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Ruth Rosengarten

(Artur Manuel Rodrigues do)

(b Lisbon, Dec 3, 1920).

Portuguese painter, draughtsman, illustrator and poet. After a Neo-Realist phase, he joined the dissident group The Surrealists, founded in Lisbon in 1948 by Mário Cesariny. Cruzeiro Seixas participated in the two exhibitions held by this group in 1949 and 1950, with works inspired by the poetry of Lautréamont.

In his paintings and, more especially, drawings, for example La Variété en dehors d’elle-même (1947; Lisbon, Mus. Gulbenkian), he aimed to create a personal and often erotic imagery in the metamorphosis of human, plant and animal forms. These works seldom transcend the commonplace or contrived. His collages, such as The Basis of Language (1960; artist’s col., see Wohl, 1978 exh. cat., p. 83), resemble those of Max Ernst.

Between 1952 and 1964 he lived in Luanda, where he was a curator in the Museum of Angola. In 1965 he lived in Paris and returned to Portugal in 1966, where he illustrated several books that year: ...


Jeremy Howard


(b Nikolayevka, nr Putivl’, Kursk Prov. [now Ukraine], June 13, 1891; d Moscow, June 30, 1978).

. Russian art historian and collector. The foremost Soviet historian of graphic art and a specialist in modern Russian book design, he also studied Western European art from the Renaissance to the 20th century. He was an art history graduate of Moscow University, where he subsequently became a professor (1921), and his first book, indicative of his early interest in Symbolism, was an analysis of Aubrey Beardsley’s art and aesthetics, while his second, the first Soviet book on the subject, examined the relationship of the arts to revolution. Subsequently, as head of the engravings department of the Museum of Fine Arts (now the Pushkin Museum) in Moscow (1927–36) and as one of the founders of the conservative Association of Artists of Revolutionary Russia (AKhRR), Sidorov aligned himself with the right wing of Soviet cultural ideology. In this respect, despite his presiding concern with the synthetic qualities of word and image in book design, he frequently turned his attention to the social background of the creative work in question. The author of around 200 publications, Sidorov’s prolific output was extremely diverse; it includes a series of monographs on artists from Leonardo and Dürer to Käthe Kollwitz, Yelizaveta Kruglikova and Boris Korolyov, articles on Moscow art collections, modern dance and, most significantly, in-depth studies of the history of the Russian book. He was also a leading Soviet collector of graphic art, with almost 10,000 Russian, Soviet and Western European works, now in the ...


Nancy Gray Troyer

(b Florence, Aug 18, 1835; d Florence, Feb 11, 1901).

Italian painter, writer, critic, illustrator, etcher and teacher. He was a major figure of the Macchiaioli group, painting primarily landscapes, seascapes and street scenes in towns and villages in Tuscany and Liguria. As with many of the Macchiaioli, he did not always date his paintings, and their chronology must be deduced from exhibition catalogues and other contemporary sources. As a writer and critic he was the most ardent spokesman for, and promoter of, the Macchiaioli and wrote with insight and cutting wit about the art world of the second half of the 19th century.

He and his brothers Edoardo (c. 1830–51) and Egisto studied under their father, Giovanni Signorini (1808–62), an artist employed by the Austrian Grand Dukes of Florence to paint topographical views and scenes of local festivals. Telemaco Signorini’s first preference, however, was for literature, and he spent four years at the prestigious Scuola degli Scolopi in Florence, leaving in ...


Ioana Vlasiu

(b Craiova, Aug 13, 1877; d Bucharest, Aug 4, 1953).

Romanian painter, illustrator, critic and teacher. He began his artistic training in a printer’s workshop in Craiova, then worked in a lithographic workshop in Düsseldorf (1898–9); from 1900 to 1905 he studied at the Fine Arts School in Bucharest. He rapidly became a well-known illustrator for newspapers and journals, notable for his polemical spirit, his conciseness and his geometrical and energetic graphic style. He also exhibited paintings in Bucharest at the official Salon and at the exhibitions of the association Tinerimea Artistică (The young artists) (e.g. A Halt, 1912; Bucharest, N. Mus. A.), and in 1916 he began to write art criticism. He participated in the exhibitions of the Arta Română association (1921–4) and with Ştefan Dimitrescu (1886–1933), Nicolae Tonitza (1886–1940) and the sculptor Oscar Han (1891–1976) created the Group of Four (1925–33), whose objective was to promote modern art in Romania. Şirato’s best-known paintings during this period featured Romanian peasants, as in ...


