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Patrizia Ferretti

(fl 1449–80).

Italian illuminator. He was trained between 1449 and 1452 by Battista di Niccolò da Padova (fl from 1425; d 1452) and after Battista’s death collaborated occasionally with Filippo di Matteo Torelli. Ricciardo was one of the first Florentine artists to be concerned with archaeological discoveries, and this is consistently reflected in his painting. A copy of Plautus’s Comedies (Florence, Bib. Medicea–Laurenziana, MS. Plut. 36.41), datable before 1450, and belonging to Piero de’ Medici, is thought to be his first autograph work. In early commissions from the Medici, Ricciardo shows a strong interest in a wide range of Classical ideas, partly derived from gems and cameos in the Medici collections. He was also sensitive to Florentine painting, from the work of Domenico Veneziano to that of the Master of Pratovecchio, and to the narrative style typical of paintings on cassoni. His illustrations are full of biblical symbolism, providing a rich pictorial commentary on the text. This tendency characterizes the works of his early period (...


Jürgen Zimmer

(b c. 1532; d c. 1592–3).

German draughtsman, publisher, wood-engraver and painter. In 1548 he published a textbook of writing instruction and in 1551 one on arithmetic. In 1560–63 he made a model of Augsburg (Augsburg, Maximilianmus.) and in 1563 a map of the city, which was used in simplified form in the monumental Civitates orbis terrarum (1572–1618) by Georg Braun and Franz Hogenberg (fl c. 1560–c. 1590/94). His Augsburger Meilenscheibe (c. 1565, frequently reissued), a disc with a plan of Augsburg at the centre, with lists of towns and distances radiating from it, was a practical instrument for travellers from and to the most important trade and cultural centre of 16th-century central Europe and is to be seen in close conjunction with the Reissbüchlein (Augsburg, 1563) by Jörg Gail.

Rogel reproduced the works of several artists in woodcuts, for example the Geometria et perspectiva (Augsburg, 1567...


Evelyn M. Cohen

The most profusely decorated Hebrew codex produced in Renaissance Italy. It is a compilation of approximately 70 works, including biblical, liturgical, historical, legal, philosophical, astrological, Cabbalistic and moralistic texts, many of them with a commentary written in the margins. The religious works include the books of Psalms, Proverbs and Job, a Machzor and a Haggadah. The secular books include Josippon’s history of the Jews (based on Josephus) and the Meshal ha-Kadmoni. The codex would thus have functioned as a miniature library. The patron of the manuscript is unknown, as there is no colophon or inscription of ownership, but the name Moses ben Jekutiel ha-Cohen, mentioned in the blessing of the Torah (fol. 106), possibly refers to the original owner. The calendar of the lunar cycle (fol. 471) begins with 1470, and stylistically the manuscript appears to belong to the third quarter of the 15th century.

This small (210×156 mm) codex, written on fine vellum in an Italo-Ashkenazi script, is composed of 437 folios, 408 of which are illuminated. In addition to two full-page miniatures for the Book of Job and five full-page diagrams, the manuscript contains approximately 200 smaller text illustrations, which are placed in the columns of text, the outer margins of the pages, or the borders of the initial word panels. These pictures capture the daily life of a Renaissance Jew in Italy by portraying the religious observances that were performed daily, on the Sabbath and on the various holy days, as well as the rituals of circumcision, marriage and mourning. Biblical episodes are also depicted, as are scenes from numerous animal fables....


Charles M. Rosenberg


(b ?Mantua; fl c. 1453–82).

Italian illuminator. Although he may have been in Ferrara as early as 1453, he is first unambiguously recorded in 1455, in the contract for the sumptuously decorated Bible of Borso d’Este (1455–61; Modena, Bib. Estense, MS. V.G. 12, lat. 422–3). Este court records refer to Franco ‘da Mantova’, but it is not obvious where he received his earliest training. His early style, in the Bible illuminations, reveals a certain courtly quality and naturalism of detail associated with a Lombard background, but these characteristics are tempered by a degree of sobriety. Figures tend to be large-scale, their heavy garments falling in long, straight patterns or gathered into broader, broken folds. Landscapes are schematic and airless, often marked by relatively dense foliage and wavelike hills. His palette is cool and opaque.

