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A. M. Châtelet

(b Chalons-sur-Saône, Dec 19, 1832; d Sèvres, Aug 14, 1891).

French architect and writer. In 1857 he was put in charge of the restoration of Limoges Cathedral and two years later became inspector of diocesan buildings. In 1860 he settled in Nice as civic architect, where he completed the slaughterhouse, among other projects, before moving to Paris in 1864 to join the municipal administration. From 1870 until his death he was responsible for highway maintenance but did not belong to the official group of Paris architects. Nevertheless, after he was awarded a prize in the Encyclopédie d’architecture competition for his essay ‘La Construction et l’installation des écoles primaires’ (1872; pubd 1873), he was entrusted with the building of primary schools. He built one (1875) on the Rue Curial (now 41, Rue de Tanger) and another (1880) at 12–16, Rue Titon. He was deeply influenced by the lessons of Viollet-le-Duc; there are no flourishes in his style, where decoration issues from the rational use of materials: stone for the load-bearing parts of the structure and coloured brick as infill, with a few Gothic details, as in his own house (...


Tim Mowl

Architectural style, predominantly used for castles and churches built in Britain in the 18th and 19th centuries, which was based on English Romanesque. The Norman Revival is usually treated as a minor strand of the Gothic Revival—part of that interest in medieval styles of building that ran parallel with, but counter to, classical architecture; yet the earliest buildings in a round-arched medieval style pre-date by a decade accepted pioneers of the Gothic Revival, such as Clearwell Castle (c. 1728), Glos. Later, between 1820 and 1850, the use of Norman forms and details seriously rivalled Gothic ones in civil, domestic and ecclesiastical architecture, a phase that has its continental parallel in the German Rundbogenstil. The Norman Revival was a more self-conscious movement than the Gothic Revival, for while the use of Gothic forms had never quite died out in Britain, the round-arched medievalism of the Norman style had been extinct as a building tradition since ...


John Maidment

(b Huddersfield, Oct 2, 1858; d Rowella, Tasmania, May 28, 1945).

Australian architect of English birth. He studied at the Kendal School of Art, Cumberland, and the Lambeth School of Art, London; he was articled in Kendal and he worked for the church architect James Cubitt, whose writings influenced him. He travelled widely in Europe, and in a national competition (1883) for art schools he won the gold medal for his cathedral drawings. In 1883 he emigrated to Tasmania and first worked for the Tasmanian Government in Hobart; he was later in partnership in Launceston successively with L. G. Corrie, W. H. Dunning, A. H. Masters, R. F. Ricards, F. J. Heyward and, in Melbourne, with Louis R. Williams from 1913 to 1920. North’s early work shows the influence of R. Norman Shaw and William Burges in the adoption of massive forms, Queen Anne style and French detailing; the Anglo-Dutch idiom of the Launceston Post Office (c. 1885–9...


Constance M. Greiff

(b Edinburgh, July 22, 1810; d Philadelphia, PA, March 3, 1865).

American architect of Scottish birth. He was prominent among the emigré architects of the first half of the 19th century who introduced into America new styles, a greater professionalism, and more sophisticated approaches to design.

According to an anonymous manuscript biography (ex-Hist. Soc., Philadelphia, PA, now lost), Notman served an apprenticeship as a carpenter in Edinburgh. He then worked for the architect William Henry Playfair (see Playfair family §(2)), whose early essays in the Italianate style Notman later introduced in the USA. In 1831, following a period of economic depression in Edinburgh and the consequent collapse of its construction industry, Notman immigrated to the USA, settling in Philadelphia, where he supported himself as a carpenter. His first major design commission was for the Laurel Hill Cemetery (1836–9), Philadelphia, PA. Derived from Kensal Green Cemetery, London, Laurel Hill was the earliest architect-designed Picturesque rural cemetery in the USA. Rural cemeteries and other landscape designs continued to be an important aspect of his work. Later cemeteries included Hollywood Cemetery (...


