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John Hutchinson

(b Dublin, ?1792; d London, Jan 7, 1841).

Irish painter. The son of a Dublin print-seller and engraver, he may have received instruction in painting from William Sadler (c. 1782–1839), a prolific Irish painter of small landscapes. O’Connor first exhibited in 1809 in Dublin; in 1813 he went to London with Francis Danby and George Petrie, intending to settle there, but soon returned home. His earliest achievement of note was a group of topographical views, commissioned in 1818 by the 2nd Marquis of Sligo and the 14th Earl of Clanricarde (Westport, Co. Mayo, Lord Altamont priv. col.). Two of these, View of Westport with Croagh Patrick and its pendant Westport House from Barratt’s Hill, demonstrate that O’Connor was then capable of fine painting in a tightly handled 18th-century manner and that he had learnt much from the example of the Irish landscape painter Thomas Roberts (1748–78). Four views of Bridge House, Ballinrobe, Co. Mayo, and its environs (Dublin, N.G.) were also commissioned at that time and are very nearly as accomplished....


(b Oullins, May 25, 1795; d Paris, Nov 1, 1850).

French painter. He was educated by the Abbé Lacombe, a rebellious priest to whom his merchant parents had given shelter during the French Revolution, and he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Lyon, in 1810. He was a pupil of Pierre Révoil, in whose collection he had already seen works by the Italian primitives. In 1818 he studied under Pierre Guérin at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Paris, where he formed a close friendship with Alphonse Périn (1798–1874) who became his heir and biographer. Orsel worked too slowly to complete a submission for the Prix de Rome; it was therefore at his own expense that he set off for Rome in 1822, in order to join Guérin who had just become director of the Académie de France.

During the eight years he spent in Italy Orsel made a more systematic study than any Frenchman before him of the Christian mosaics of ancient Rome, as well as of the frescoes in Florence, Assisi and especially the Camposanto, Pisa. He formed a close and lasting relationship with the ...


Frank Büttner

(b Lübeck, July 3, 1789; d Rome, Nov 12, 1869).

German painter. He was a leading member of the Nazarenes (Lukasbrüder) especially noted for the strictness of his views on the religious mission of art.

His talent was recognized and encouraged by his father, a cultivated jurist and senator and later Mayor of Lübeck, who arranged for him to have drawing lessons from 1804 with Joseph Nikolaus Peroux (1771–1849). Overbeck was also inspired by meetings in Hamburg with both Wilhelm Tischbein and Philipp Otto Runge, and by seeing the drawings after 14th- and 15th-century Italian painters made by Franz Riepenhausen and brought to Hamburg in 1805 by August Kestner. In the spring of 1806 Overbeck moved to Vienna to study at the Akademie, where he remained until 1809. He dutifully attended Alfred H. Maurer’s drawing class, but he became increasingly distanced from the Akademie’s mechanical approach. His friendship with Franz Pforr had a strong influence on him, and, through Pforr, he was able to meet Eberhard Wächter, who lived and worked according to the strict artistic principles he had absorbed from Asmus Carstens, thus, for example, placing compositional ideas above external correctness of execution. Embarking on oil painting at this period, Overbeck strove to find his own way, independently of the Akademie. He was at first uncertain in his aims, as is evident in the painting ...


Roberta J. M. Olson

(b Bologna, 15 May ?1775–7; d Turin, March 6, 1860).

Italian painter, architect, designer and collector. At the age of 12 he began to frequent the house in Bologna of his patron Conte Carlo Filippo Aldrovandi Marescotti (1763–1823), whose collections and library provided his early artistic education and engendered his taste for collecting. From 1795 he worked on several decorative schemes with the theatre designer and decorator Antonio Basoli (1774–1848), and it was perhaps in theatre designs that Palagi was first exposed to an eclectic range of motifs from exotic cultures. He was influenced by the linear, mannered style of Felice Giani, with whom he frequented the important evening drawing sessions at the house of the engraver Francesco Rosaspina (1762–1841). Beginning in 1802, he participated in the informal Accademia della Pace, Bologna, as well as studying at the Accademia Clementina, and was elected to the Accademia Nazionale di Belle Arti of Bologna in 1803...


