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Rodolphe Rapetti

(b Paris, Nov 11, 1863; d Paris, Aug 15, 1935).

French painter, printmaker and writer. He came from a well-to-do family of shopkeepers. A visit to the exhibition of Claude Monet’s works organized by Georges Charpentier at the offices of La Vie moderne in 1880 decided him on an artistic career and encouraged him to try painting out of doors. His early works, landscapes or still-lifes of 1882–3 (Still-life, 1883; Berlin, Neue N.G.), show an Impressionist influence, particularly that of Monet and Alfred Sisley. In 1883 Signac took courses given by the Prix de Rome winner Jean-Baptiste Bin (1825–c. 1890), but they had little effect on his style. Such suburban Paris landscapes as The Gennevilliers Road (1883; Paris, Mus. d’Orsay) place his works in a world of modern images comparable to those of Jean François Rafaëlli in which factory chimneys, hoardings and etiolated trees abound (e.g. Gas Tanks at Clichy, 1886; Melbourne, N.G. Victoria). Already a friend of Henri Rivière, Signac soon met Armand Guillaumin, who provided important encouragement. In ...


Salme Sarajas-Korte


(b Hamina, June 24, 1873; d Ähtäri, July 12, 1917).

Finnish painter and printmaker. He first studied at the Finnish Fine Arts Association in Helsinki. His natural inclination towards mysticism led him to seek the instruction of Akseli Gallen-Kallela, with whom he studied in Ruovesi intermittently between 1895 and 1897. Gallen-Kallela’s influence, in particular his Symbolist synthesis of the National Romantic style, is evident in Simberg’s early works, such as Frost and Autumn (both 1895; Helsinki, Athenaeum A. Mus.), which are highly personal expressions of the mysticism of nature. These small allegorical watercolours convey in a deliberately primitive style the despondency of autumn, fusing many of Simberg’s unique, fairy-like motifs.

When Simberg left Ruovesi for his first study trip abroad in 1895, Gallen-Kallela advised him to avoid ‘decadent’ Paris and to go to London. Simberg spent the first months of 1896 in London, where he became particularly interested in the collections of medieval miniatures in the British Museum. He also developed an interest in Egyptian art, Hans Holbein II (notably his ...


Francine-Claire Legrand

(b Ostend, July 28, 1881; d Brussels, Nov 23, 1946).

Belgian painter and designer. His initial sources of inspiration were the bottles and flasks he saw in his father’s perfumery shop in Ostend. However, in 1889 he studied briefly at the Terenacademie in Bruges. His early work, already impregnated with Symbolism, was fed by his readings of Friedrich Nietzsche and Maurice Maeterlinck, for example. From February 1903 to January 1904 he worked for Edmond Deman, the Brussels publisher associated particularly with Emile Verhaeren, who encouraged him. In 1904 Spilliaert stayed in Paris, where he was on the fringe of Picasso’s circle and discovered the work of Munch and Toulouse-Lautrec, whose influences he acknowledged. He continued to spend most winters in Paris to keep in touch with the city’s cultural life. A stomach ulcer that gave him insomnia turned him into a nocturnal stroller, which gave rise to innumerable works in a mixture of watercolour, pastel, coloured pencil and Chinese ink. They revealed the beauties of Ostend by night: deserted dykes and quays, arcades, street-lamps shining through fog and mist. ...


Jane Munro

(b Birkenhead, Dec 28, 1860; d London, March 18, 1942).

English painter. The son of a painter, Philip Steer (d 1871), he joined the Department of Coins and Medals at the British Museum in 1875 but found the demands of the Civil Service examination too rigorous and turned to painting in 1878. He studied first at the Gloucester School of Art under John Kemp and from 1880 to 1881 at the South Kensington Drawing Schools. He was rejected by the Royal Academy Schools and went to Paris in October 1882, where he enrolled first at the Académie Julian under William-Adolphe Bouguereau. In January 1883 he transferred to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and studied under Alexandre Cabanel.