Jutta Schuchard

(b Bamberg, Jan 10, 1791; d Munich, April 22, 1839).

German architect. He trained (1811–15) at the Akademie in Munich under the Neo-classicist Karl von Fischer. His unsuccessful entry in the competition (1814–16) for the Walhalla in Bavaria was for a centralized building in quasi-Gothic style, although a Greek Doric peripteral temple had been requested. After visiting Italy (1816–18) he was appointed building director (1819–30) of the Glyptothek, Munich, under Leo von Klenze, and by 1835 he was a member of the government board of architecture. He was a member of the Gesellschaft für Deutsche Altertumskunde von den drei Schilden (founded 1831), a society concerned with the investigation of medieval art, of which Sulpiz Boisserée was another member. Contact with the latter and knowledge of his work on Cologne Cathedral seems to have done much to foster Ohlmüller’s interest in the Gothic Revival style. This was evident particularly in his unsuccessful Gothic Revival design (...


Jörn Bahns

(b Sieseby, nr Eckenförde, Oct 8, 1839; d Berlin, June 8, 1911).

German architect, teacher and writer. He studied building in Hannover with Conrad Wilhelm Hase, whose extensive use of plain brickwork, traditional in north Germany, he later imitated. While still an assistant in the building administration of Schleswig-Holstein he won the competition (1867) for the Johanniskirche (1868–73) in Altona, near Hamburg, but after this success he turned to other kinds of work. In Berlin he designed villas (c. 1870) in the suburb of Lichterfelde. These were plain, practical buildings, almost without historical idiom, in the manner taught at Karl Friedrich Schinkel’s Berlin Bauakademie. In addition to creating Italianate town and country houses in Berlin (1870), Sternfelde (1872–4) and Topper (1874), Otzen produced Gothic Revival commercial buildings for the more traditional trading towns, including Flensburg (1868) and Thorn (1881). In 1882–3 he designed his own grandiose villa in Wannsee, near Berlin, which was given a strikingly picturesque tower but was otherwise built of brick, sparsely decorated with carved stone devoid of historical idiom. From ...


Roberta J. M. Olson

(b Bologna, 15 May ?1775–7; d Turin, March 6, 1860).

Italian painter, architect, designer and collector. At the age of 12 he began to frequent the house in Bologna of his patron Conte Carlo Filippo Aldrovandi Marescotti (1763–1823), whose collections and library provided his early artistic education and engendered his taste for collecting. From 1795 he worked on several decorative schemes with the theatre designer and decorator Antonio Basoli (1774–1848), and it was perhaps in theatre designs that Palagi was first exposed to an eclectic range of motifs from exotic cultures. He was influenced by the linear, mannered style of Felice Giani, with whom he frequented the important evening drawing sessions at the house of the engraver Francesco Rosaspina (1762–1841). Beginning in 1802, he participated in the informal Accademia della Pace, Bologna, as well as studying at the Accademia Clementina, and was elected to the Accademia Nazionale di Belle Arti of Bologna in 1803...


Anthony Quiney

(b ?Brussels, July 5, 1817; d London, Dec 11, 1897).

English architect. Son of William Pearson (1772–1849), a landscape painter, he was brought up in Durham and began his career there in 1831 as an apprentice and then assistant to Ignatius Bonomi (1787–1870). In 1842 he went to London, where he lived for the rest of his life. He worked briefly for Anthony Salvin and Philip Hardwick, and in 1843 he established himself among Tractarian clergymen with the first of several churches in the ‘correct’ Middle Pointed style of the Gothic Revival promoted by A. W. N. Pugin. The fine Holy Trinity (1849–52; destr. 1950s), Bessborough Gardens, Pimlico, London, brought praise from the influential Ecclesiological Society; but Pearson’s future style is expressed more clearly in the spare decoration and groups of lancet windows at Llangasty Tal-y-llyn church (1848–50), Powys, built for a Tractarian friend, for whom he also built the fine Treberfydd House (...


