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Donata Battilotti

(b Padua, 1478; d Padua, May 29, 1574).

Italian ecclesiastic and historiographer. Educated in Padua, he later entered the clergy and was elected a canon of Padua Cathedral in 1556. He wrote a number of religious works but is best remembered for his book on the antiquities and illustrious men of Padua. This Latin work was granted a licence to print in Venice in 1557 but was published in Basle in 1560. Following the tradition of earlier municipal chronicles, Scardeone described the origins and cultural heritage of Padua, paying considerable attention to its ancient monuments and transcribing many inscriptions from tombs. He also devoted a chapter to the artists of Padua, from the 14th century to his own day, including Andrea Mantegna, Francesco Squarcione, Andrea Riccio and Tiziano Minio. This was the first attempt, outside Florence, to compose a local compendium of artistic biographies. Although the accounts of the lives of individual artists, particularly the earlier ones, often have an anecdotal or legendary quality, they are nevertheless a valuable source for the study of Paduan art, especially that of the 15th century. The frontispiece of this volume is a view of Padua by an anonymous artist: it offers the first accurate compilation of visual data on the city’s buildings....


(b Augsburg, c. 1455; d Augsburg, Feb 25, 1521).

German printer. Schönsperger was appointed imperial court printer to Habsburg, House of family §I, (3) , for whom he published a magnificent prayer book (1513) set in a specially-designed Gothic type and printed in ten copies on vellum. He also published the Emperor’s Theuerdank (1517). His son, Johann Schönsperger the younger (...


Kurt Löcher

(b Austria, 1505; d Linz, Upper Austria, late 1567).

German painter. Primarily a portrait painter, he probably began life as an illuminator. In 1529 he was active in Bohemia. In 1530 he accompanied Archduke (later King and Emperor) Ferdinand I to attend the Reichstag in Augsburg. In 1531 he became court painter and from c. 1535 was based in Vienna in the service of the court. In 1538–9 he travelled to the imperial court in Spain; from 1540–41 he stayed in Augsburg and worked on several projects in Prague. Attending the Reichstag in Augsburg from 1550–51, he met Titian. In 1558 he was ennobled and in 1561 settled in Linz. Data about Seisenegger include applications he sent the King in 1535 and 1545 (Vienna, Hofkamarchv), appending lists of works produced on commission from the King. Seisenegger signed his pictures with the letters is intertwined.

In Seisenegger’s portraits of royal children the heraldic element from illumination lived on. In the ...


Evelyn M. Cohen

[Feibush Ashkenazi]

(fl 15th century).

Jewish scribe and illuminator, active in Germany and northern Italy. Although more of his work has been identified than any other medieval Jewish artist–copyist’s, all that is known about him is culled from colophons in manuscripts that he either wrote or decorated. He lived in Cologne and Bonn; most of the manuscripts attributed to him are liturgical texts, especially Haggadot (see Haggadah). He usually named himself as the scribe of a manuscript, as in the following works: First Nuremberg Haggadah (Jerusalem, Schocken Lib., MS. 24086); First New York Haggadah (New York, Jew. Theol. Semin. America Lib., MS. Mic. 4481); a prayerbook dated 1449 (Parma, Bib. Palatina, MS. 3144); a prayerbook dated 1452/3 (Turin, Bib. N. U., MS. A. III. 14); a Haggadah (Cologny, Fond. Bodmer, MS. Cod. Bodmer 81); a prayerbook dated 1469 (London, BL, MS. Add. 26957); the Washington Haggadah, dated 1478 (Washington, DC, Lib. Congr., Hebr. MS. I); and David Kimhi’s commentary on the Psalms dated ...


Mary Margaret McDonnell Ford

(b Parma, Feb 15, 1508; d Venice, May 24, 1572).

