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Marianne Roland Michel

(b Paris, Nov 1686; d Paris, April 12, 1761).

French painter, draughtsman and designer. He was the son of a master mason and probably served his apprenticeship with an ornamental craftsman. His earliest known work is a design for an engraved title-page cartouche (see Roland Michel, 1984, fig.) dating from 1713. In 1721 he was received (reçu) into the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture on presentation of two painted architectural capriccios, of which one, Figures in a Ruined Palace (Gray, Mus. Martin), survives. He continued to specialize in this type of fictive architectural perspective in a landscape setting throughout his career. As well as easel pictures, Lajoüe also painted decorative canvases for insertion in panelling, screens and firescreens, designed banners, picture frames, harpsichord cases and the decorative components of carriages (e.g. that for the Prince de Tonnay-Charante; drawings 1729–30; Stockholm, Nmus.)

Probably as the result of the favourable reception of three overdoors on maritime themes (two in Avignon, Mus. Calvet), painted ...


Joellen Secondo

(b Bois-le-Duc [now s’Hertogenbosch], April 9, 1688; d London, Aug 1, 1751).

English silversmith of Dutch birth. He was one of the leading silversmiths in England in the first half of the 18th century and was renowned for his innovative designs and technical proficiency. He was the son of French Huguenot parents who had emigrated to the Netherlands before settling in London by 1691. In 1703 he was apprenticed to Pierre Platel, a Huguenot goldsmith working in the French Régence style, and continued as Platel’s journeyman after 1711. De Lamerie registered the first of the five makers’ marks of his career (two were not registered) at Goldsmiths’ Hall, London, in 1713 and set up a workshop on Windmill Street. His early work is in the simple, unornamented Queen Anne style (e.g. kettle and stand with lamp, 1713; Oxford, Ashmolean). Commissioned wares are more impressive, as illustrated by a pair of sconces (1713–15; Los Angeles, CA, Gilbert priv. col., on loan to Los Angeles, CA, Co. Mus. A.) in the French Régence style for ...


Mary Tavener Holmes

(b Paris, Jan 22, 1690; d Paris, Sept 14, 1743).

French painter, draughtsman and collector. He was one of the most prolific and imaginative genre painters of the first half of the 18th century in France, and, although after his death he was long regarded as a follower and imitator of Antoine Watteau, his work is markedly personal and often innovative (see fig.). He began training as an engraver but soon apprenticed himself to Pierre Dulin (1669–1748), a moderately successful history painter; by 1708 he had enrolled as a student at the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, Paris. At an unknown date he entered the workshop of the genre and decorative painter Claude Gillot, who had been Watteau’s master. This move signalled an important change of direction away from the history painting pursued by his friend François Lemoyne. Two contemporary biographers, Ballot de Sovot and Dézallier D’Argenville, suggest that Lancret’s move to Gillot was the result of the increasing popularity of Watteau’s genre scenes of elegant figures in garden settings. Although he never studied formally under Watteau—whom he probably met around ...


(b Chiswick, nr London, April 2, 1679; d Oxford, June 1, 1772).

English painter and draughtsman of French origin. His father was Marcellus Lauron the elder (d 1702), a French portrait painter and copyist who went to England from The Hague. Laroon was brought up in London where he received a liberal education. In 1697–8 he attended a peace conference at Ryswick as a page, in which capacity he also went to Venice for Charles Montagu, 4th Earl of Manchester. In 1698 he returned to London and worked as a singer for Colley Cibber at the Drury Lane Theatre. In 1707 he enlisted in the army, participating in campaigns in Flanders, Spain and Scotland. During a break from military life (c. 1712–15) he joined the Rose and Crown Club in London and worked in Kneller’s Academy, but he did not begin to concentrate on art until his retirement from the army in 1732. He appears to have worked for pleasure rather than profit; besides a large number of drawings he produced pastoral fancy pictures in the French mode as well as scenes from the theatre. His drawings, dating primarily from the 1720s and 1730s, have flickering Rococo lines and tapestry-like compositions. The influence of Antoine Watteau and Philip Mercier can be seen in his ...


(b nr Cologne, c. 1691; d Paris, Aug 4, 1754).