David Blayney Brown

(b Newington, London, Jan 27, 1805; d Redhill, Surrey, May 24, 1881).

English painter, draughtsman and etcher. Palmer was a key figure of English Romantic painting who represented, at least in his early work, its pastoral, intuitive and nostalgic aspects at their most intense. He is widely described as a visionary and linked with his friend and mentor William Blake, though he stood at an almost opposite extreme in his commitment to landscape and his innocent approach to its imagery. He had none of Blake’s irony or complexity and was inspired by a passionate love of nature that found its philosophical dimension in unquestioning Neo-Platonism.

The son of a bookseller in the City of London, Palmer was a delicate and withdrawn child. Following the death of his mother, his nurse, Mary Ward, became a formative influence. She introduced him to poetry, particularly Milton. Although he often copied prints and drawings, his earliest ambitions were towards literature. Poetry was always a primary source of inspiration for his art. By ...


Enrique Arias Anglés

(b El Ferrol, La Coruña, Feb 3, 1807; d Madrid, June 5, 1854).

Spanish painter and draughtsman. He attended the Colegio Militar in Santiago, Galicia, and then began literary studies in Madrid. After a period as an army officer, he embarked on a career as an artist during a stay in Cadiz, where he had been brought as a prisoner-of-war in 1823. He attended classes at the Academia de Cadiz and soon achieved some fame in the city. In 1830 he was commissioned to decorate the Tapia theatre in the Caribbean city of San Juan in Puerto Rico. In 1833 he returned to Spain and in Seville met the Scottish painter David Roberts, who introduced him to the British Romantic landscape style, in which he then continued to work for the rest of his life.

In 1834 Pérez Villaamil settled in Madrid, taking an active part in the lively artistic world of the Romantic period, and achieving increasing success. In 1835 he was elected an honorary member of the Real Academia de S Fernando. He was also active as an illustrator, providing sketches in ...



(b Untermieger [Spodnje Medgorje], nr Völkermarkt, Austria, July 6, 1824; d Klagenfurt [Celovec], Austria, March 30, 1871).

Slovene painter and draughtsman of Austrian birth. Starting by painting decorative designs on chests and on beehives, he became the protégé of Eduard von Moro (fl 1850), a wealthy factory owner who was also a landscape painter and was one of Pernhart’s local teachers. In 1846 Pernhart studied in Vienna and Munich and the following year visited Ljubljana and Trieste. In 1848 he was again in Munich and in 1854 in Venice. He painted Romantic landscapes, focusing on the beauty of lakes (e.g. Lake Klanče in a Storm, 1852; Ljubljana, N.G.) and mountains (e.g. Mount Špikgrocep;) in both Carinthia (Austria) and Carniola (Slovenia). From 1855 he did a series of 197 drawings of views of Carinthian castles and monuments; the etchings were published in Bilder aus Kärnten (1863–8). Other landscapes and views by Pernhart were reproduced as lithographs.

Pernhart, MarkoBilder aus Kärnten, 8 vols (Klagenfurt, 1863–8)...


Rudolf M. Bisanz

(b Frankfurt am Main, April 5, 1788; d Albano, nr Rome, June 16, 1812).

German painter and draughtsman.

He received his earliest training from his father, the painter Johann Georg Pforr (1745–98), and his uncle, the art professor and first inspector of the painting gallery in Kassel, Johann Heinrich Tischbein the younger (1742–1808). In 1805 he became a student at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna, which was dominated by the severe Neo-classicism of its director, Heinrich Füger; he was taught by Hubert Maurer (1738–1818), Franz Cauzig (1762–1828) and Johann Martin Fischer. During the war with France in 1805, Pforr volunteered as a guard in the Vienna militia. He suffered a nervous breakdown, brought on by the conflict between his passionate longing for a contemplative life and a desire to see military action. He probably turned to religion to help sustain his mental equilibrium. In 1806 he resumed his academic studies and, believing himself destined to become a battle painter, made numerous drawings of historical battles, for example his still schoolish and baroquely composed ...