Italian medallist, sculptor, bookbinder and dealer. He was an industrious student of the goldsmith Gianfrancesco Bonzagni, to whom he was related. In 1533 he produced a medal celebrating the foundation of the Venetian church of S Francesco della Vigna (begun by Jacopo Sansovino). This event was also commemorated in a medal (e.g. Brescia, Pin. Civ. Tosio–Martinengo) by a pupil of Vittore Gambello. Both works depict Doge Andrea Gritti, who laid the foundation-stone of the church in 1534, as well as showing Sansovino’s design. Spinelli’s medal contains a bust of Gritti on its face with the inscription ‘Gritti DVX Venetiar MDXXIII’. The Doge is shown facing to the left, bearded and clothed in a cap and robe. A portion of the chest and cap extends over part of one of the two circles encompassing the bust. On the reverse of the medal is an inscription, surrounded by maple leaves, to ‘DIVI Francisci MDXXXIIII’, and, in the exergue, the signature ‘An Sp F’ (Andrea Spinelli Fecit), together with the date. The design on the reverse is from a perspective drawing of the church, which intersects the inner of the two circles, as the bust of the Doge does on the obverse side. The inscription within the two circles surrounding the design also appears on both sides. The medal, cast in bronze, has a predominantly light brown patina, although part of it has a covering of black lacquer. An unusual spot or mark is visible behind the neck of the Doge....


Barbara Butts

(b ?Nuremberg, c. 1495; d after 1522).

German painter, draughtsman, woodcut designer and possibly manuscript illuminator. He was probably born in Nuremberg and is reputed to have lived in Dürer’s house, where he was a pupil (Neudörfer). He was commissioned in 1520 to contribute to the decoration of the Emperor Charles V’s private chambers in the Burg, on the occasion of the Emperor’s visit to Nuremberg. He dated woodcuts between 1513 and 1522, signing many of them with the ligated letters hsk (the s reversed). A Hans Springinklee married Barbara Wagnerin on 7 December 1533 in St Sebald.

Springinklee’s oeuvre can be established on the basis of his woodcuts and book illustrations. Between 1512 and 1515 he collaborated with Dürer, Wolf Traut and Albrecht Altdorfer on the Triumphal Arch of Maximilian I, designing at least 7 of 24 historical scenes from Emperor Maximilian I’s life as well as much of his family tree. He is also credited with contributing, along with Dürer and others, to the ...


Charles Talbot


(fl c. 1520; d Nuremberg, 1562–3).

German woodcut designer and illustrator. He is thought to have trained with Hans Springinklee. In 1537 he was paid the second highest amount among five artists for their work on the decorations of the Haller Album (Nuremberg, Staatsarchv), an illustrated book of portraits and family heraldry. However, his authorship of woodcuts, which constitute the principal body of work attributed to him, is based on only two initialled prints, the two-part Cavalry Battle and the Mounted Captain and Two Landsknechts (Geisberg, nos 1392 and 1372). These signatures are not identical: in the first the initials appear side by side, in the second they are overlapped as a monogram.

On the basis of these two works, c. 124 woodcuts have been attributed to Stör that were previously assigned to Erhard Schön, with whom Stör had presumably worked in close association. The 46 small illustrations for a Bible (Nuremberg, 1530) published by ...


Annarosa Garzelli

(di Benedetto di Caroccio degli)

(b Florence, Nov 17, 1412; d Florence, Dec 6, 1468).

Italian illuminator and ?painter. He was the most important illuminator in the circle of Fra Angelico and made a fundamental contribution to the imagery of early Renaissance choir-books. The most important of these are the documented group illuminated (1446–60) for the convent of S Marco, Florence, which provided illustrative models for later generations of artists. His work as a panel painter needs to be reassessed.

Strozzi very probably received his training under Fra Angelico, in both manuscript and panel painting; there is no evidence of a stylistic link with Battista di Biagio Sanguigni (1393–1451), in whose bottega Strozzi worked in his youth. One of his earliest correctly identified works is the manuscript miniature of the Mystic Marriage of St Catherine (1447; Florence, Gal. Corsini priv. col.). A specialist in sacred themes, Zanobi softened the severe style of his predecessors, introducing lively details from everyday life and a new interest in the Antique. He used contemporary architectural motifs and naturalistic, animated landscapes. In the figure drawing there is a notable sense of movement in the draperies and the chromatic range is rich, with a preference for iridescent fabrics. The borders of his miniatures, with foliage and figures, were always illuminated by ...


(b Bruges, ?1510–20; d London, June 23, 1576).