Steer exhibited at the Royal Academy between 1883 and 1885 and at the Paris Salon in 1884. These early paintings were constrained student works, but after his return to England in the summer of 1884 he assimilated contemporary French painting. The popular rural naturalism of Jules Bastien-Lepage was particularly influential and evident in ...


John E. Bowlt


(b Smolensk, March 19, 1882; d Nyack, NY, Aug 12, 1946).

Russian stage designer and painter. He attended the School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture in Moscow from 1897 to 1909, studying mainly under Konstantin Korovin and Valentin Serov, but although he painted a few Impressionist landscapes, his first major artistic concern was with Symbolism, as in his paintings of the first decade of the 20th century such as Pastorale (1905; Moscow, I. A. Myasnikova priv. col., see Kogan, no. 2) and Love (1907; Moscow, E. A. Gunst priv. col.). After taking part in the exhibition Crimson Rose in Saratov in 1904, he became a founder-member of the Blue Rose group of Symbolist painters, who paid homage to the painting of Viktor Borisov-Musatov, and he developed their mystical motifs and contributed to their exhibition in 1907. Sudeykin was also in contact with the World of Art group, and, on the invitation of Serge Diaghilev, he travelled to Paris in ...


Frances Lindsay

(b New York, Dec 26, 1853; d Melbourne, July 25, 1928).

Australian painter. She was the eldest daughter of George Sutherland (1829–85), a carver, music teacher and artist who moved with his family to Australia from Glasgow in 1864, settling in Melbourne in 1870. She attended the National Gallery School from 1871 to 1885 and was awarded the R. Wallen Prize in 1883. From mid-1888 she occupied a studio with Clara Southern and gave art lessons in Grosvenor Chambers, Collins Street, where Tom Roberts also had a studio.

From 1887 Sutherland joined sketching trips to Alphington and Diamond Creek and to the artists’ plein-air camps established by Roberts, Frederick McCubbin, Arthur Streeton and other members of the Heidelberg group at Box Hill and Templestowe, near Melbourne. She was one of the most important female artists of the Heidelberg school. Her poetic, Impressionist landscapes often contain figure studies of children or women engaged in such gentle rural activities as mushroom picking and bracken gathering (e.g. ...


Hungarian artists’ colony founded in 1928 in Szentendre on the Danube Bend near Budapest. Its founder-members had all been pupils of István Réti, a member of the Nagybánya colony and, though designed as a centre for the creation of a national art, it soon incorporated an eclectic variety of styles, from Neo-classicism to Surrealism. Its more interesting developments came from the influence of such international movements as Constructivism and Surrealism, although in both cases these received a peculiarly Hungarian interpretation. Jenő Barcsay joined soon after the foundation of the colony and later arrivals included Antal Deli (1886–1960), Miklós Göllner (b 1902), Pál Milháltz (b 1899), János Kmetty and Vilmos Pelrott-Csara (1880–1955). In addition to the artists in the colony itself, there was an equally significant number who worked in the town either permanently or in the summer, such as Béla Czóbel, Lajos Vajda and ...


Gisèle Ollinger-Zinque

(b Bruges, Feb 12, 1874; d Halle, Aug 16, 1930).

Belgian painter. He was self-taught and worked at several trades before turning to painting. While working as a shop assistant in the Maison Beethoven in Brussels he met anti-establishment artists and began to frequent the Libre Académie and the group L’Effort, through which he met Auguste Oleffe. From 1895 to 1902 he and Oleffe lived by the North Sea at Nieuwpoort, where they led the life of the local people. Thévenet spent more time dreaming than painting, executing his first works in 1900. In 1903 he settled in Brussels, where he allied himself with Charles Dehoy and other artists later associated with Brabant Fauvism. He also exhibited in the Salons organized by the Labeur circle (1903–6), by La Libre Esthétique (1904) and at the Salon des Indépendants in Paris (1906).

In the early 1900s Thévenet became the protégé of a great collector, the brewer ...


John Steen

(b The Hague, June 6, 1868; d Cologne, March 5, 1932).

