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Robert Smith

(b Dumfries, Sept 19, 1762; d before after ?1810, 1814).

Australian painter and draughtsman of Scottish birth. He was a coach painter in Glasgow in 1788, and a trade card designed by him announcing drawing lessons at ‘Watling’s Academy’ was brought forward as evidence of his artistic abilities at his trial for forgery in Dumfries in 1789. He was sentenced to 14 years’ transportation, but escaped the convict ship at Cape Town; he was eventually recaptured, and arrived at Port Jackson, New South Wales, in 1792 ( see Australia §III ). He was assigned to surgeon-general John White, an ardent natural history collector, who required him to depict the local topography, inhabitants, flora and fauna, for example Turquoise Parrot (1792; London, BM). Watling aspired to paint picturesque views of the colony and drafted a prospectus soliciting patronage from the British public, but nothing came of the project. His landscape drawings reveal only rudimentary ability, and he professed disappointment with the pictorial potential of the country. His ...


Robert Irving

( Cliffe )

(b Kildare, Ireland, May 7, 1785; d Adelaide, March 28, 1873).

Irish architect, active in Australia. He trained as an architect in Dublin and then joined the army and arrived in Australia in 1814 as a lieutenant with the 76th Regiment. Appointed aide-de-camp to Governor Lachlan Macquarie, he designed several military buildings in Sydney including a hospital (1815) on Observatory Hill, a simple Georgian building with a two-storey verandah that was later much altered, and the Lancer Barracks (1816–22), Parramatta, Australia’s oldest military barracks, which has two flanking bungalows with front verandahs. He also designed twin towers (1817) for St John’s in Parramatta based on a picture of Reculver Church, Kent, provided by the wife of the Governor, which survive as a characteristic example of the Gothick style in Australia. Government House, Parramatta, where he added two single storey wings connected by corridors (completed 1820; in the Palladian form, was possibly one of his most important works. As one of the first trained architects in Sydney, he made an important contribution to the development of colonial architecture. Watts left Australia in ...


Miles Lewis

(b Sudbury, Suffolk, Nov 26, 1821; d Melbourne, Aug 9, 1898).

Australian architect of English birth. He worked in London for the English architect and illustrator Thomas Allom (1804–72). In 1849 he emigrated to Melbourne and entered a partnership as architect and surveyor with his brother James, who was already established in business as a local builder. Their first prominent commission was St Paul’s church in the centre of Melbourne (1850), subsequently replaced by Butterfield’s Cathedral. The partnership ended in 1854, when James went to England, and Webb practised for four years in partnership with Thomas Taylor. His design for St Andrew’s church, Brighton, Melbourne (1856–7), shows unmistakable characteristics of buildings that he had sketched before leaving England. Melbourne Grammar School (1856) is the most important building of this phase, designed in the dark local bluestone, but Tudor in character. Webb’s work is difficult to characterize. It includes two important terrace rows of houses, Burlington Terrace (...


Judith O’Callaghan

(b Dageling, ?June 1830; d Adelaide, Sept 7, 1917).

Australian silversmith and jeweller of Danish birth. He served his apprenticeship in Dageling, Denmark, before moving in 1854 to Adelaide, where he established a business that within a decade became one of the city’s two main retail outlets for silver and jewellery. Branches were subsequently opened at Mount Gambier in South Australia and Broken Hill in New South Wales. From 1862 the firm regularly exhibited at intercolonial and international exhibitions, receiving awards, for example at the Australian Intercolonial Exhibition of 1866–7 in Melbourne, Victoria, the Centennial International Exhibition of 1876 in Philadelphia and the Exposition Universelle of 1878 in Paris. In 1867 Wendt was granted a royal warrant by Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh (1844–1900), during his visit to the colonies. He appears to have specialized in presentation pieces, ranging from standing cups and epergnes to mounted emu eggs. Many incorporate such local motifs as cast figures of aborigines, kangaroos and emus. The best of these pieces (e.g. the Schomburgk Cup, ...


Shearer West

English family of painters and illustrators . Richard Westall (b Hertford, 1765; d London, 4 Dec 1836) was apprenticed in 1799 to John Thompson, a heraldic engraver in London. The miniaturist John Alefounder (d 1795) advised Westall to take up painting, and in 1784 he exhibited a portrait drawing (untraced) at the Royal Academy. He became a student at the Royal Academy Schools in 1785, an ARA in 1792 and an RA in 1794. He exhibited over 300 works at the Royal Academy and 70 at the British Institution, including such large watercolours as Cassandra Prophesying the Fall of Troy (exh. London, RA 1796; London, V&A), which are painted in violent and sometimes excessive colours. Others, such as The Rosebud (1791; New Haven, CT, Yale Cent. Brit. A.), tend towards a Rococo prettiness. His principal expertise was book illustration. He was employed by John Boydell, Thomas Macklin and ...


John Maidment

(b Hobart, April 21, 1890; d Brighton, Victoria, March 27, 1980).