David Walker

Scottish architectural partnership formed c. 1855 by J(ohn) Dick Peddie (b Edinburgh, 24 Feb 1824; d Edinburgh, 12 March 1891) and C(harles) G(eorge) H(ood) Kinnear (b Kinloch, Fife, June 1830; d Edinburgh, 5 Nov 1894). From 1879 it was continued as Kinnear & Peddie by Kinnear and J. Dick Peddie’s son J(ohn) M(ore) Dick Peddie (b Edinburgh, 21 Aug 1853; d Edinburgh, 10 March 1921), and after Kinnear’s death, by J. M. Dick Peddie and George Washington Browne until c. 1905. Peddie then worked with J. Forbes Smith, with whom he was briefly in partnership. In the late 20th century the practice continued to exist, as Dick Peddie & McKay. The original partners appear to have designed buildings more or less separately as well as in collaboration, although Peddie & Kinnear invariably dated their buildings with the firm’s monogram.

J. Dick Peddie was apprenticed to ...


Kathleen Curran

(b Potsdam, Feb 15, 1803; d Potsdam, July 12, 1845).

Prussian architect. He has been considered the most talented of the first generation of students to have been taught by the Prussian architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel. With Friedrich August Stüler, Persius was the only architect in Prussia to possess the title Architect to the King. He trained at the Bauakademie in Berlin, where he worked on projects with Schinkel; by the early 1820s he had assisted Schinkel with several commissions, including the design of Schloss Klein Glienicke (begun 1825), north-west of Potsdam, and Schloss Charlottenhof (1826), respectively the country homes of Prince Karl and the Crown Prince (later Frederick William IV, King of Prussia). Persius collaborated with the Crown Prince and Schinkel on the designs for the Italianate Hofgärtnerei (1829) and the ‘Roman’ baths (1835) at the royal park of Charlottenhof at Sanssouci, a residence of the Prussian kings since the reign of Frederick II (...


Ian J. Lochhead

(b Lower Hutt, Sept 26, 1847; d Dunedin, Dec 10, 1918).

New Zealand architect. He was educated at Roman Catholic schools in England and France and was articled (1864–9) to the shipbuilder and engineer Joseph Samuda (1813–85) in London, after which he worked for Daniel Cubitt Nichols (fl 1856–91). In 1872 he returned to New Zealand as an engineer on railway construction, establishing his own practice in Dunedin in 1875. He carried out a wide range of commercial, domestic and engineering works, but his major architectural commissions came from the Roman Catholic Church. His first important work was the Dominican Priory (1877), Dunedin. Its simplified, angular Gothic forms reveal its monolithic concrete construction. More conventional in form, St Joseph’s Cathedral (begun 1879), Dunedin, is French 13th-century Gothic in style. Petre employed the Gothic style for small parish churches but increasingly favoured classical basilican plans for larger churches. The basilica of the Sacred Heart (...


(b Stamford, 1832; d Pinner, Sept 18, 1898).

English architect. He was articled to his father, Thomas Pilkington (b c. 1799), an architect at Bourne, Lincs, who was an ardent Methodist. In 1854 Thomas Pilkington moved the practice to Edinburgh and exhibited designs for a church and workers’ housing at the Royal Scottish Academy. In 1858 F. T. Pilkington attended the University of Edinburgh as well as building Inchglas, a large Gothic Revival villa of very original design at Crieff, Tayside.

By 1860 Pilkington had secured the patronage of the papermakers John and Charles Cowan of Penicuik, who brought him the commission for the Scottish Institute for Imbecile Children (1861) at Larbert, Central. A few years later he also obtained the patronage of the Ballantynes of the Innerleithen woollen mills. For these patrons he built several large houses of inventive plan and richly sculptured Venetian Romanesque design, at times tinged with Moorish influence, at Woodslee (...


(b ?London, March 3, 1737; d Pisa, Jan 19, 1793).