Christiane Crasemann Collins

(b Vienna, April 17, 1843; d Vienna, Nov 16, 1903).

Austrian writer, architect and urban planner. He was an important theoretician and critic in the formative phase of modern urban planning. His influence derives almost entirely from a slender book that he wrote and published in Vienna in 1889, Der Städtebau nach seinen künstlerischen Grundsätzen.

Sitte was the only child of Franz Sitte (1818–79), an architect who was much involved with the restoration of historic buildings and the revival of traditional arts and crafts. He attended the Piaristen School on the Piaristen Square, Vienna, which still preserves those qualities of an enclosed urban space that Sitte admired, and in 1863 entered the atelier of Heinrich von Ferstel at the Wiener Polytechnisches Institut (now Technische Hochschule). While apprenticed to Ferstel, he attended the lectures of Rudolf Eitelberger von Edelberg (1817–85) on archaeology and art history at the University of Vienna. He also attended courses in the physiology of vision and of space perception, anatomy and the practice of dissection, at the Faculty of Medicine. A gifted draughtsman, he illustrated the art objects in the monumental ...


Anne-Françoise Leurquin

Manual for religious and moral instruction commissioned by Philip III, King of France (reg 1270–85), from his confessor, the Dominican Frère Laurent. The work was finished in 1279–80 and was a literary success. Over 100 manuscript copies have survived, with printed editions appearing in the 15th century, and translations were made into English, Castilian, Catalan, Italian, Dutch and Occitan.

Although the presentation copy is lost, 7 manuscripts have a complete cycle of 15 full-page images and another 20 have selected images. The scenes include representations of the Ten Commandments, the Credo, the Pater noster, the Apocalyptic beast, the Last Judgement and personifications of the virtues and vices paired with moralizing scenes taken mainly from the Old Testament. The images, like the text, are extremely didactic. Nearly all the fully illuminated manuscripts were made for the royal entourage at the turn of the 14th century, often by exceptional artists. Two books were made for the royal family in ...


Judith K. Golden

Anonymous collection of in-depth typologies, based on the idea that every event in the New Testament was presaged by an event in the Old Testament ( see Typological cycles ). The Speculum humanae salvationis appeared first in manuscript form, then as Block-book s and later as incunabula. Chief among possible sources for the text is Ludolphus of Saxony (c. 1300–77), with Conradus of Altzheim, Vincent of Beauvais, Henricus Suso and Nicholas of Lyra among others also suggested authors. Like copies of the earlier Biblia pauperum, tituli and captions identify events and figures, however the Speculum humanae salvationis augments these pictures with a text that explains the illustrations. Between the early 14th century and the end of the 15th, several hundred copies, nearly all illustrated, were produced and translated from the original Latin into German, French, English, Dutch and Czech.

Typically the manuscripts include a Prologue and Prohemium, of text only; followed by forty-two chapters with four miniatures atop four text columns each of twenty-five lines; closing with three chapters with eight miniatures devoted to the Seven Stations of the Passion, the Seven Sorrows and the Seven Joys of Mary, these last three chapters not being typological. Some manuscripts omit opening texts or the final three chapters. Each opening provides a meditative, typological diptych of four images and clarifying text, for example Christ and the Last Supper as the first image, followed by Moses and the Miracle of Manna; Moses and Passover; Abraham blessed by Melchisedek. The first image contains gospel citations; the last three have captions indicating their relationship to the first....


Elizabeth C. Teviotdale

Illuminated German Missal (282×188 mm; Los Angeles, CA, Getty Mus., MS. 64) made at and for the Benedictine monastery of St Michael at Hildesheim ( see Hildesheim §2 ), probably in the 1170s. A sophisticated monument of typological art, its illumination is probably the work of a single artist. The Missal’s series of five frontispieces, three at the opening of the manuscript and two at the beginning of the Canon of the Mass, present the theme that the promise of Christian salvation was inherent in the wisdom of Creation. Seven full-page miniatures follow interspersed in the liturgical cycle. They depict key events in the life of Christ (Nativity, Resurrection, Ascension) with both common and esoteric Old Testament types, St Peter’s sermon following the descent of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost, the Assumption of the Virgin, St Michael and his angels battling demons, and Bishop Bernward, Bishop of Hildesheim of Hildesheim, the monastery’s founder. The manuscript may originally have had on its cover a Carolingian ivory diptych acquired by Bernward....


Stephen Bann

(b London, Oct 27, 1902; d London, Dec 15, 1972).