Roman Prahl

(Bedřich) [Friedrich]

(b Soldin, Brandenburg, Aug 2, 1791; d Prague, Sept 27, 1868).

Bohemian painter of Prussian birth. He was representative of a movement in central Europe away from early 19th-century eclecticism towards the conventions of late Romantic art in mid-century. His principal occupation was as a button-maker, a trade he learnt from his father, and he continued to earn his living in this way even after he had settled in Prague (c. 1810–11). Meanwhile, he taught himself to paint on his travels through central Europe. In 1807–10 he stayed in Switzerland and probably studied with Johann Heinrich Wuest. With Josef Matěj Navrátil he eventually became a spokesman for artists’ rights in Bohemia, being part of a democratic development taking place from the 1820s to the 1850s. His allegiance to this cause appealed to the professional and patriotic tastes of the lower middle classes, the group who most frequently patronized him and bought his mostly small-scale paintings. He was primarily a landscape painter who usually worked in a Romantic style, sometimes using free brushwork. However, his characteristic emphasis on effects of light and atmosphere, especially in his sketches, shows a Romantic–Realist tendency (e.g. ...


Wifredo Rincón García

(b Valencia, Aug 19, 1806; d Madrid, Aug 26, 1871).

Spanish sculptor. He was the son of José Piquer (d 1832), the Director of the Academia de Bellas Artes de S Carlos in Valencia and a sculptor, and he began his academic study of sculpture in his father’s institution, working within the current Neo-classical style. His more interesting early works included the allegories of Faith, Hope, Modesty and Patience (1829) for the catafalque erected by the Real Maestranza of Valencia for the funeral of Queen Maria Josefa Amalia of Saxony. In 1830 Piquer y Duart moved to Madrid and entered the Escuela de Bellas Artes de S Fernando. On 16 September 1832 he was made an académico de mérito, having submitted the relief the Daughter of Jephthah for his examination. In 1833 he executed various figures for the temporary catafalque erected in S Jerónimo on the death of Ferdinand VII.

In 1836 Piquer y Duart was in Mexico. He left for Paris in ...


Pontus Grate

(b Paris, Feb 16, 1808; d Paris, Sept 18, 1857).

French critic. In 1831 the originality, perspicacity and learning of his first Salon review secured him a leading position in French art criticism that he retained until his death. The first French writer to devote himself exclusively to art criticism, Planche set out to establish a conscientious and severe critical method. Initially this allowed him to reject the new prolific juste milieu and to be one of the foremost defenders of such Romantic artists as Delacroix. He conceived their art as a ‘bodily struggle with nature and truth’, but from the outset interpreted the idea of nature in a restricted and traditional sense. Much as he praised the boldness, energy and inventiveness of Delacroix, he deplored his incorrect and careless execution. Increasingly he endowed the Academic concept of high finish with implications of scientific exactitude, refusing in its name to allow individual expression, however poetical or dramatic, to take any liberties with visual truth. He maintained that artists should elaborate a distinct, logical and unequivocal language, rather than search for new modes of expression. At the same time Planche became increasingly opposed to the tendencies in the 1830s towards mere careful portrayal of reality; he was the first to use the word ...


(b Ancona, March 21, 1800; d Rome, Feb 10, 1895).

Italian painter. In 1815, under the protection of Marchese Carlo Bourbon del Monte, he went to Rome to study at the Accademia Nazionale di S Luca, first under Gaspare Landi and then with Vincenzo Camuccini, for whom he also worked as a studio assistant. His early works (e.g. Eteocles and Polynices, 1824; Ancona, Pin. Com.), were influenced by Camuccini. From the 1820s his patrons were largely ecclesiastical, and his first important religious commission, the Martyrdom of St Lawrence (original destr. 1944; version, Ancona Cathedral), done in 1826 for the cathedral in Ancona, shows stylistic similarities to the work of Tommaso Minardi and his followers. Podesti’s literary and historical subjects also display this influence, and one of them, Tasso Reading his ‘Gerusalemme liberata’ to the Court at Ferrara (1841/2; Rome, Col. Giuliano Briganti), was bought by Alessandro Torlonia (1800–86). Podesti had little interest in classical subjects as themes and rendered them only as part of decorative frescowork, as in his paintings (...