It is generally agreed that Franco left Ferrara early in the 1460s to work in the Veneto, where he remained until ...


Cristina Gonzalez

(b Sahagún, León, 1499; d Mexico, 1590).

Spanish writer, missionary, linguist, and ethnographer. Bernardino de Sahagún wrote and compiled the Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España (c. 1577), a comprehensive account of the Aztecs. Before arriving in New Spain (Mexico), he studied at the prestigious Universidad de Salamanca, one of the principle centers of culture in western Europe. He took the habit of the Franciscans while still a student. In 1529, at the invitation of friar Antonio de Ciudad Rodrigo, one of the twelve Franciscan friars to arrive in Mexico with Martín de Valencia in 1524, he sailed to New Spain as a missionary. In Mexico City he witnessed the ruins of the Templo Mayor and, according to friar Juan de Torquemada, commissioned a painting of the site and sent it to Spain. He was custodian of the monastery in Tlalmanalco and also resided at the monastery in Xochimilco before becoming a teacher of classics and history at the trilingual imperial Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco in ...


Christopher L. C. E. Witcombe

(Martínez [Martini; Martino] de)

(b ?Salamanca, Spain, 1478; d Rome, 5 July, 1562).

Spanish book and print publisher, active in Italy. Salamanca was in Rome by 1519 when he published Amadis de Gaula. Subsequently he published Ordo perpetuus divini officii secundu[m] Romana[m] Curia[m] (1520; printed by Antonio Blado), Esplandian (1525), La Celestina (c. 1525; with Jacopo Giunta), Antonio de Guevara’s Libro aureo de Marco Aurelio (1531), a Quignon Breviary (1535; with Giunta and Blado), Hernando da Salazar’s Las yglesias & indulgentias de Roma (1539), Las obras de Boscan (1547), a writing manual (1548; printed by the Dorico brothers) and Juan de Valverde’s Historia de la composicion del cuerpo humano (1556; with Antoine Lafréry). In 1538 he began also to publish prints. His address, often abbreviated (Ant. Sal. exc.), appears on the second or later state of over 250 prints. Of this number, at least 150 are by ...


Federica Toniolo

(b Padua, 1435 or 1438; d Padua, after 1518).

Italian scribe and illuminator. He was also the most important humanist scribe in Padua, whose monumental epigraphic style was influential also in Rome and Naples. He is first documented as ‘scriptor’ at the end of the 1450s in Padua, where he was in contact with academic circles and in particular with Bernardo Bembo (1422–1519), a Venetian patrician, who in those years was a student in Padua and for whom Sanvito produced splendid manuscripts (e.g. the Oratio gratulatoria, London, BL, Add. MS. 14787). In these, as in other works executed in Padua in the late 1450s and early 1460s, script and decoration were revived in a humanist and antiquarian vein, aimed at recreating the Classical codex. From 1469 to 1501 Sanvito was in Rome at the papal court, where he transcribed numerous books, some signed with the monogram b.s., for such illustrious patrons as the humanist Bartolomeo Sacchi or il Platina (...


Donata Battilotti

(d Verona, May 8, 1550).

Italian humanist, historian and patron. He was the author of the first printed book on the history and antiquities of Verona, published in 1540, with woodcuts after drawings by Giovanni Battista Caroto that are still extant (Verona, Bib. Civ.). De origine et amplitudine civitatis Veronae, written in Latin, takes the form of a conversation between members of a group of Veronese humanists including, apart from the author, Giacomo Villafranca and Giovanni Nicola Capella, and the artist Giovanni Battista Caroto. Caroto is given the task of providing technical information on the monuments that are the subject of the second book, which he himself had illustrated.

De origine was the first complete catalogue of Veronese antiquities, from the most prominent, such as the Arena, to miscellaneous remains such as displaced capitals. Also worthy of note are the Latin inscriptions, of which the author must have possessed a collection. The measurements are minute, and the monuments (except for the Arena) are completely reconstructed in the illustrations. Each is placed chronologically in relation to the salient moments of Roman history, and due recognition is given to the architects....


