of all the Italian artists active during the first years after World War II, Corpora was among the most determined in rejecting the isolationism of Italian painting during the Fascist years and in putting forward a renewal of pictorial language that followed in the modern tradition of Fauvism and Cubism. In 1946, at the Galleria del Secolo in Rome, he took part in the exhibition Corpora, Fazzini, Guttuso, Monachi, Turcato in which for the first time the term ‘...


Barry Bergdoll

(b Marseille, Nov 26, 1787; d Marseille, Feb 8, 1879).

French architect and writer. The designer of many of the principal public buildings of Marseille, he also published the first accurate records of the Islamic monuments of Cairo, North Africa and the Middle East—a central interest of mid-19th-century architectural theorists and ornamentalists.

After studying both engineering and drawing in Marseille, Coste began his career in 1804 as site inspector and draughtsman for the Neo-classicist Michel-Robert Penchaud, a municipal and departmental architect, for whom he worked for a decade. In 1814, on the recommendation of the architects Percier & Fontaine, he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris and the ateliers of Antoine-Laurent-Thomas Vaudoyer and Jean-Baptiste Labadye (1777–1850). An encounter in Paris with the geographer Jombert, who had been a member of the scientific mission that accompanied Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt in 1798, was to influence his subsequent career. In 1817 Jombert recommended Coste to Muhammad ‛Ali, Khedive of Egypt (...


Philip L. Ravenhill

[Ivory Coast]

Country in West Africa on the Gulf of Guinea, bordered by Liberia and Guinea to the west, Mali and Burkina Faso to the north and Ghana to the east. Côte d’Ivoire, formerly a descriptive name for part of the Western African coast known as a source of ivory, was a French colony from 1893 until its independence in 1960. Since 1983 its capital has been Yamoussoukro, though the former capital Abidjan continues to be the country’s most important city. This entry covers the art produced in Côte d’Ivoire since colonial times. For art of the region in earlier periods see Africa, §VII, 4. See also Akan, Akye, Baule, Dan, Guro, Lobi and Senufo.

With an area of some 322,463 sq. km, the southern region of the country is forest, and the northern region is open savannah. Between the two is an area of wooded savannah, which in its central part descends nearly to the coast—the so-called Baule V, between the Bandama and Comoé rivers. The population (...


Gilbert Herbert

(b c. 1910).

South African architect. He studied architecture at Liverpool University, England, graduating in 1933. His father was the architect Norris Tynwald Cowin (c. 1875–1942). On his return to South Africa in October 1933, he joined his father’s architectural firm, Cowin, Powers & Ellis (later Cowin & Ellis), in Johannesburg. In 1925 he became an Associate of the RIBA and a practising member of the South African Institute of Architects in 1926. On the whole he stood somewhat apart from Rex Martienssen and the homogeneous Transvaal Group. He differed from them in background by not being a graduate of the University of the Witwatersrand as they were; in his refusal to acknowledge Martienssen’s leadership, although he respected him; and in his approach to architecture, seeking a regional idiom appropriate to South Africa’s climate and culture, rather than the endorsement of the International style. This found expression particularly in his domestic architecture....




F. B. Sear and Susan Kane

[Arab. Shaḥḥāt]

City in Libya, 8 km from the coast and 620 m above sea-level on a plateau of the al-Jabal al-Akh?ar (Green Mountain). The Greek city flourished from its founding as a Dorian colony c. 630 bc to Hellenistic times, and its Greek culture was maintained during the long period of Roman rule, when its fortunes declined somewhat.

F. B. Sear

Cyrene’s principal monuments, restored by their Italian excavators, reveal the splendours of the Greek city. It changed only superficially in Roman times, when alterations to existing buildings were more common than new projects.

Herodotus (IV. cl–clviii) related how a party of Therans, forced by drought to leave their native island, settled at Cyrene because of its high rainfall. Their leader, Battos, became king and established a dynasty that lasted until 440 bc. The site is protected on three sides by gorges with gently sloping ground to the east. A low hill, the acropolis, rises to the west and immediately below its north slopes is the Sanctuary of Apollo. Springs emerge from the rock at this point, ensuring a constant water supply. The plateau is divided by the valley street, which runs from the east gate down to the Sanctuary of Apollo and then past the north necropolis to the port of Apollonia, 19 km away. Parallel to the valley street is the Street of Battos, which runs from the south-east gate through the agora to the acropolis. A main transverse street intersected both streets just east of the Hellenistic gymnasium. The earliest settlers presumably occupied the acropolis, and the eastern fringe of the later agora seems to have been used as a burial ground, which suggests that the early town could not have extended far to the east. Other evidence for the early city is pottery from ...