French cabinetmaker of German birth. He worked in Paris from 1721, and on 21 October 1738 he bought the warrant of Marchand Ebéniste privilégié du Roy suivant la Cour et Conseils de sa Majesté. His furniture was extremely well received both in France and abroad, where his main clients were Frederick II, King of Prussia, Frederick-Augustus II, Elector of Saxony, and Louis XV’s daughter Louise-Elisabeth, Duchess of Parma (1727–59). His marked work covers a period of about seventeen years, including two years of production (1754–6) under his widow. His work also includes a substantial proportion of clockcases. He worked rigidly and exclusively in the Louis XV style and was strongly influenced by the German Rococo. The only forms he used were curves and countercurves, and the bronze mounts, made specially for him, were extremely angular and combined putti and dragons with busts or masks of Classical gods and winged agraffe ornaments. He employed many different materials including tortoiseshell and brass marquetry (e.g. longcase clock, ...


Bruno Pons

(b c. 1677; d July 13, 1746).

French architect and designer. He was a pupil of François d’Orbay and had some early success as an interior designer and decorator, publishing with Jean Langlois before 1705 a series of six prints entitled Nouveaux lambris de galeries, chambres et cabinets. He also developed a thriving architectural practice in Paris. His earliest surviving town house is the Hôtel d’Avaray (85, Rue de Grenelle; now the Dutch Embassy), a restrained three-storey building. The garden façade has a slightly projecting central pavilion of three bays, with wide quoins and a pediment enclosing the owner’s coat of arms. Le Roux employed the mason Charles Boscry to work on the house from 1720 to 1721; during the same period he built the Hôtel du Prat (1720; 60, Rue de Varenne).

In 1724 Le Roux obtained his first commission from the Maréchal de Roquelaure, who became an important client; this followed the death of the architect Pierre Lassurance I, when Le Roux was asked to complete the alterations to the Maréchal’s town house at 244, Boulevard Saint-Germain (now the Ministère de l’Equipement). He carried out the entire interior decoration of the house in a restrained and orderly Rococo style (engraved; a small salon survives) and also designed the portal of the ...


(fl 1714; d Bonn, Jan 23, 1762).

French architect and designer, active in Germany. He was a pupil in Paris of Robert de Cotte and Jacques-François Blondel. On the recommendation of de Cotte, he entered the service of Joseph Clemens, Elector of Cologne, in 1714, continuing with his successor, Clemens August, in 1719. Leveilly worked initially under the direction of Benoît de Fortier and then of Guillaume de Hauberat. From 1729 to 1740 he supervised the construction of Falkenlust, a hunting-lodge near Brühl, to the designs of François de Cuvilliés I. His own built work includes, most notably, the Rathaus (1737–8) in Bonn. Its main façade on the market-place is articulated in seven bays by a giant order of pilasters over a plinth storey. At piano nobile level, the window heads are adorned with Rococo shell motifs under the blind arches of a minor order, while the wider central bay accommodates the entrance, reached from the square via an open double stair. An ornate clock flanked by bearers replaces the regular upper-floor fenestration in this bay, and a coat of arms rests on the cornice above it in front of a mansard roof. Leveilly is also credited with the design of St Michael’s Gate (...


Natália Marinho Ferreira Alves

(b Lisbon, bapt Jan 7, 1725; d Lisbon, April 11, 1786).

Portuguese carver and sculptor. He was the leading wood-carver at the court of Joseph I (reg 1750–77) and was a pupil of João Frederico Ludovice. In 1766 he was appointed judge of carving in the guild of cabinetmakers. He began work around 1752 as a master carver at the royal palace of Queluz, near Lisbon (begun 1746), where he worked until c. 1777 and supervised a team of craftsmen. He played an important role in carrying out the carved decoration in the palace, notably in the Room of the Ambassadors, or Hall of Mirrors, where he carved the door pelmets. In the music-room he worked on the beautiful ceiling, which shows the influence of central European decoration. In the former throne-room, completed c. 1768 and built during the second phase of construction of the palace that started in 1758, he was assisted among others by the French decorator ...


James Yorke


(b London, c. 1710; bur London, Dec 22, 1765).

English furniture designer and carver. The earliest record of Matthias Lock is his apprenticeship in London to his father, Matthias, joiner, and to Richard Goldsaddle, carver, in 1724. As the usual age to begin an apprenticeship was 14, he was presumably born c. 1710. He married Mary Lee at St Paul’s, Covent Garden, London, in July 1734. Between 1742 and 1744 he executed work for the 2nd Earl Poulett of Hinton House, Somerset; annotated sketches in his own hand survive from this commission, which include a side-table, pier-glass and candle stands. A pier-glass and table from the Tapestry Room of Hinton House are now at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, which also owns a large collection of Lock’s drawings.