Marco Torriti

[Stefano di Giovanni di Consolo]

(b Siena or Cortona, c. 1400; d Siena, April 1, 1450).

Italian painter and illuminator. He was the most original painter in Siena in the 15th century. Working within the Sienese tradition, he introduced elements derived from the decorative Gothic style and the realism of such contemporary Florentine innovators as Masaccio. Most of his surviving works are panel pictures, notably those from the altarpiece painted for S Francesco, Borgo San Sepolcro.

The name Sassetta appears to have been associated with him, mistakenly, only since the 18th century (Pecci, 1752), but it is generally used. He was the son of Giovanni di Consolo of Cortona (Bacci, 1936) and is firmly documented first in 1426 in Siena but was probably active there earlier. His influences included Taddeo di Bartolo, Martino di Bartolommeo (fl 1389; d c. 1435), Benedetto di Bindo, Gregorio di Cecco and other artists who were links between the great Sienese painters of the early 14th century (Simone Martini, Ambrogio Lorenzetti and Pietro Lorenzetti) and the art of the 15th-century Renaissance....


Donata Battilotti

(b Padua, 1478; d Padua, May 29, 1574).

Italian ecclesiastic and historiographer. Educated in Padua, he later entered the clergy and was elected a canon of Padua Cathedral in 1556. He wrote a number of religious works but is best remembered for his book on the antiquities and illustrious men of Padua. This Latin work was granted a licence to print in Venice in 1557 but was published in Basle in 1560. Following the tradition of earlier municipal chronicles, Scardeone described the origins and cultural heritage of Padua, paying considerable attention to its ancient monuments and transcribing many inscriptions from tombs. He also devoted a chapter to the artists of Padua, from the 14th century to his own day, including Andrea Mantegna, Francesco Squarcione, Andrea Riccio and Tiziano Minio. This was the first attempt, outside Florence, to compose a local compendium of artistic biographies. Although the accounts of the lives of individual artists, particularly the earlier ones, often have an anecdotal or legendary quality, they are nevertheless a valuable source for the study of Paduan art, especially that of the 15th century. The frontispiece of this volume is a view of Padua by an anonymous artist: it offers the first accurate compilation of visual data on the city’s buildings....


(b Augsburg, c. 1455; d Augsburg, Feb 25, 1521).

German printer. Schönsperger was appointed imperial court printer to Habsburg, House of family §I, (3) , for whom he published a magnificent prayer book (1513) set in a specially-designed Gothic type and printed in ten copies on vellum. He also published the Emperor’s Theuerdank (1517). His son, Johann Schönsperger the younger (...


Kurt Löcher

(b Austria, 1505; d Linz, Upper Austria, late 1567).

German painter. Primarily a portrait painter, he probably began life as an illuminator. In 1529 he was active in Bohemia. In 1530 he accompanied Archduke (later King and Emperor) Ferdinand I to attend the Reichstag in Augsburg. In 1531 he became court painter and from c. 1535 was based in Vienna in the service of the court. In 1538–9 he travelled to the imperial court in Spain; from 1540–41 he stayed in Augsburg and worked on several projects in Prague. Attending the Reichstag in Augsburg from 1550–51, he met Titian. In 1558 he was ennobled and in 1561 settled in Linz. Data about Seisenegger include applications he sent the King in 1535 and 1545 (Vienna, Hofkamarchv), appending lists of works produced on commission from the King. Seisenegger signed his pictures with the letters is intertwined.

In Seisenegger’s portraits of royal children the heraldic element from illumination lived on. In the ...


Evelyn M. Cohen

[Feibush Ashkenazi]

(fl 15th century).