Dutch painter, printmaker, mosaicist and stained-glass artist. He attended the Koninklijke Academie van Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague (1881–8). During this period he painted mainly landscapes in the style of The Hague school. Until c. 1896 he produced Symbolist works, in which the emphatic line flow and the subtle colour shading are especially noticeable, for example The Bride (1893; Otterlo, Kröller-Müller). From 1892 until 1897 he corresponded with Henri Borel, partly about his Symbolist work, often drawing in the letters. During this time he came into close contact with Belgian artists, in particular with Henry Van de Velde through whom he was able to exhibit with Les XX in Brussels. In summer he regularly stayed in Visé, where he produced pastel drawings in a rhythmic pointillism, a style with which he could achieve a form of abstraction.

From 1896 Thorn Prikker concentrated on the applied arts, designing batiks, stained glass, murals, mosaics, furniture and bindings. In ...


Richard J. Boyle

(b Cincinnati, OH, Aug 4, 1853; d Gloucester, MA, Aug 8, 1902).

American painter and printmaker. He began as a painter of window-shades but developed one of the most personal and poetic visions in American landscape painting, portraying nature on canvases that were, in the words of Childe Hassam, ‘strong, and at the same time delicate even to evasiveness’. His first artistic training was under Frank Duveneck, with whom he studied first in Cincinnati and then in Munich (1875–7). His absorption of the Munich style, characterized by bravura brushwork and dextrous manipulation of pigment, with the lights painted as directly as possible into warm, dark grounds derived from Frans Hals and Courbet, is reflected in such paintings as Venice Landscape (1878; Boston, MA, Mus. F.A.) and Landscape (c. 1882; Utica, NY, Munson–Williams–Proctor Inst.)

Twachtman became increasingly dissatisfied with the Munich style’s lack of draughtsmanship, so he went to Paris in 1883 to study at the Académie Julian. In the winter he concentrated on drawing, and in the summer he painted in the Normandy countryside and at Arques-la-Bataille, near Dieppe. ...


Gisèle Ollinger-Zinque

(b Brussels, April 28, 1879; d Brussels, Jan 10, 1957).

Belgian painter, printmaker and writer. He learned to draw in his father’s lithography studio. In 1900 Tytgat entered the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels and studied under Constant Montald. His first paintings were influenced by Symbolism and in particular the work of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, whom he admired. He met Rik Wouters in 1907, and the two became friends. World War I drove him into exile, and he lived as a refugee in England until 1920. There, he not only painted but also made prints, including woodcuts and linocuts with the help of his wife, Maria. She was also his model for the numerous canvases painted in London, for example The Pose (1918; Brussels, Mus. A. Mod.). His early work was full of sensitivity, using bright tones that accentuated delicate greys in an impressionistic manner. Towards 1925 Tytgat became aware of Expressionism. His plasticity grew stronger, and his colours darker, and his desire for simplification came to dominate the forms (e.g. ...


Belinda Thomson

(b Lausanne, Dec 28, 1865; d Paris, Dec 28, 1925).

Swiss printmaker, painter and critic, active in France. He attended school in Lausanne, then moved to Paris in 1882 and enrolled as an art student at the Académie Julian. Paris remained his main base for the rest of his life, although he returned regularly to Switzerland to see his family. He became a close friend of Charles Cottet and Charles Maurin, who was his teacher and mentor. As a student, copying in the Louvre, Vallotton was drawn to the minute realism of the earlier masters, in particular Holbein, whose work he sought to emulate. He succeeded in having portraits accepted by the Salon jury in 1885 and 1886.

Vallotton was primarily a printmaker. He first made a drypoint etching in 1881. Between 1888 and 1892, to make ends meet, he produced reproductive etchings after such artists as Rembrandt and Millet, and from 1891 to 1895 he worked as Paris art correspondent for the ...


Danielle Derrey-Capon

(Adolphe Gustave)

(b Saint-Amand-sur-Escaut, Belgium, May 21, 1855; d Rouen, Nov 27, 1916).