Lock is most famous for designing pieces in the Rococo style, with a fluency and grace not hitherto achieved in England. In 1744 he published Six Sconces. There followed Six Tables...


D. O. Shvidkovsky

[formerly Oranienbaum]

Imperial summer residence and adjacent town, 41 km west of St Petersburg, Russia, on the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland. The monumental Great Palace was built in the 1710s and 1720s on the estate of Prince Menshikov (c. 1660–1729), a favourite of Peter I (reg 1682–1725). Erected on a sea embankment, its four-storey central block is connected to the lofty domed pavilions by three-storey galleries. A canal led from the palace to the sea, and in front of it a regular park was laid out with low ornamental parterres. The estate was one of the most luxurious of the period. The first architect was Giovanni Maria Fontana, and Gottfried Schädel was employed from 1716. Five days after the celebration to mark the completion of the palace in 1729, Prince Menshikov was exiled, and the estate passed to the Crown. In 1743 Elizabeth I (reg...


Annie Scottez-De Wambrechies



A.-G. Wahlberg

(b Stockholm, Aug 17, 1695; d Stockholm, March 18, 1786).

Swedish painter and pastellist. He was orphaned early and brought up by his grandfather, the goldsmith Fredrik Richter (1636–1714). In 1710 he was briefly apprenticed to David von Krafft (1655–1724). Against von Krafft’s advice, and at his own expense, he travelled to Paris in 1717. He studied first with Hyacinthe Rigaud, Nicolas de Largillierre and Jean-François de Troy, learning to paint in a Régence style less heavy and serious than that taught by von Krafft in Sweden. He also studied drawing under Pierre-Jacques Cazes at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. In 1720 Rosalba Carriera came to Paris from Italy, bringing with her the fashionable technique of drawing in pastel chalks. Lundberg became her pupil and within a year had mastered the medium, charming the Parisians with his portraits. Until the arrival of Carriera, he had worked only in oils (e.g. the portrait of Gabriel Sack and his Wife Eva Bielke...


Emilia Calbi

(b S Angelo in Vado, April 24, 1679; d Rome, 1758).

Italian painter. He was trained in Bologna in the school of Carlo Cignani, and his art is rooted in the classicist tradition of Bologna and Emilia Romagna. His achievements can be measured not only by his official appointments (French Academician, 1732; associate and regent of the Congregazione dei Virtuosi al Pantheon, 1743, 1745; principal of the Accademia di S Luca, 1750–51) but also by the numerous commissions, almost exclusively ecclesiastical, that he obtained both in Rome and in the provinces. These made a significant contribution to the development of the form and iconography of the altarpiece.

Mancini’s early period is not well documented: the only canvases that remain from it are the Chariot of the Sun (Forlì, Pal. Albicini), which is clearly influenced by Correggio, two more solemn and measured canvases, the Union of the Greek and Latin Churches and Gregory and Gratian, Compilers of the Sacred Canons, and the fresco of the ...


James Yorke

(fl London, 1760–c. 1770).

English furniture designer and cabinetmaker. He was recorded as working in the Haymarket, London, from 1760 until 1766, but no furniture documented or labelled from his workshop has been identified. In 1760 he contributed 50 designs to Houshold Furniture in Genteel Taste, sponsored by a Society of Upholsterers and Cabinetmakers, and in the same year he published the Carpenter’s Compleat Guide to the Whole System of Gothic Railing, which consisted of 14 plates. There followed the Cabinet and Chair-maker’s Real Friend and Companion in 1765, with designs for 100 chairs in Gothic, chinoiserie, Rococo and Rustic styles. A second edition, virtually unaltered, appeared in 1775. In 1766 he brought out the Chair-maker’s Guide, containing ‘upwards of Two Hundered New and Genteel Designs … for Gothic, Chinese, Ribbon and other chairs’; it includes two plates from William Ince and John Mayhew’s Universal System of Household Furniture and at least six from ...


Fausta Franchini Guelfi

(b Genoa, Sept 18, 1664; d Genoa, March 7, 1739).