English architect and patron. He was educated at Cambridge University, where he became friendly with the medievalists William Cole (1714–82) and Thomas Gray (1716–71). He travelled to Spain and Portugal in 1760 and there compiled a journal that gave the first descriptions in English of a large number of Iberian Gothic antiquities. Circulated privately, the manuscript contributed to the scholarship of English antiquaries. Pitt’s work as a Gothic Revivalist includes decoration (1762–4) at Strawberry Hill, Twickenham, nr London, for Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford; refurbishment (1764–8) at Carlisle and Norwich cathedrals; and alterations (1783) at Holywell House, St Albans, Herts. Pitt’s uncle, Charles Lyttelton, Bishop of Carlisle and President of the Society of Antiquaries, encouraged his nephew’s Gothic interests, and family connections provided Pitt’s most important commissions. Between 1765 and 1777 Pitt built garden buildings, including the Corinthian arch for his cousins, the Grenvilles, at Stowe, Bucks, and adapted an Adam design for the south front of the house. Pitt’s career illustrates the importance of the tradition of the amateur architect among leading 18th-century families and their interest in new stylistic possibilities....


Charles T. Little

(b Paris, 1931; d May 1, 2009).

French art historian of medieval art. As Professor of the University of Paris IV (Paris-Sorbonne) from 1981 until 1998, she was a leading specialist in French architecture and stained glass. She was president of the French section of Corpus Vitrearum Medii Aevi from 1980 to 1988. Studying at the Ecole du Louvre, she wrote initially on the sculpture of Reims, followed by a study on Notre-Dame-en-Vaux at Châlons-en-Champagne, Notre-Dame-en-Vaux. Her doctoral dissertation for the Sorbonne, under the direction of Louis Grodecki (1910–82), became an important monograph on St Remi at Reims. This was later followed by several books on Chartres Cathedral that stand out as classic studies. Aside from technical studies of the origin and development of the flying buttress, she was able to determine building sequences for a number of monuments by utilizing dendrochonological analysis of wooden beams. Her interest in Gothic architecture lead to a new series devoted to the Gothic monuments of France by Editions Picard. Her important contribution to Zodiaque publications included books on the ...


Michael Darby

(b Llandaff, S. Glam., 1817; d Llandaff, Oct 1886).

Welsh architect. He was the son of a vicar-choral of Llandaff and was articled first to A. C. Pugin and then to Thomas Larkins Walker (d 1860). In both offices he worked on the plates for A. C. and A. W. N. Pugin’s Examples of Gothic Architecture (London, 1831–8). On completing his articles he set up in practice in Llandaff, and in 1852 he entered into partnership with J. P. Seddon (see Seddon family §(3)). As diocesan architects to Llandaff, Prichard and Seddon undertook the restoration of a large number of churches, and built new schools, parsonages and churches in South Wales, Monmouthshire and Herefordshire, before the partnership was dissolved in 1863. Given Prichard’s upbringing and training, it is not surprising that he subsequently achieved his reputation as an exponent of the Gothic Revival style. His competition entry (1857; unexecuted), which he submitted with Seddon for the Government Offices in Whitehall, London, won fourth prize and attracted much interest. His best-known executed works include the restoration of Llandaff Cathedral (...


Pavel Zatloukal

(b Iglau [now Jihlava], Aug 15, 1838; d Gries bei Baden, Aug 18, 1915).

Moravian architect and writer. He studied in Vienna at the Polytechnic and at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste under Eduard van der Nüll, August Sicard von Siccardsburg, Heinrich von Ferstel and Friedrich von Schmidt. From 1867 he lived in Brünn (now Brno), and in the following year he was appointed architectural adviser to the diocese, and dean and president (1868–92) of the Polytechnic in Brünn, before leaving (1892) to teach at the Polytechnic in Vienna. He was involved in the conservation of old buildings and was a prolific writer, chiefly on architectural history. In his early works he often combined Gothic Revival brick exteriors with spacious timber interiors. These included the Lobkowitz Mausoleum (1867–71) at Netín, the synagogue (1867) at Gross Meseritsch (now Velké Meziříčí), the Gymnasium (1867–8, 1877–8) at Brünn, the castle of Rantířov (1873) and the church of St Nicholas (...