Ettore Spalletti

(b Livorno, June 15, 1817; d Florence, Jan 11, 1876).

Italian painter and draughtsman. He was a pupil of Vincenzo De Bonis in Livorno but soon moved to Florence to attend the lectures of Pietro Benvenuti and Giuseppe Bezzuoli at the Accademia. His early style was based on the historical Romanticism of Bezzuoli. In 1837 he completed his first important painting, Hagar and Ishmael, for the church of Soccorso in Livorno. From then on he exhibited regularly at the Accademia, showing works inspired primarily by historical subjects. Although well-documented in contemporary sources, they are mostly untraced and include Death of Duke Alessandro de’ Medici (1840), Columbus with his Young Son at the Rabida Convent (1841) and Francesco Ferruci’s Last Hour (1843). In 1845 Pollastrini began to receive commissions from Leopold II, Grand Duke of Tuscany, for such paintings as Family Saved from the Flooding of the Serchio (1845) and Nello della Pietra at the Tomb of Pia de’ Tolomei...


Julian Treuherz

(b Bristol, Dec 28, 1807; d Hampstead, London, Sept 22, 1879).

English painter. He was the son of a poor Bristol grocer and was not encouraged to become an artist. Because he was almost entirely self-taught, his work was always marked by faults of drawing, particularly in anatomy and the foreshortening of figures. These defects were frequently condemned even by those critics who approved of the imaginative power for which his art was chiefly noted. Poole moved to London in 1829 and first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1830, showing A Scene in Naples (untraced). He then spent some years in Southampton and did not exhibit at the Academy again until 1837, though he did send work to the Society of British Artists and the British Institution. His temporary retirement from society is explained by his involvement in a marital scandal: in 1829 the painter Francis Danby eloped with his mistress to Paris, leaving behind his wife, Hannah, whom Poole then lived with and later married....


Charles Millard


(b Paris, Oct 9, 1809; d Paris, Jan 11, 1879).

French sculptor. He was born in the working-class Marais district of Paris and was apprenticed to an ornamental carver. He later trained in the studio of Pierre-Jean David d’Angers. His first serious sculptural essays were mostly portrait medallions in the manner of David d’Angers. There is also record of an early relief entitled Two Slaves Cutting the Throat of a Young Roman Actor, said to have belonged to Daumier. By the time of his Salon début in 1833, Préault was immersed in the socially conscious subject-matter favoured by the liberal Romantics among whom he moved. His 1833 exhibits were Two Poor Women, Beggary and Gilbert Dying in the Hospital (all destr.). In 1834 his Pariahs (also destr.) was refused, presumably because of its pointed social comment, unacceptable in the bourgeois atmosphere of the July monarchy (1830–48). However, his tumultuous plaster relief Slaughter (bronze version, 1854; Chartres, Mus. B.A.) with its emphasis on extreme physical and emotional states was accepted. All these works were broadly and rapidly executed, with bold forms and daring compositions and subjects. Stylistically, they derived less from Préault’s teachers and contemporaries than from Michelangelo and his French followers of the 16th and 17th centuries, Germain Pilon, Jean Goujon and Pierre Puget....


Martin Postle

(b 1747; d Yazor, Hereford & Worcs, Sept 14, 1829).

English landowner and writer. He was one of the leading promoters of the Picturesque, a quasi-aesthetic theory concerning the codification of types of landscape; this enjoyed a brief popularity in England at the end of the 18th century. In 1794 Price published An Essay on the Picturesque. The book was written to expand and redefine observations on the nature of Picturesque Beauty made during the 1770s and 1780s by the Rev. William Gilpin. In his essay of 1794 Price employed the term Picturesque to describe a category of landscape that evoked sensations that were not contained within the existing polarities of Sublime and Beautiful, established earlier in the century by Edmund Burke (A Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful; 1757). According to Price ‘the two opposite qualities of roughness, and of sudden variation, joined to that of irregularity, are the most efficient causes of the picturesque’. Price loved systems and organized objects in nature—trees, animals and dwellings—into tables according to their level of picturesqueness. Thus in his view hovels are more picturesque than cottages, cows more picturesque than horses, idle peasants more picturesque than working ones, and so on. Price’s theories inspired, among other things, Thomas Rowlandson’s satirical illustrations to ...


