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Donata Battilotti

(d Verona, May 8, 1550).

Italian humanist, historian and patron. He was the author of the first printed book on the history and antiquities of Verona, published in 1540, with woodcuts after drawings by Giovanni Battista Caroto that are still extant (Verona, Bib. Civ.). De origine et amplitudine civitatis Veronae, written in Latin, takes the form of a conversation between members of a group of Veronese humanists including, apart from the author, Giacomo Villafranca and Giovanni Nicola Capella, and the artist Giovanni Battista Caroto. Caroto is given the task of providing technical information on the monuments that are the subject of the second book, which he himself had illustrated.

De origine was the first complete catalogue of Veronese antiquities, from the most prominent, such as the Arena, to miscellaneous remains such as displaced capitals. Also worthy of note are the Latin inscriptions, of which the author must have possessed a collection. The measurements are minute, and the monuments (except for the Arena) are completely reconstructed in the illustrations. Each is placed chronologically in relation to the salient moments of Roman history, and due recognition is given to the architects....


Donata Battilotti

(b Padua, 1478; d Padua, May 29, 1574).

Italian ecclesiastic and historiographer. Educated in Padua, he later entered the clergy and was elected a canon of Padua Cathedral in 1556. He wrote a number of religious works but is best remembered for his book on the antiquities and illustrious men of Padua. This Latin work was granted a licence to print in Venice in 1557 but was published in Basle in 1560. Following the tradition of earlier municipal chronicles, Scardeone described the origins and cultural heritage of Padua, paying considerable attention to its ancient monuments and transcribing many inscriptions from tombs. He also devoted a chapter to the artists of Padua, from the 14th century to his own day, including Andrea Mantegna, Francesco Squarcione, Andrea Riccio and Tiziano Minio. This was the first attempt, outside Florence, to compose a local compendium of artistic biographies. Although the accounts of the lives of individual artists, particularly the earlier ones, often have an anecdotal or legendary quality, they are nevertheless a valuable source for the study of Paduan art, especially that of the 15th century. The frontispiece of this volume is a view of Padua by an anonymous artist: it offers the first accurate compilation of visual data on the city’s buildings....


(b Augsburg, c. 1455; d Augsburg, Feb 25, 1521).

German printer. Schönsperger was appointed imperial court printer to Habsburg, House of family §I, (3) , for whom he published a magnificent prayer book (1513) set in a specially-designed Gothic type and printed in ten copies on vellum. He also published the Emperor’s Theuerdank (1517). His son, Johann Schönsperger the younger (...


Yi Sŏng-mi

[cha Pŏnjung; ho Tonjae, Hwawang-toin; posthumous title Munjang]

(b Ch’angnyŏng, South Kyŏngsang Province, 1481; d Chang’yŏn, 1548).

Korean painter, calligrapher and high official. He had a distinguished civil service career during the early Chosŏn period, rising to become Minister of the Left (deputy chief minister). However, in 1545 he fell victim to factional strife and was exiled to Chang’yŏn, where he died.

Sŏng was famous for his elegant literary style. Although little is recorded about his painting style, Genre Painting (eight-fold screen, ink and colour on paper, each panel 877×379 mm; Seoul, N. Mus.; see Yu Pok-yŏl, pls 35–6), which is now in very poor condition, is attributed to him. The second panel shows travellers in a mountain setting and bears an inscription that is badly defaced and difficult to decipher. The first panel shows two women on the outing being carried in two separate open palanquins and a group of their servants passing a cliff. If these panels are indeed by Sŏng, they are among the earliest genre paintings depicting figures in Korean costume. His extant calligraphic works are in the form of several stelae in Kwangju and P’aju, both Kyŏnggi Province....


Kurt Löcher

(b Austria, 1505; d Linz, Upper Austria, late 1567).

German painter. Primarily a portrait painter, he probably began life as an illuminator. In 1529 he was active in Bohemia. In 1530 he accompanied Archduke (later King and Emperor) Ferdinand I to attend the Reichstag in Augsburg. In 1531 he became court painter and from c. 1535 was based in Vienna in the service of the court. In 1538–9 he travelled to the imperial court in Spain; from 1540–41 he stayed in Augsburg and worked on several projects in Prague. Attending the Reichstag in Augsburg from 1550–51, he met Titian. In 1558 he was ennobled and in 1561 settled in Linz. Data about Seisenegger include applications he sent the King in 1535 and 1545 (Vienna, Hofkamarchv), appending lists of works produced on commission from the King. Seisenegger signed his pictures with the letters is intertwined.