Belgian writer and critic. He initially studied law in Leuven but abandoned it for literature shortly after qualifying. He was the most important Belgian poet of the Symbolist movement; his works include Les Flamandes (Brussels, 1885) and Les Forces tumultueuses (Paris, 1902). He also produced a substantial body of prose, dominated by literary and art criticism. He took up criticism from 1880, writing for L’Art moderne, a journal founded by Edmond Picard (1836–1924). Verhaeren took over the exhibitions section, at the request of Octave Maus, from 1883 and later joined the journal’s management committee. He also wrote on art and literature for numerous other publications, such as La Jeune Belgique, Le Progrès, La Société nouvelle and L’Art libre.

Verhaeren promoted modernist ideas and took a great interest in everything ‘visual’; he defended Les XX and La Libre Esthétique and ardently supported Impressionism and Neo-Impressionism. He wrote ...


John Steen

(b Zaandam, Sept 18, 1868; d Beuron, July 19, 1946).

Dutch painter. He moved to Amsterdam in 1876. As a boy he was given drawing lessons by Hendrik Johannes Haverman. Between 1887 and 1890 he trained at the Rijksacademie voor Beeldende Kunsten in Amsterdam, under August Allebé. He continued his studies in Hattem in the province of Gelderland with his brother-in-law Jan Voerman. Verkade worked from models but also painted landscapes of the Ijssel river with cows in a simplified Realism. In 1890 he visited the exhibition of Les XX in Brussels.

Inspired by Joris-Karl Huysmans’ A rebours, Verkade went to Paris in February 1890. Jacob Meyer de Haan introduced him to Gauguin and Paul Sérusier, through whom he came into contact with Maurice Denis. He joined the meetings of the Nabis at Paul Ranson’s studio where he met Edouard Vuillard, Pierre Bonnard and Ker-Xavier Roussel. Because of his great height he was referred to in the group as the ‘Nabi obélisqual’. At the banquet in honour of Gauguin’s departure for Tahiti at the Café Voltaire in ...


Roberto Pontual

(d’Angelo )

(b Salerno, July 30, 1866; d Rio de Janeiro, Oct 15, 1944).

Brazilian painter and decorative artist, of Italian birth. He was taken as an infant from Italy to Rio de Janeiro. In 1884 he began studying in Rio de Janeiro at the Academia Imperial das Belas Artes and the Liceu Imperial de Artes e Ofícios under Victor Meirelles de Lima, Henrique Bernardelli (1837–1946) and Rodolfo Amoedo (1857–1941). He was active in efforts to eliminate the academy’s rigid academic discipline. He went to Paris in 1892 and attended the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs, where he was taught by Eugène-Samuel Grasset. At the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris, Visconti won a silver medal for the paintings Youth (1898) and Dance of the Wood Nymphs (1899; both Rio de Janeiro, Mus. N. B.A.). Following the Pre-Raphaelites, his main influences were Botticelli and other painters of the Italian Renaissance, but he was also affected by Grasset and Art Nouveau. On his return to Brazil, among the works exhibited in ...


Larissa Haskell

( Aleksandrovich )

(b Omsk, March 5, 1856; d St Petersburg, April 1, 1910).

Russian painter and draughtsman. He was a pioneer of modernism, and his highly innovative technique broke with the traditions of the Academy of Arts in St Petersburg, where he had been a brilliant student; at the same time he felt dissociated from the social consciousness of The Wanderers. He remained a lonely figure in Russian art, but he was the only one of his generation who successfully achieved the monumentality for which so many painters were aiming.

As a boy Vrubel’, whose health was frail and who had a nervous disposition, showed considerable talent for music and drawing. He finished school in Odessa and enlisted in the law faculty of the University of St Petersburg, where he successfully completed his training in 1880. In the same year he entered the Academy of Arts, St Petersburg, where his exceptional talent was appreciated by both his teachers and his fellow students, particularly Valentin Serov. Under the influence of ...