Netherlandish painter active in England. She was the eldest daughter of Simon Bening, the leading illuminator of the Ghent-Bruges school. She came to England c. 1545 with her husband, George Teerlinc of Blankenberge, and in 1546 was appointed royal ‘paintrix’ to Henry VIII, perhaps to help to fill the gap left by the recent deaths of Hans Holbein the younger and Lucas Horenbout. Her annuity of £40 was larger than theirs. Teerlinc was employed as a gentlewoman in the royal households of both Mary I and Elizabeth I and her husband as a Gentleman Pensioner. The first reference to a portrait by her is during the reign of Edward VI. In October 1551 she was paid the large sum of £10 for visiting the future Elizabeth I ‘to drawe owt her picture’. Her other documented works include paintings presented as gifts to the sovereign at the New Year; the first, for Queen ...


(fl 1509–27).

Italian illuminator. Between 1509 and 1524 numerous references appear in the account books of Montecassino Abbey to payments received by Matteo and his assistant Aloise da Napoli for the decoration of manuscripts. The Psalters in the collection (Montecassino Abbey, Lib., MSS H, I, L, M, N, O, P, Q) as well as a number of choir-books can be firmly attributed to these artists. From Montecassino Matteo went to Perugia and in 1527 was working as illuminator for the monastery of S Pietro, again with his assistant and also intermittently with Francesco Boccardi (d 1547), son of Giovanni Boccardi. In the same year Matteo decorated three Graduals (Perugia, S Pietro dei Cassinensi, MSS E, F and G), which are among his finest works. A Psalter executed for the monastery (Perugia, S Pietro dei Cassinensi, MS. Z) displays the characteristic features of his work: the brick-red colour of the flesh, the hair curling in snakey locks and the lively, gesticulating figures. Although a modern note states that this was a collaborative effort with ...


Patrick M. de Winter

[Master of Charles of Angoulême]

(fl 1475–1523).

French illuminator. He is documented as working for the Angoulême family, but since none of his works is signed or dated, his output rests on attributions. His early attributed works, dependent on the style of the Master of Jouvenel des Ursins, are characterized by compactly drawn moving figures outlined against receding backgrounds, with borders that tend to be spatially complex. Among these are a page in a Missal for Poitiers Use (Paris, Bib. N., MS. lat. 873, fol. 21), the La Rochefoucauld Hours (Brussels, Bib. Royale Albert ler, MS. 15077) and two other Books of Hours (Luxembourg, Bib. N., MS. III:600 and New York, Pierpont Morgan Lib., MS. M. 1001, respectively). Testard’s middle period, during which his compositions became tightly constructed and his colouring more sharply defined, is exemplified by a Roman de la rose (Oxford, Bodleian Lib., MS. Douce 195), the Nouailher Missal (Poitiers, Cathedral, Treasury) and the Book of Hours (Paris, Bib. N., MS. lat. ...


Patrizia Ferretti

(b Florence, 1409; d Florence, May 2, 1468).

Italian illuminator. He trained in the bottega of Michele di Giovanni Guarducci (1387–1453) between 1438 and 1442. From 1446 he decorated a series of choir-books for the Capitolo di S Marco, among which the Gradual (1456–7; Venice, Fond. Cini, no. 2151) from S Pancrazio is of special interest for its introduction of the ‘heroic putto’. He also decorated several manuscripts for Florence Cathedral: for example, two Psalters (Florence, Mus. Opera Duomo, N. II, 3 and O, 4), which were illustrated by Zanobi Strozzi, with whom he continued to collaborate, and an Antiphonary (Florence, Mus. Opera Duomo, U. 46) for which he was paid in 1450–51. Between 1454 and 1463 Torelli worked on the borders of two Graduals (Florence, Bib. Medicea–Laurenziana, MSS Edili 149 and 151), also for the cathedral. Here the figure style recalls the work of Ser Ricciardo di Nanni, who was his pupil, and of Francesco di Antonio del Chierico. In the same period Torelli participated in the decoration of the choir-books (Florence, Archivio del Capitolo di S Lorenzo, Corale K. 209) for the Badia of Fiesole....


Marianne Grivel

(b Bourges, 1480; d Paris, 1533).

French printer, publisher, book designer and bookseller. He left Bourges in 1503 to study in Rome and Bologna. After returning to France in 1507, he published Classical works and taught at the Collège du Plessis in Paris (1508–11) and then, from 1512, at the Collège de Bourgogne (Paris), before a second stay in Italy from about 1516 to 1518. In 1518 he was admitted to the Paris booksellers’ guild. He worked under the sign of the Pot-Cassé, first on the Petit-Pont adjoining the Hôtel-Dieu (1512–23) and then on the Rue St Jacques; finally he settled on the Rue de la Juiverie from 1532 to 1533.