English writer and painter. He was educated at Rugby School and Magdalen College, Oxford, graduating in 1923. He published his first books in 1925 and 1926. In the early 1930s, occasional writing for magazines finally resulted in two connected studies, The Quattro Cento (London, 1932) and Stones of Rimini (London, 1934), which testified to his friendship with contemporaries such as Ezra Pound and Ben Nicholson, as well as to his absorption in the art and architecture of the Italian Renaissance. In promoting direct carving over modelling, Stokes was simultaneously recording his insight into great achievements of the 15th century, such as the Tempio Malatestiano at Rimini, while declaring his affinity with the reliefs and sculpture of Nicholson, Barbara Hepworth and Henry Moore. A series of brief yet remarkable reviews for the Spectator later in the decade (e.g. ‘Mr Ben Nicholson at the Lefevre Galleries’, 19 March 1937) helped him to make his support for these artists abundantly clear....


Katalin Gellér

(b Kolozsvár [now Cluj-Napoca, Romania], May 8, 1835; d Mátyásföld [now part of Budapest], Aug 21, 1910).

Hungarian painter and illustrator. He studied drawing in Kolozsvár and in the early 1850s was taught by Carl Rahl and Nepomuk Geiger at the Akademie in Vienna, where he also briefly attended Ferdinand Waldmüller’s classes. After returning to Hungary, he painted portraits and also signboards for shops and inns in Transylvania (now in Romania) and Bohemia (now in the Czech Republic). From 1859 he studied at the Munich Akademie under Wilhelm von Kaulbach and Karl Theodor von Piloty. As Székely’s sketches (Budapest, N.G.) reveal, he was already a mature artist on his arrival in Munich, where he produced his first important history painting, the Discovery of the Corpse of King Louis II, and also a Self-portrait (both 1860; Budapest, N.G.), the latter being one of his most striking works. In 1859 he painted a series of scenes based on the life of Caravaggio and in 1863 a historical secco in the Bayerisches Nationalmuseum in Munich. Székely then went on a study tour of France, Flanders and the Netherlands and, on his return to Hungary, began painting portraits as a means of supporting his family....


Sergey Kuznetsov


(b Spasskoye, Kazan’ province, Aug 25, 1889; d Moscow, Feb 21, 1956).

Russian art historian. He began his first book in 1916 while studying at the University of Moscow, and it clearly shows the influence of Heinrich Wölfflin. It was eventually published as Opyt teorii zhivopisi (‘A study in painting theory’) in 1923. His aim was to present art theory as ‘a formal analysis of works of art’. For this he adopted a ‘formal-production’ approach based on a ‘material’ analysis of form and a ‘processing’ analysis of the creation of the work. In the early 1920s he wrote Filosofiya ikony (‘The philosophy of the icon’; unpubd) and was active in the Proletkul’t. He was also a member of the Moscow Inkhuk and, as its secretary, played a significant role in its debates on Constructivism and Production art (see Constructivism §1). On 20 August 1921 he gave his lecture ‘The Last Picture has been Painted’, which became the basis of his book ...



Elizabeth Sears

[Publius Terentius Afer]

(b Carthage, c. 190 bc; d ?Greece, 159 bc).

Roman writer. His six comedies, composed between 166 bc and 160 bc for performance before a Roman public, were admired for the purity and elegance of their Latin and became school texts, destined to be read and studied, quoted and imitated long after they had ceased to be performed. Over 700 manuscripts (5th–15th centuries ad) and a large number of printed editions attest to the plays’ enduring popularity. The medieval and Renaissance manuscripts belong to the ‘Calliopian’ recension of the text (named after the Late Antique redactor Calliopius, of whom nothing further is known) and are divided into the gamma and delta branches. At an early date—probably in Late Antiquity, if not before—the plays were illustrated: frontispieces were created and unframed images of masked, costumed, gesturing actors were inserted at the scene divisions. These pictorial cycles accompany texts of the gamma branch only, although it is not necessarily the case that the cycle was created for this recension (Grant). Extant illustrated copies of the plays, descendants of a posited Late Antique archetype, fall into three principal groups: 12 manuscripts and a fragment dating from the 9th to 12th centuries; a small number of luxury manuscripts produced in French court circles in the early 15th century; and numerous series of woodcuts prepared for printed editions of the plays in the late 15th and 16th centuries....


Leonée Ormond

(b Calcutta, July 18, 1811; d London, Dec 24, 1863).