Alexandra Wedgwood and Roderick O’Donnell

English family of artists, of French descent. (1) A. C. Pugin came to England c. 1792 and had a successful and wide-ranging career; however, his son (2) A. W. N. Pugin, the Gothic Revival architect, is the best-known member of the family. The latter’s sons (3) E. W. Pugin, Peter Paul Pugin (1851–1904) and Cuthbert Welby Pugin (1840–1928), and his grandsons Sebastian Pugin Powell (1866–1949) and Charles Henry Cuthbert Purcell (1874–1958), were all architects.

A. Wedgwood: The Pugin Family: Catalogue of the Drawings Collection of the RIBA (Farnborough, 1977)A. Wedgwood: A. W. N. Pugin and the Pugin Family: Catalogue of Architectural Drawings in the Victoria & Albert Museum (London, 1985)

Alexandra Wedgwood

(b Paris, 1769; d London, Dec 19, 1832).

Architect, illustrator, painter, draughtsman, designer and teacher. He probably came from an artistic family with claims to nobility, and he settled in England during the French Revolution, although the exact circumstances or date of his arrival are not known. On ...


Margaret Henderson Floyd

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Architectural style popular from the 1870s until the early 20th century in England and the USA. Developing in reaction to the dogma of Gothic Revival, the style borrowed freely from the domestic architecture of the late 17th century and Queen Anne periods in England and the Netherlands. The style is characterized by asymmetrical plans, use of red brick and a combination of medieval and Classical motifs, such as oriel windows and Flemish gables together with pilasters and broken pediments. It was allied to progressive social attitudes and a desire to make good design available to all. The decorative arts were of great importance to the style, and domestic fittings contributed substantially to the desired aesthetic effect. In England the style ended in the hands of speculative builders and in the USA it merged into the Shingle style and the vernacular.

William Morris’s Red House (1858), Bexleyheath, London, designed by ...



Antonio Milone

Italian cathedral city in the province of Salerno, Campania. Ravello has been documented as an urban centre since the 10th century and as a bishopric since 1087. The centre, near the Toro quarter, is high up between the two rivers that separate the city from Scala and Minori. The city’s fortifications were damaged and the city itself was sacked by a Pisan assault in 1135 and in 1137. At the end of the 14th century, its inhabitants also clashed with the neighbouring city of Scala. In the 13th century a mercantile oligarchy with power throughout all of Sicily and close relations to the Crown took control of the city, celebrated in Boccaccio’s Decameron (II.4), and enriched it with numerous monuments and artworks.

The cathedral, dedicated to S Pantaleone, dates to 1087 but was extensively altered in the late 18th century. The cathedral has three naves and the façade has three portals—the central one has a bronze door (...


Michael J. Lewis

(b Boppard, March 22, 1808; d Cologne, July 16, 1895).

German architect, writer, and politician. He was Germany’s foremost Gothic Revival theorist and publicist and a crucial figure in the completion of Cologne Cathedral. A jurist, parliamentarian, and founding member of the Catholic-oriented Zentrumspartei, he defended the interests of his native Rhineland in a political career that stretched from the 1848 National Assembly to the Reichstag. Nonetheless, art and architecture remained his first loves and played an integral role in his political programme. He helped to shift the Gothic Revival away from the pan-German nationalism and liberalism of the early 19th century and to create a movement saturated with regionalist and separatist values.

Reichensperger was educated as a lawyer in Berlin, Heidelberg, and Paris; he served the Prussian administration, becoming an appellate judge in 1841. He supported the religious and political revival that swept the Rhineland in the late 1830s and helped to establish a Catholic press and to organize a series of Catholic lay brotherhoods. His political vision was inspired by the writings of Johann Joseph von Görres, who expressed a critical view of the modern state and enthusiasm for the decentralized power structure of medieval society. Reichensperger was active, from its founding, in the Dombauverein, the association dedicated to the completion of ...