From 1529 Tory was active as a printer. Influenced by Classical art and by Italy, he adopted a new approach to the aesthetics of book production in France, concerning himself with a correct balance between text and illustration. From his first book, ...


A. Demarquay Rook

(b ?nr Troyes, fl 1467–99; d before 1508).

French illuminator. There are numerous mentions of him in the accounts of René, Duke of Anjou, between 1467 and 1480. In 1476 René provided Trubert with funds for a journey to Rome and two years later conferred on him the title of Valet de Chambre, an office he had granted to only one other painter, Barthélemy d’Eyck. Trubert lived mainly in Provence and seems to have continued working there after René’s death in 1480. By 1486 he was receiving gifts from René’s grandson, René II, Duke of Lorraine, and from 1491 until 1499 he was part of the Duke’s household in Lorraine. In documents of 1508 he is mentioned as dead.

A Breviary (Paris, Bib. Arsenal, MS. 601 and Petit Pal., MS. 42) and a Diurnal (Paris, Bib. N., MS. lat. 10491), made for René II between 1492 and 1494, have been identified as Trubert’s work, and on this basis nine other manuscripts have been attributed to him (Reynaud). These are all liturgical manuscripts, and there is no evidence to suggest that he either illustrated secular books or painted on a larger scale. Nonetheless, the outstanding characteristic of his style is a breadth of conception and a monumentality of form more usually associated with panel or mural painting. In the larger and more lavish books decorated for René II the scenes from biblical history allowed Trubert wide scope, and figures are confidently grouped within spacious surroundings. In many of these compositions the easy relationship of figures to one another and to their setting echoes the work of Jean Fouquet and other illuminators of the Loire valley, which was probably where Trubert trained. Although none of Trubert’s surviving works was demonstrably made for René of Anjou, emblematic motifs in the decoration show his awareness of the personal iconography of his first patron and there are compositional links with the work of the illuminator known as the Master of King René of Anjou as well as with Provençal painting in general. Trubert used Italian early Renaissance architectural forms in all but the earliest or humblest manuscripts. Although the motifs are limited and are far simpler than those painted by Fouquet, the interiors represented vary endlessly and are shown from a variety of angles, often with striking illusionism. Faces are very distinctive. In early works, such as the Chester Beatty Hours (sold London, Sotheby’s, ...


Anne Hagopian van Buren

Illuminated manuscript begun in the late 14th century and finished in the mid-15th, the work of French and Netherlandish illuminators and one of the major monuments of northern European art. The identification of the various sections (Paris, Bib. N., MS. nouv. acq. lat. 3093; Paris, Louvre, R.F. 2022–5; section in Turin, Bib. N. U., MS. K. IV. 29, destr. 1904; Turin, Mus. Civ. A. Ant., Inv. no. 47) was established by Durrieu (1902), but the history of the manuscript has been interpreted in various ways. The reconstruction presented here accounts for most, if not all, of the complex evidence.

The original manuscript, a Book of Hours expanded by several other offices and prayers and a nearly complete Missal, was commissioned by Jean, Duc de Berry (see Valois, House of family §(3)), in 1389 at the time of his second marriage, to which the decoration alludes. The text was transcribed in the Parisian shop of ...


Feliciano Benvenuti

(b Florence; fl Venice, 1503 fl Florence, 1557).

Italian printmaker. In Venice between 1503 and 1526 he engraved numerous woodcut book illustrations: his monogram, known in 17 variations, appears in c. 60 different volumes, printed in Venice. Among his most famous works is the edition (c. 1517) in nine blocks of Titian’s woodcut Triumph of Christ. Uberti’s return to Florence c. 1550 is suggested by the presence of wood-engravings in the Venetian fashion in certain Florentine texts, such as the Historia di S Antonio di Padova (1557). Apart from his woodcuts, seven engravings (and a dubious eighth) are attributed to him (e.g. b. 1, 2 [390] and Patellani, pp. 48–55), which, in a graphic language that is still late 15th century, are inspired by works by Perugino, Leonardo da Vinci, Marcantonio Raimondi and Dürer.