Jewish scribe and illuminator, active in Germany and northern Italy. Although more of his work has been identified than any other medieval Jewish artist–copyist’s, all that is known about him is culled from colophons in manuscripts that he either wrote or decorated. He lived in Cologne and Bonn; most of the manuscripts attributed to him are liturgical texts, especially Haggadot (see Haggadah). He usually named himself as the scribe of a manuscript, as in the following works: First Nuremberg Haggadah (Jerusalem, Schocken Lib., MS. 24086); First New York Haggadah (New York, Jew. Theol. Semin. America Lib., MS. Mic. 4481); a prayerbook dated 1449 (Parma, Bib. Palatina, MS. 3144); a prayerbook dated 1452/3 (Turin, Bib. N. U., MS. A. III. 14); a Haggadah (Cologny, Fond. Bodmer, MS. Cod. Bodmer 81); a prayerbook dated 1469 (London, BL, MS. Add. 26957); the Washington Haggadah, dated 1478 (Washington, DC, Lib. Congr., Hebr. MS. I); and David Kimhi’s commentary on the Psalms dated ...


Mary Margaret McDonnell Ford

(b Parma, Feb 15, 1508; d Venice, May 24, 1572).

Italian medallist, sculptor, bookbinder and dealer. He was an industrious student of the goldsmith Gianfrancesco Bonzagni, to whom he was related. In 1533 he produced a medal celebrating the foundation of the Venetian church of S Francesco della Vigna (begun by Jacopo Sansovino). This event was also commemorated in a medal (e.g. Brescia, Pin. Civ. Tosio–Martinengo) by a pupil of Vittore Gambello. Both works depict Doge Andrea Gritti, who laid the foundation-stone of the church in 1534, as well as showing Sansovino’s design. Spinelli’s medal contains a bust of Gritti on its face with the inscription ‘Gritti DVX Venetiar MDXXIII’. The Doge is shown facing to the left, bearded and clothed in a cap and robe. A portion of the chest and cap extends over part of one of the two circles encompassing the bust. On the reverse of the medal is an inscription, surrounded by maple leaves, to ‘DIVI Francisci MDXXXIIII’, and, in the exergue, the signature ‘An Sp F’ (Andrea Spinelli Fecit), together with the date. The design on the reverse is from a perspective drawing of the church, which intersects the inner of the two circles, as the bust of the Doge does on the obverse side. The inscription within the two circles surrounding the design also appears on both sides. The medal, cast in bronze, has a predominantly light brown patina, although part of it has a covering of black lacquer. An unusual spot or mark is visible behind the neck of the Doge....


Barbara Butts

(b ?Nuremberg, c. 1495; d after 1522).

German painter, draughtsman, woodcut designer and possibly manuscript illuminator. He was probably born in Nuremberg and is reputed to have lived in Dürer’s house, where he was a pupil (Neudörfer). He was commissioned in 1520 to contribute to the decoration of the Emperor Charles V’s private chambers in the Burg, on the occasion of the Emperor’s visit to Nuremberg. He dated woodcuts between 1513 and 1522, signing many of them with the ligated letters hsk (the s reversed). A Hans Springinklee married Barbara Wagnerin on 7 December 1533 in St Sebald.

Springinklee’s oeuvre can be established on the basis of his woodcuts and book illustrations. Between 1512 and 1515 he collaborated with Dürer, Wolf Traut and Albrecht Altdorfer on the Triumphal Arch of Maximilian I, designing at least 7 of 24 historical scenes from Emperor Maximilian I’s life as well as much of his family tree. He is also credited with contributing, along with Dürer and others, to the ...


Charles Talbot


(fl c. 1520; d Nuremberg, 1562–3).

German woodcut designer and illustrator. He is thought to have trained with Hans Springinklee. In 1537 he was paid the second highest amount among five artists for their work on the decorations of the Haller Album (Nuremberg, Staatsarchv), an illustrated book of portraits and family heraldry. However, his authorship of woodcuts, which constitute the principal body of work attributed to him, is based on only two initialled prints, the two-part Cavalry Battle and the Mounted Captain and Two Landsknechts (Geisberg, nos 1392 and 1372). These signatures are not identical: in the first the initials appear side by side, in the second they are overlapped as a monogram.

On the basis of these two works, c. 124 woodcuts have been attributed to Stör that were previously assigned to Erhard Schön, with whom Stör had presumably worked in close association. The 46 small illustrations for a Bible (Nuremberg, 1530) published by ...