Australian architect . Articled initially to Frank Heyward in Hobart in 1910, he transferred to Alexander North in Launceston, with whom he was in partnership in Melbourne between 1913–20. Williams absorbed important elements of North’s Arts and Crafts philosophy, particularly the patronage of local craft workers, yet was given freedom to develop a personal style. Williams’s early church designs thus have distinctive elements including obliquely placed towers, triangular buttressing and bellcotes surmounted by spikes; their planning influenced by Ralph Adams Cram’s Church Building. Williams’s work further developed in the 1920s and 1930s when he became Australia’s most sought-after church architect, with work in all Australian states; he was Diocesan Architect at the dioceses of Bathurst and Grafton. His preferred material was brick with occasional use of reinforced concrete. Williams developed a clearly identifiable free Gothic synthesis, characterized by simplicity, freedom from period references and unencumbered wall surfaces, comparable with British contemporaries such as Sir Edward Maufe. His work often included a tower and his façades often incorporated a masonry cross and tiled roofs. His interiors were notable for their generous planning, careful lighting and furniture of impeccable design, while also making provision for climatic extremes, such as ventilating panels and shading from direct sunlight....


Howard Tanner

(b South Creek, NSW, Feb 14, 1881; d Richmond, Victoria, Dec 16, 1955).

Australian architect and writer. He was articled (1899–1904) to Sydney architects Kent & Buden and attended evening classes at Syndey Technical College, where he was President of the Architectural Students Society, graduating in 1904; his student exercises favoured Art Nouveau. He then undertook further study and travel in England, Europe and North America (1905–10) that introduced him to the Georgian Revival, led by Edwin Lutyens in England, and the Colonial and Roman Revivals, promoted by McKim, Mead & White in the USA. Seeking a new architecture free of all Victorian trappings, Wilson was convinced by his overseas studies of the relevance to the Australian climate of Mediterranean arcades, shuttered openings and garden schemes. On his return to Sydney in 1910, he spent some months drawing the surviving examples of late Georgian architecture in Australia; these studies, which were published in 1924 as Old Colonial Architecture in New South Wales and Tasmania...


Jane Clark

( Herbert )

(b Aston, Warwicks, Oct 22, 1854; d Eltham, Victoria, Oct 13, 1914).

Australian painter of English birth. He studied at the Royal Academy and South Kensington Schools (1870–82) in London and arrived in Melbourne on 1 January 1883 to work on the land for 18 months. He joined the life classes at the National Gallery of Victoria (1884–7), while employed as a lithographic draughtsman, and returned to Europe in 1887–8 to attend the Académie Julian in Paris. Back in Australia, he exhibited with the Victorian Artists’ Society and painted with the Heidelberg school artists, based at Eaglemont from October 1889 to June 1890. He was nicknamed ‘the orderly colonel’ for his organized habits. He leased the south end of the Heidelberg mansion ‘Charterisville’ from September 1890, painting prolifically, teaching and accommodating numerous fellow artists. The critic Sidney Dickinson named him, with Arthur Streeton, as a leader of ‘the “Heidelberg School” … for out-of-door painting’ (‘Two exhibitions of paintings’, ...


Ian J. Lochhead

(b Christchurch, June 6, 1878; d Christchurch, Nov 28, 1947).

New Zealand architect . Articled to the Christchurch architect Frederick Strouts (1834–1919) in 1893, he went to England in 1901, working for the Housing Division of the London County Council and subsequently for R. W. Schultz and Leonard Stokes. Returning to New Zealand in 1906 he entered partnership with Samuel Hurst Seager. In 1909 he began independent practice in Christchurch, establishing his reputation with large Arts and Crafts style houses. After 1920 he increasingly favoured a Colonial Georgian style for houses, most notably at Bishopscourt (1926), Christchurch. A confirmed traditionalist, Wood was an accomplished designer in Gothic Revival and classical styles. Christ’s College Dining Hall (1922–5), Christchurch, a confident exercise in English collegiate Gothic, exemplifies his commitment to European traditions. St Barnabas (1925), Fendalton, St Paul’s (1930), Tai Tapu, and St Barnabas (1932), Woodend, reveal his feeling for authentic Gothic forms and sensitivity to materials, whether traditional or modern. His commercial buildings show a progression from the stripped classicism of the Public Trust Building (...


Donald Langmead

( William )

(b London, 1822; d Adelaide, Aug 5, 1886).

Australian architect of English birth. In the 1830s he was articled to the Borough Surveyor’s office in Bermondsey, London, later becoming government clerk of works at Yarmouth. After some years working as a civil engineer in Canada, he emigrated to South Australia, arriving in May 1849. Shortages of resources induced by the eastern colonies’ gold-rush frustrated his attempts to start a practice until 1853. His best-known works came from partnerships. With E. J. Woods (1837–1913) he produced the Town Hall, Adelaide (1863–6); and with Woods and E. A. Hamilton, the General Post Office (1867–72). Facing each other in the city’s centre, the massive neo-Renaissance piles that vied for prominence were broadly detailed in local stone. In a park in north Adelaide the latter partnership also built the imposing but restrained Brougham Place Congregational Church (1860–72). Reminiscent of St Philip’s (1710–25), Birmingham, by Thomas Archer, it was more austerely puritan in detail....