Belinda Thomson

(b Cuiseaux, Saône-et-Loire, Nov 11, 1868; d La Baule, nr Saint-Nazaire, June 21, 1940).

French painter, draughtsman and printmaker.

He was brought up in Paris in modest circumstances, and his home life was closely involved with his mother’s and elder sister’s dressmaking work. He attended the Lycée Condorcet where his contemporaries included the musician Pierre Hermant and the writer Pierre Véber, as well as Maurice Denis. His closest friend was Ker-Xavier Roussel, and, on leaving school in 1885, Roussel encouraged Vuillard to join him at the studio of the painter Diogène Maillart (1840–1926), where they received the rudiments of artistic training. Vuillard began to frequent the Louvre and soon determined on an artistic career, breaking the family tradition of a career in the army.

In March 1886 Vuillard entered the Académie Julian where he was taught by Tony Robert-Fleury, and on his third attempt in July 1887 he passed the entrance examination to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. He was taught by Jean-Léon Gérôme for a brief period of about six weeks in ...


(b St Ingbert, April 21, 1878; d Fromelles, nr Ypres, Belgium, May 10, 1915).

German painter and printmaker . He studied decoration at the Kreisbaugewerksschule in Kaiserlautern (1891–3) and began work in a decorator’s studio in Frankfurt am Main. However, in 1894 he moved to Munich to resume his studies, first at the Kunstgewerbeschule and later under Franz von Stuck at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste (1897–1901). For some years he concentrated on poster design and book illustration, contributing a total of 500 drawings to Jungend: Illustrierte Wochenschrift für Kunst und Leben from 1899. His early paintings such as the portrait of Ludwig Scharf II (c. 1905; Munich, Staatsgal. Mod. Kst) were executed in dark-toned academic style, but an exhibition of French Impressionism in Berlin in 1905 so impressed him that he went to Paris for nearly a year (until May 1906). Despite his association with the circle of artists around Matisse, he was more influenced by the work of Cézanne. In ...


Tom Parsons

(b Reims, Sept 3, 1868; d ?June 1935).

French painter . He trained in Paris at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and started exhibiting at the Salon des Artistes Français, winning medals in 1897, 1898 and 1900. As a young man he introduced his friend and neighbour, Matisse, to an Impressionist style. Wéry, however, courted official success despite working in an Impressionist manner in such works as Ferrymen of Amsterdam (Paris, Mus. A. Mod. Ville Paris). In 1906 he exhibited a decorative frieze (untitled, repr. in The Studio, xxxvi, 1906, p. 368) at the Exposition Universelle in Liège and later that year was made Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur. He continued working in a decorative mode and received a diplôme d’honneur from the French government in 1925.

P. Desjardins: ‘Les Salons de 1899’, Gazette des beaux-arts [suppl. is Chron. A.], 22 (1899), pp. 132–56 L. Houticq: ‘A travers les Salons’, Art et décoration [prev. pubd as A. Déc.], 36 (1914), pp. 1–14...


Aimo Reitala

( Axel )

(b Turku, Jan 4, 1860; d Turku, Nov 19, 1919).

Finnish painter . He studied at the School of Drawing in Turku from 1869 to 1878. In 1878 he travelled to Düsseldorf and enrolled at the Kunstakademie, where he attended classes on landscape painting by Eugen Dücker until 1886. He spent his summers in Finland, on the Åland Islands, preparing sketches that provided the groundwork for many of the paintings he produced in Düsseldorf. Although Westerholm began working according to the principles of studio painting, his vivid studies are often imbued with the crispness of the plein-air style. In the early 1880s he concentrated on painting autumnal scenes and rapidly became the leading landscape artist of the younger generation with such works as the Mail-packet Jetty at Eckerö (1885; Hämeenlinna, A. Mus.)

After leaving Düsseldorf Westerholm shifted completely to plein-air painting. At first he worked at his summer residence in the Åland Islands, where he became the central figure in a colony of Finnish and Swedish ...