Annarosa Garzelli

(di Benedetto di Caroccio degli)

(b Florence, Nov 17, 1412; d Florence, Dec 6, 1468).

Italian illuminator and ?painter. He was the most important illuminator in the circle of Fra Angelico and made a fundamental contribution to the imagery of early Renaissance choir-books. The most important of these are the documented group illuminated (1446–60) for the convent of S Marco, Florence, which provided illustrative models for later generations of artists. His work as a panel painter needs to be reassessed.

Strozzi very probably received his training under Fra Angelico, in both manuscript and panel painting; there is no evidence of a stylistic link with Battista di Biagio Sanguigni (1393–1451), in whose bottega Strozzi worked in his youth. One of his earliest correctly identified works is the manuscript miniature of the Mystic Marriage of St Catherine (1447; Florence, Gal. Corsini priv. col.). A specialist in sacred themes, Zanobi softened the severe style of his predecessors, introducing lively details from everyday life and a new interest in the Antique. He used contemporary architectural motifs and naturalistic, animated landscapes. In the figure drawing there is a notable sense of movement in the draperies and the chromatic range is rich, with a preference for iridescent fabrics. The borders of his miniatures, with foliage and figures, were always illuminated by ...


(b Bruges, ?1510–20; d London, June 23, 1576).

Netherlandish painter active in England. She was the eldest daughter of Simon Bening, the leading illuminator of the Ghent-Bruges school. She came to England c. 1545 with her husband, George Teerlinc of Blankenberge, and in 1546 was appointed royal ‘paintrix’ to Henry VIII, perhaps to help to fill the gap left by the recent deaths of Hans Holbein the younger and Lucas Horenbout. Her annuity of £40 was larger than theirs. Teerlinc was employed as a gentlewoman in the royal households of both Mary I and Elizabeth I and her husband as a Gentleman Pensioner. The first reference to a portrait by her is during the reign of Edward VI. In October 1551 she was paid the large sum of £10 for visiting the future Elizabeth I ‘to drawe owt her picture’. Her other documented works include paintings presented as gifts to the sovereign at the New Year; the first, for Queen ...


(fl 1509–27).

Italian illuminator. Between 1509 and 1524 numerous references appear in the account books of Montecassino Abbey to payments received by Matteo and his assistant Aloise da Napoli for the decoration of manuscripts. The Psalters in the collection (Montecassino Abbey, Lib., MSS H, I, L, M, N, O, P, Q) as well as a number of choir-books can be firmly attributed to these artists. From Montecassino Matteo went to Perugia and in 1527 was working as illuminator for the monastery of S Pietro, again with his assistant and also intermittently with Francesco Boccardi (d 1547), son of Giovanni Boccardi. In the same year Matteo decorated three Graduals (Perugia, S Pietro dei Cassinensi, MSS E, F and G), which are among his finest works. A Psalter executed for the monastery (Perugia, S Pietro dei Cassinensi, MS. Z) displays the characteristic features of his work: the brick-red colour of the flesh, the hair curling in snakey locks and the lively, gesticulating figures. Although a modern note states that this was a collaborative effort with ...


Patrick M. de Winter

[Master of Charles of Angoulême]

(fl 1475–1523).

French illuminator. He is documented as working for the Angoulême family, but since none of his works is signed or dated, his output rests on attributions. His early attributed works, dependent on the style of the Master of Jouvenel des Ursins, are characterized by compactly drawn moving figures outlined against receding backgrounds, with borders that tend to be spatially complex. Among these are a page in a Missal for Poitiers Use (Paris, Bib. N., MS. lat. 873, fol. 21), the La Rochefoucauld Hours (Brussels, Bib. Royale Albert ler, MS. 15077) and two other Books of Hours (Luxembourg, Bib. N., MS. III:600 and New York, Pierpont Morgan Lib., MS. M. 1001, respectively). Testard’s middle period, during which his compositions became tightly constructed and his colouring more sharply defined, is exemplified by a Roman de la rose (Oxford, Bodleian Lib., MS. Douce 195), the Nouailher Missal (Poitiers, Cathedral, Treasury) and the Book of Hours (Paris, Bib. N., MS. lat. ...