Irena Maria Laskowska

(b Bershad [now in Ukraine], 1846; d Budapest, Oct 10, 1896).

Polish painter and draughtsman. He spent his early years in Odessa and Kiev, subsequently living in France, in particular in Paris, where he studied under the Polish portrait painter Tadeusz Gorecki (1825–68), continuing (1868–71) at the Akademie der Künste in Munich. In 1871 he moved to Kraków where he studied until 1875 under Jan Matejko at the School of Fine Arts. During ten years in Kraków he produced many striking portraits. In the portrait of Mrs Fedorowicz (1878; Kraków, N. Mus.) he achieved subtle effects of modelling by means of carefully differentiated tones and meticulously distributed light. The Realism of these portraits is subsumed into an advanced proto-Impressionist technique, on occasion using both small patches of distinct colour and broadly applied areas of impasto. Alongside such works, Pruszkowski produced paintings based on fantastic legends, fables and folk-tales. In these works one can trace influences going back to the artist’s Munich period; but Pruszkowski’s essentially Romantic vision translated his subjects into an entirely Polish context, as in ...


(b Muskau, Oct 30, 1785; d Branitz, Feb 4, 1871).

German landscape designer and writer. He came from a Silesian noble family and carried the personal title of prince (Ger. Fürst). In 1822 he was compensated for loss of rights when his lands were transferred to Prussia. After receiving a Pietist education, studying law at Leipzig and taking part in the Wars of Liberation, he devoted himself to the estate at Muskau (on what is now the German–Polish border), which he had inherited in 1811, turning it (between trips to England, France, the Far East and Africa) into an enormous landscaped park. This work consumed his wealth, and when a rich marriage—for which he had divorced his first wife—failed to materialize, he sold Muskau in 1845 and laid out a new, smaller landscape garden at his family seat at Branitz, near Cottbus. In 1817 he turned down an important position in the management of the Prussian royal gardens, but through his position at the Berlin court he influenced the parks of the royal princes, Charles (...


(b Ciudadela, Minorca, June 14, 1819; d Palma de Mallorca, July 6, 1896).

Spanish historian and writer. One of the most representative figures of Spanish Romanticism, he made his mark not only in artistic affairs but also in politics and in the defence of religion and Catholic traditionalism, on all of which he wrote extensively. In collaboration with the poet Pablo Piferrer (1818–48) and the painter and lithographer Francisc Xavier Parcerisa y Boada, he journeyed through the Spanish provinces to seek material for the 12-volume Recuerdos y bellezas de España (Barcelona, 1839–65). Quadrado himself wrote the texts on Aragon (1844), New Castile (1853), the Asturias and León (1855) and Salamanca, Ávila and Segovia (1865). It was illustrated with lithographs by Parcerisa; in the later edition (1884–91) these were replaced by pen-and-ink drawings by Fernando Xumetra y Ragull (1865–1920), Ricard Brugada Panizo (1867–1919), José Pascó y Mensa (...


Susan B. Taylor

French château near Paris, best known for its gardens, laid out between 1700 and 1789. The château was built and maintained by the d’Angennes family from the 14th to the 17th centuries. Catherine de Vivonne, Marquise de Rambouillet (1588–1665), was responsible for beginning the canal and water networks that were to influence later developments at Rambouillet. The definitive layout of the gardens was made under the financier and courtier Joseph-Jean Baptiste Fleuriau d’Armenonville (1661–1728). To accommodate the site surrounding the château, essentially a flat, swampy terrain, d’Armenonville constructed a canal of 740 m that permitted him to establish parterres close to the château: a geometrical quincunx was laid out to the west, and an avenue of cypress trees from Louisiana (unique in Europe) was planted to the east. A second, transverse, canal created a view towards the forest and the horizon. In the trapezoid formed by these canals were two islands, one of which housed a grotto dedicated to François Rabelais. A ...