In Seisenegger’s portraits of royal children the heraldic element from illumination lived on. In the ...


Ellen Johnston Laing

[Chun; Ch’en Shun; zi Daofu, Fufu; hao Baiyang, Baiyang Shanren]

(b Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1483; d 1544).

Chinese painter, calligrapher and poet. Born into a wealthy family of the scholar–official class, he is known for his landscapes (see fig.) and flower paintings. He was once a student of Wen Zhengming and was loosely associated with the Wu school.

He is best known for his landscapes in the style of the Northern Song-period (960–1127) master Mi Fu and his son, Mi Youren, and of their Yuan-period (1279–1368) interpreter, Gao Kegong (see fig.). The Mi style was rarely appreciated by Suzhou artists, but Chen’s affinity for it could be explained by the fact that his family owned a painting by Mi Youren. The style is characterized by cone-shaped or rounded hills composed of large, horizontal, wet blobs of ink applied in vertical layers. Chen added motifs and techniques borrowed from the Suzhou artist Shen Zhou, such as rhomboid plateaux outlined with dry brush lines and squat, blocky figures. Chen further modified the Mi style, giving it a rich, colouristic effect by introducing fluid colour washes and large blobs of blue and buff, as in his ...



Sheila R. Canby

[Siyāvush, Siyāvush Beg]

(b Georgia, c. 1536; d before 1616).

Persian illustrator. According to the Safavid chronicler Qazi Ahmad, Siyavush was a Georgian slave brought to Tabriz as a child and assigned to the royal studio. He studied under Muzaffar ‛Ali, artist and boon companion to the Safavid ruler Tahmasp I (reg 1524–76). The earliest extant works attributed to Siyavush are 19 paintings from the incomplete copy (dispersed) of the Shāhnāma (‘Book of kings’) made for Isma‛il II (reg 1576–8). Exemplifying the artist’s mature style, these paintings reveal a penchant for dramatic landscape elements and well-organized compositions. The variety of human types expresses a range of emotions but lacks a certain psychological depth, in the opinion of A. Welch. According to the Safavid chronicler Iskandar Munshi, after the accession of Muhammad Khudabanda (reg 1578–88), Siyavush and his brother Farrukh Beg became companions of Hamza Mirza (d 1586), heir to the throne. A battle scene in a copy (ex-O. Homberg priv. col., see Welch, fig.) of Khwandamir’s ...


Stephen Addiss

[Takuan Shūhō]

(b Izushi Prov. [now Hyōgō Prefect.], 1573; d Edo [now Tokyo], 1645).

Japanese Zen monk, painter and calligrapher. One of the most influential monks of the early 17th century, he was a painter and calligrapher in the Zen tradition (see Japan §VI 4., (vii)). He was born to a farming family and entered the Buddhist order at the age of eight, later studying Zen with the master Shun’oku Sōen (1529–1611) at the Rinzai-sect Zen temple Daitokuji in Kyoto. Impressing his fellow monks with the depth of his spirit and rigour of his practice, Takuan was made abbot of the temple at the unprecedented age of 36. However, he left the temple shortly afterwards to begin a long spell of travelling, during which he raised funds for the renovation of Daitokuji and other Zen temples. In 1629, however, Takuan was banished to northern Japan by the Tokugawa shogunate because he protested at its interference in temple matters. When his banishment ended after about three years, he was invited by Tokugawa Iemitsu (...


Mary Margaret McDonnell Ford

(b Parma, Feb 15, 1508; d Venice, May 24, 1572).

Italian medallist, sculptor, bookbinder and dealer. He was an industrious student of the goldsmith Gianfrancesco Bonzagni, to whom he was related. In 1533 he produced a medal celebrating the foundation of the Venetian church of S Francesco della Vigna (begun by Jacopo Sansovino). This event was also commemorated in a medal (e.g. Brescia, Pin. Civ. Tosio–Martinengo) by a pupil of Vittore Gambello. Both works depict Doge Andrea Gritti, who laid the foundation-stone of the church in 1534, as well as showing Sansovino’s design. Spinelli’s medal contains a bust of Gritti on its face with the inscription ‘Gritti DVX Venetiar MDXXIII’. The Doge is shown facing to the left, bearded and clothed in a cap and robe. A portion of the chest and cap extends over part of one of the two circles encompassing the bust. On the reverse of the medal is an inscription, surrounded by maple leaves, to ‘DIVI Francisci MDXXXIIII’, and, in the exergue, the signature ‘An Sp F’ (Andrea Spinelli Fecit), together with the date. The design on the reverse is from a perspective drawing of the church, which intersects the inner of the two circles, as the bust of the Doge does on the obverse side. The inscription within the two circles surrounding the design also appears on both sides. The medal, cast in bronze, has a predominantly light brown patina, although part of it has a covering of black lacquer. An unusual spot or mark is visible behind the neck of the Doge....