English writer, illustrator and critic. His gift for rapid sketching declared itself in childhood, and he decided to become an artist. His addiction to draughtsmanship and gambling contributed to his failure to graduate from Trinity College, Cambridge. On visits to Paris in 1829 and 1830 he studied prints and made copies in the Bibliothèque du Roi. After leaving Cambridge in 1830 he spent several months in Germany, and on returning to England in 1831 he was briefly a law student. He contributed reviews and articles to a number of periodicals and in 1833 became part-owner of a weekly paper, the National Standard, appointing himself Paris correspondent. Over the next few years, he worked intermittently in the studios of Eugène Lepoittevin, Charles Lafond (1774–1835) and Antoine-Jean Gros. In London he attended Henry Sass’s drawing school.

At the end of 1833 Thackeray lost most of his inherited fortune in a bank crash. Soon afterwards, the ...


Barbu Brezianu

(b Bârlad, April 13, 1885; d Bucharest, Feb 26, 1940).

Romanian painter, draughtsman, illustrator and writer. He studied at the National Academy of Fine Arts in Iaşi (1902–7), the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich (1908–9), under Hugo von Habermann, and in Paris (1909–10) in the studios of the painters Edmond Aman-Jean and Pierre Laprade. He held numerous exhibitions in Romania and abroad. He taught Byzantine decorative art, painting and drawing at the Academy of Sculpture and Painting, Bucharest (1929), and he was a professor and President of the Iaşi National Academy of Fine Arts (1933–40). He began working as a graphic artist from 1908, contributing to over 40 periodicals, sketches, drawings and cartoons, as well as reviews and polemical pieces. He decorated 13 churches, and he also wrote and illustrated several books.

Tonitza’s early graphic work was mostly political and social in inspiration, in the style of such artists as Olaf Gulbransson, Honoré Daumier and Théophile-Alexandre Steinlen. In the course of time Tonitza achieved a personal style characterized by concision, versatility and elegance in line, with large-scale simplification and with a typical use of decorative accent. Such features were later also integrated into his paintings, following his gradual discarding of the academicism inspired by the Munich School. His palette, initially almost entirely dominated by brownish hues, eventually became lighter, with brighter tones dominated by ochre, yellow, burnt umber and shades of gold interspersed with cobalt and ultramarine. Tonitza’s personal style became most apparent in his series of children’s portraits, with their characteristically wide, melancholy eyes dominating the entire composition; his series of female nudes and torsos, which display a sensuality full of light, grace and candour, are also distinctive. Portraits of women and children are the main themes of his paintings, but other favourite subjects include still-lifes and panoramic landscapes frequently viewed from an elevated position. His last works, which show his attraction to the beauties of the Black Sea landscapes, have a charming combination of a calm and a sunny, Oriental atmosphere....


Fani-Maria Tsigakou

(b Piraeus, Jan 13, 1910; d Athens, July 20, 1989).

Greek painter, stage designer, illustrator and writer. From 1928 to 1934 he worked as an apprentice in the workshop of Fotis Kontoglou, studying from 1932 to 1934 at the Higher School of Fine Arts in Athens, where he was taught at the Asylon Technis Gallery. Like most of the avant-garde intellectuals of his generation, he became actively involved with the popular art movement and the search for a Greekness in art. He travelled extensively in Greece, and went to Constantinople (now Istanbul) and Asia Minor studying Byzantine music, painting, textiles and the traditional shadow theatre. In 1935 he went to Paris where he was influenced by Matisse, in particular by such works as Cyclist in a Mauve Singlet (1936; see Tsarouchis, pl. 23), and by Demetrios Galanis. After 1938 he contributed costume and set designs for both the National and the Karolos Koun Theatre in Athens. While serving in World War II he executed numerous sketches of soldiers; these men were to become his favourite subject. From ...


Roy R. Behrens


(b Leipzig, April 2, 1902; d Locarno, Aug 11, 1974).

German graphic designer and writer. He was the son of a sign painter and studied at the Academy of Book Design, Leipzig (1919–22), before working as a freelance designer. Influenced by Soviet Constructivism (especially the work of El Lissitzky) and the Bauhaus exhibition in Weimar in 1923, he published ‘Elementare Typographie’ (Typographische Mitteilungen, Oct 1925) and Die neue Typographie (Berlin, 1928), widely read among young designers, in which he promoted the functional use of sans serif typefaces and asymmetrical layouts (see Typography).

Having been appointed in 1925 to teach at the Meisterschule für Deutschlands Buchdrucker in Munich, Tschichold was arrested by the Nazis in March 1933, accused of advocating radical ideas (Kulturbolschevismus), and dismissed from teaching. Released from ‘protective custody’ after six weeks, he moved to Basle, Switzerland, worked as a book designer and published what he later called a ‘more prudent’ manifesto, ...