Bolaffi G. Patellani: ‘Lucantonio degli Uberti’, Quaderni del conoscitore di stampe, 20 (1974), pp. 46–55 M. Zucker: Early Italian Masters...


Bodo Brinkmann


(fl 1454; d Antwerp, before March 14, 1493).

South Netherlandish illuminator. He became a master of the Ghent painters’ guild on 30 October 1454. Between 1457 and 1459 he was in the service of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy. In 1462 he enrolled in the Antwerp Guild of St Luke, to which he belonged until his death. He was also active for short periods outside Antwerp: in 1468, for example, he contributed to extensive preparations in Bruges for the assembly of the Order of the Golden Fleece and for the marriage of Charles the Bold to Margaret of York.

This artist was first recognized by De Schryver, who attributed to him a small prayerbook (the ‘Little Hours’) with the Office of the Passion, commissioned by Charles the Bold in 1469 (Larrivière, Charnacé priv. col.). By comparison with the style of this manuscript, most of the miniatures in the Hours of Mary of Burgundy (Vienna, Österreich. Nbib., Cod. ...


Patrizia Ferretti

(b Florence, 1410; d Florence, 1479).

Italian illuminator and stationer. He is documented from 1440, when he enrolled in the Arte de’ Medici e Speziali, and began to work for the Badia in Florence with his brother Giovanni. When the latter died, Bartolomeo entered the bottega of his younger brother, Chimenti. Bartolomeo was not an innovator and was of second rank compared to such skilled illuminators as Francesco d’Antonio del Chierico, Gherardo di Giovanni di Miniato del Foro, Monte di Giovanni di Miniato del Foro and Attavante degli Attavanti. His handling of volume, the sculptural quality of his scrolls and his use of large, densely hatched areas in landscapes, beards and hair, are reminiscent of contemporary sculpture; the influence of Donatello’s low reliefs is especially evident in Bartolomeo’s use of the ‘heroic putto’ (e.g. initial S, Florence, Bib. Medicea–Laurenziana, MS. S Marco 616, fol. 4r).

Bartolomeo worked mainly on liturgical manuscripts and Books of Hours, sometimes in collaboration with other artists. For example he came into contact with Battista di Niccolò da Padova and Ser Ricciardo di Nanni while working on the four-volume Lectionary (Florence, Bib. Medicea–Laurenziana, MSS Edili 141–7) for Florence Cathedral. Among his large-scale works are two Missals (Florence, Bib. Medicea–Laurenziana, MSS Edili 103–4), also commissioned by the cathedral authorities, in ...


Gregory A. Pass

The Knights of Columbus Vatican Film Library at Saint Louis University, St Louis, MO, is a research library for medieval and Renaissance manuscript studies that holds more than 37,000 manuscripts on microfilm from the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. In addition, it holds microfilms of more than 2400 manuscripts from other libraries, 52,000 colour slides of manuscript illumination, and large collections of microfilmed Jesuit historical documents relating to the Order’s activities in the Americas and the Philippines. The library maintains an extensive reference collection of published manuscript catalogues and unpublished inventories for Vatican Library manuscripts, as well as manuscript catalogues for many other libraries, works on palaeography, codicology, and illumination, manuscript facsimiles, and other reference materials and periodicals to support the study of manuscripts and their texts.

The library was opened in 1953. Since 1957 it has published the journal Manuscripta: A Journal for Manuscript Research, which features articles and reviews on palaeography, codicology, illumination, library history, manuscript catalogues, text editing, and other subjects. Since ...


Peter Humfrey

(fl Venice, 1472–97).

Italian painter and illuminator. Knowledge of the artistic activity of Jacometto is based almost exclusively on the notebooks of Marcantonio Michiel, who recorded a number of his works in the patrician houses of Venice and Padua in the first half of the 16th century. In Pietro Bembo’s house Michiel saw a small picture with scenes from the life of a saint, and portraits of Bembo as a child of eleven and of his brother Carlo as a newborn baby in 1472; in the house of Francesco Zio Michiel saw four miniatures by Jacometto in a Book of Hours; in the house of Zuanantonio Venier he saw a small picture with animals painted in chiaroscuro; in the house of Antonio Pasqualino he saw a number of drawings; in the house of Gabriele Vendramin he saw a portrait painted (or ?drawn) in chiaroscuro, and a small book of vellum with pen drawings of animals and candelabra; and finally, in the house of ...