Barbara Butts

(b ?Nuremberg, c. 1495; d after 1522).

German painter, draughtsman, woodcut designer and possibly manuscript illuminator. He was probably born in Nuremberg and is reputed to have lived in Dürer’s house, where he was a pupil (Neudörfer). He was commissioned in 1520 to contribute to the decoration of the Emperor Charles V’s private chambers in the Burg, on the occasion of the Emperor’s visit to Nuremberg. He dated woodcuts between 1513 and 1522, signing many of them with the ligated letters hsk (the s reversed). A Hans Springinklee married Barbara Wagnerin on 7 December 1533 in St Sebald.

Springinklee’s oeuvre can be established on the basis of his woodcuts and book illustrations. Between 1512 and 1515 he collaborated with Dürer, Wolf Traut and Albrecht Altdorfer on the Triumphal Arch of Maximilian I, designing at least 7 of 24 historical scenes from Emperor Maximilian I’s life as well as much of his family tree. He is also credited with contributing, along with Dürer and others, to the ...


Andreas Stolzenburg

Swiss family of artists. Christoph Stimmer I (b Burghausen, c. 1490; d Schauffhausen, 23 Oct 1562) worked in Konstanz as a schoolmaster from 1520 to 1532, but was also a calligrapher and painter. There are glass paintings (14 panels, 1524–5) signed with his name in Pfullendorf Town Hall, and he also used contemporary prints by such artists as Hans Leu II, Niklaus Manuel Deutsch and Hans Holbein the younger as models for his compositions. In 1532 he moved to Schaffhausen, where he became a citizen and a member of the guild in 1535, and worked as a bookbinder in 1558. Of his 11 children, (1) Tobias Stimmer was the most famous (see Switzerland, §III), and at least five of his other sons were also artists. Christoph Stimmer II (b Konstanz, c. 1520–25; d Rottweil, before Oct 1562) was a calligrapher, (2) Abel Stimmer was a painter and etcher, ...


Charles Talbot


(fl c. 1520; d Nuremberg, 1562–3).

German woodcut designer and illustrator. He is thought to have trained with Hans Springinklee. In 1537 he was paid the second highest amount among five artists for their work on the decorations of the Haller Album (Nuremberg, Staatsarchv), an illustrated book of portraits and family heraldry. However, his authorship of woodcuts, which constitute the principal body of work attributed to him, is based on only two initialled prints, the two-part Cavalry Battle and the Mounted Captain and Two Landsknechts (Geisberg, nos 1392 and 1372). These signatures are not identical: in the first the initials appear side by side, in the second they are overlapped as a monogram.

On the basis of these two works, c. 124 woodcuts have been attributed to Stör that were previously assigned to Erhard Schön, with whom Stör had presumably worked in close association. The 46 small illustrations for a Bible (Nuremberg, 1530) published by ...


Priscilla P. Soucek

[Sulṫān-Muḣammad Tabrīzī; Sultan-Muhammad ‛Irāqī]

(fl c. 1505–50).

Persian illustrator (see fig.). He was apparently a native of Tabriz and spent most of his life there. Contemporary sources suggest that he was at the height of his creative powers in the 1520s and 1530s when he was one of the leading painters in the employ of the Safavid shah Tahmasp. Sultan-Muhammad’s documented paintings include contributions to a monumental copy (dispersed, ex-Houghton priv. col.) of Firdawsi’s Shāhnāma (‘Book of kings’) made for Tahmasp between c. 1524 and c. 1529 and paintings from a copy (divided, New York, Met. and Cambridge, MA, Sackler Mus.) of Hafiz’s Dīvān (collected poems), probably executed between 1531 and 1533. Sultan-Muhammad’s paintings for these manuscripts demonstrate how the tradition of western Iranian painting as practised in Tabriz, Shiraz and other centres during the 15th century continued to be significant at the Safavid court (see Islamic art, §III, 4(v)(e)). His paintings for the ...



Heather Elgood

[Tara Kalan]

(fl c. 1560–1600).