Jiří Bureš

(b Milaveč, Sept 23, 1884; d Studeňany u Jičína, May 10, 1969).

Czech printmaker, illustrator and writer. He studied in the studios of Alois Kalvoda (1875–1934) and Rudolf Bém, but he was self taught in woodcut. He lived and worked in Prague and then in Studeňany u Jičína. His life was marked by his experiences as an illegitimate child, by psychotic exaggeration, and by the total lack of recognition for his work. The latter ensured constant financial difficulties. He alternated between a fervent Baroque form of Christianity on the one hand and blasphemous satanic mysticism, spiritism, anarchism etc. on the other. He was deliberately provocative and contemptuous in his social relations.

Váchal joined the artistic group Sursum (initiated 1910–11), where he associated with Jan Konůpek (1883–1950) and Jan Zrzavý, among others, but stylistically he was markedly different from his peers in the group. His work is infused with the atmosphere of picturesque medieval paintings, the visions of Hieronymus Bosch, and crudely worked Baroque prints from the Counter-Reformation and from folk art. Among modern trends he espoused Expressionism, as in the cycle of coloured woodcuts ...


Regina Soria

(b New York, Feb 26, 1836; d Rome, Jan 29, 1923).

American painter, illustrator, sculptor, and writer (see fig.). He studied under Tompkins Harrison Matteson in Shelbourne, NY, and went to Paris in March 1856. After eight months in the studio of François-Edouard Picot, he settled in Florence until the end of 1860. There he learnt drawing from Raffaello Bonaiuti, became interested in the Florentine Renaissance and attended the free Accademia Galli. A more significant artistic inspiration came from the Italian artists at the Caffè Michelangiolo: Telemaco Signorini, Vincenzo Cabianca (1827–1902), and especially Nino Costa (1827–1902). This group sought new and untraditional pictorial solutions for their compositions and plein-air landscapes and were particularly interested in the experiences of Gustave Courbet and the Barbizon painters. They became known as Macchiaioli for their use of splashes (macchia) of light and shadows and for their revolutionary (maquis) attitude to prevailing styles. Among Vedder’s most notable Florentine landscapes are ...


(b Naples, June 23, 1668; d Naples, Jan 20, 1744).

Italian philosopher, jurist and social theorist. He was the son of a bookseller and educated in Jesuit schools and at the University of Naples. He served as a tutor for nine years to the sons of the Rocca family at Vatolla but otherwise never left Naples. In 1699 he won a competition for the Chair of Rhetoric at Naples University and held this post until his retirement in 1741, but he was compelled to supplement his salary of 100 scudi a year by private tutoring. In 1735 he was appointed historiographer to the new Bourbon king Charles VII (later Charles III of Spain).

Vico’s greatest work is his Scienza nuova (1725), in which he tried to establish a consistent pattern in the origin and development of human institutions. A subsidiary theme that emerged from his speculations was a cyclical theory of history, in which all nations are regarded collectively as diverse aspects of a single unity. According to Vico the history of man constantly moves through three stages, the divine, the heroic and the human. Examples of the divine age are Eden and ancient Egypt, where religion arose, inspired by terror of the unknown, and family life was organized. The heroic age is an aristocratic period, with wars and duels; the human age produces cities, laws and civil obedience. Patrician tyranny provokes the masses to revolt; democratic equality is then established under a republic, the excesses of which give rise to an empire. This in its turn becomes corrupt and declines into barbarism. After a ...


Andrew G. Watson

(b Coventry, March 21, 1672; d London, July 6, 1726).

English palaeographer and librarian. He was one of the greatest palaeographers that Britain has produced, who even as a child enjoyed transcribing manuscripts. He went to Oxford University in 1695 as a protégé of the Bishop of Lichfield and, without taking a degree, became an assistant in the Bodleian Library in 1696. Here he contributed to one of the most ambitious scholarly projects of the time: the Catalogus manuscriptorum Angliae et Hiberniae (1697). From 1699 to c. 1705 he searched out and described Anglo-Saxon manuscripts for the second volume of George Hickes’s Linguarum veterum septentrionalium, thesaurus (1705), compiling a catalogue that was not superseded until the 1950s. Wanley’s lasting fame is due to his work as the devoted and trusted librarian to Robert and Edward Harley, Earls of Oxford, whose collections of manuscripts are now in the British Library, London. He acquired for them such landmarks of art and scholarship as the ...