Indian miniature painter. His work conformed to the conventions of the period of patronage of the Mughal emperor Akbar (reg 1556–1605), and he contributed to at least five manuscripts during this time. His work is characterized by a love of bright primary colours and a lively sense of movement and realism. By 1590 his work shows an experienced hand and a firm handling of the brush, with a clear grasp of the techniques of stippling and feathered shading. Possibly a Hindu, Tara appears fairly low on the list of 17 prized artists compiled by Abu’l-Fazl, Akbar’s court biographer, in the Āyīn-i Akbarī. In a detailed study of the Ṭū ṭīnāma (‘Tales of a parrot’; c. 1560–65; Cleveland, OH, Mus. A., MS. 62.279), two folios are assigned to this artist. This would place Tara on the level of the more senior artists in the workshop in the early years of Akbar’s patronage....


(b Bruges, ?1510–20; d London, June 23, 1576).

Netherlandish painter active in England. She was the eldest daughter of Simon Bening, the leading illuminator of the Ghent-Bruges school. She came to England c. 1545 with her husband, George Teerlinc of Blankenberge, and in 1546 was appointed royal ‘paintrix’ to Henry VIII, perhaps to help to fill the gap left by the recent deaths of Hans Holbein the younger and Lucas Horenbout. Her annuity of £40 was larger than theirs. Teerlinc was employed as a gentlewoman in the royal households of both Mary I and Elizabeth I and her husband as a Gentleman Pensioner. The first reference to a portrait by her is during the reign of Edward VI. In October 1551 she was paid the large sum of £10 for visiting the future Elizabeth I ‘to drawe owt her picture’. Her other documented works include paintings presented as gifts to the sovereign at the New Year; the first, for Queen ...


(fl 1509–27).

Italian illuminator. Between 1509 and 1524 numerous references appear in the account books of Montecassino Abbey to payments received by Matteo and his assistant Aloise da Napoli for the decoration of manuscripts. The Psalters in the collection (Montecassino Abbey, Lib., MSS H, I, L, M, N, O, P, Q) as well as a number of choir-books can be firmly attributed to these artists. From Montecassino Matteo went to Perugia and in 1527 was working as illuminator for the monastery of S Pietro, again with his assistant and also intermittently with Francesco Boccardi (d 1547), son of Giovanni Boccardi. In the same year Matteo decorated three Graduals (Perugia, S Pietro dei Cassinensi, MSS E, F and G), which are among his finest works. A Psalter executed for the monastery (Perugia, S Pietro dei Cassinensi, MS. Z) displays the characteristic features of his work: the brick-red colour of the flesh, the hair curling in snakey locks and the lively, gesticulating figures. Although a modern note states that this was a collaborative effort with ...


Patrick M. de Winter

[Master of Charles of Angoulême]

(fl 1475–1523).

French illuminator. He is documented as working for the Angoulême family, but since none of his works is signed or dated, his output rests on attributions. His early attributed works, dependent on the style of the Master of Jouvenel des Ursins, are characterized by compactly drawn moving figures outlined against receding backgrounds, with borders that tend to be spatially complex. Among these are a page in a Missal for Poitiers Use (Paris, Bib. N., MS. lat. 873, fol. 21), the La Rochefoucauld Hours (Brussels, Bib. Royale Albert ler, MS. 15077) and two other Books of Hours (Luxembourg, Bib. N., MS. III:600 and New York, Pierpont Morgan Lib., MS. M. 1001, respectively). Testard’s middle period, during which his compositions became tightly constructed and his colouring more sharply defined, is exemplified by a Roman de la rose (Oxford, Bodleian Lib., MS. Douce 195), the Nouailher Missal (Poitiers, Cathedral, Treasury) and the Book of Hours (Paris, Bib. N., MS. lat. ...


Andreas Stolzenburg



Marianne Grivel

(b Bourges, 1480; d Paris, 1533).

French printer, publisher, book designer and bookseller. He left Bourges in 1503 to study in Rome and Bologna. After returning to France in 1507, he published Classical works and taught at the Collège du Plessis in Paris (1508–11) and then, from 1512, at the Collège de Bourgogne (Paris), before a second stay in Italy from about 1516 to 1518. In 1518 he was admitted to the Paris booksellers’ guild. He worked under the sign of the Pot-Cassé, first on the Petit-Pont adjoining the Hôtel-Dieu (1512–23) and then on the Rue St Jacques; finally he settled on the Rue de la Juiverie from 1532 to 1533.

From 1529 Tory was active as a printer. Influenced by Classical art and by Italy, he adopted a new approach to the aesthetics of book production in France, concerning himself with a correct balance between text and illustration. From his first book, ...