Italian sculptor and wood-carver. In 1680 he entered the workshop of his uncle, the sculptor Giovanni Battista Agnesi, as an apprentice, but he also attended the workshop of the furniture-maker Pietro Andrea Torre (d 1668). By 1688 he already had his own workshop in partnership with Giovanni Battista Pedevilla. The success of his work soon enabled him to open an independent workshop, where he was assisted by pupils, among them his own son, Giovanni Battista Maragliano (d after 1762). His early works include St Michael and Lucifer (1694; Celle Ligure, oratory of S Michele) and St Sebastian (1700; Rapallo, oratory of the Bianchi), both processional casse: groups of polychrome wooden statues made to be carried in procession by the religious confraternities on feast days. The larger part of Maragliano’s production consists of such monumental groups, in which the scenes from a saint’s life (ecstasy, martyrdom etc) are represented in a theatrical manner, expressing devotional wonder and intense emotional involvement. The lively colouring of the sculptures was done by specialist polychrome painters, at times under the supervision of Maragliano himself. Among the most famous of these ...


Dwight C. Miller

(b Bologna, 1699; d Bologna, 1771).

Italian painter. After initially studying with Aureliano Milani, he entered the studio of Marcantonio Franceschini, whose refined classical style had a decisive influence on his development. His first independent work was the huge Rape of Helen (1723; Bologna, Pal. Mentasti). During the 1730s he proved himself to be a capable practitioner of large-scale fresco painting with his ambitious decoration of the vaults and cupola of S Maria di Galliera, the Oratorian church in Bologna. Franceschini’s influence is particularly evident in Marchesi’s interpretation of Ovidian pastoral myths, where his suave, languorous figures, his comely maidens and scantily clad nymphs represent the transformation of Franceschini’s elegaic classicism into an elegant late Baroque idiom with clear analogies to Rococo. Marchesi was among the more prominent painters in Bologna in the mid-18th century and an active member of Bologna’s Accademia Clementina, which Franceschini had founded. His works must have had a particular appeal to English patrons, as many of them have been discovered in English country-house collections, for example a series of paintings of the ...


Elisabeth Kieven

(b Rome, Feb 10, 1702; d Rome, July 28, 1786).

Italian architect, sculptor, draughtsman and designer. He owed his career to the patronage of cardinals Alessandro Albani (see Albani family, §2) and Annibale Albani. Like the Marchionni family, the Albani family came from the Marches. Marchionni first trained as a sculptor, then studied architecture at the Accademia di S Luca in Rome under Filippo Barigioni, winning the first prize in 1728, his final year. Marchionni’s prizewinning drawings demonstrated his exceptional talent as a draughtsman, always far greater than his inspiration as an architect. Cardinal Alessandro Albani engaged him to build his villa in Anzio as early as 1728 and in 1734 commissioned Marchionni to design the façade of the collegiate church at Nettuno. Both are conventional works carrying the imprint of the Accademia, revealing a clear commitment to the past in their use of 17th-century architectural motifs. Marchionni worked as a sculptor between 1730 and 1748. His most interesting sculptural work is the tomb of ...


Camillo Semenzato

(b Caviola d’Agordo, nr Belluno, March 30, 1696; d Treviso, Jan 2, 1778).

Italian sculptor. He may have trained with Andrea Brustolon, but his style was more influenced by the elegant classicism of such Venetian sculptors as Giuseppe Torretti and Antonio Corradini. His first recorded work is a wooden sacristy cupboard (c. 1715) for the parish church at Caviola, and before 1738 he had carved the six marble Sibyls and the seven marble Apostles for S Maria degli Scalzi, Venice. The signed marble statues of St Alexis and St Juliana for the Servite church in Venice (now in Fratta Polesine, Parish Church) were completed in 1738, and there followed low reliefs in wood, showing scenes from the Life of St Roch (1741) for the Scuola di S Rocco, Venice, which were distinguished by their varied compositions and elaborate settings, enriched by surprisingly naturalistic architecture and landscape. In 1743 Marchiori completed works for S Rocco, Venice, a marble relief of the ...


Dulcia Meijers



José Eduardo Horta Correia

[Mardell, ?Károly]

(b ?Hungary, c. 1695; d ?Lisbon, 1763).

Architect of Hungarian origin, active in Portugal. He lived in England and France and fought as a military officer in the imperial wars in Central Europe before going to Portugal in 1733. There his part in the development of secular architecture during the reigns of kings John V and Joseph I was very important. Mardel’s style was formed essentially by central European late Baroque and Rococo and the formal secular architecture of French Classicism. As an engineer his experience was invaluable in the immense project for the reconstruction of Lisbon from 1755. His work also shows an ability to incorporate local Portuguese characteristics, and he aimed to combine the official courtly Joanine style with the vernacular Portuguese tradition of the estilo Chão or Plain Style favoured by other military engineers active in Lisbon. Mardel brought to Pombaline architecture his own elegance, lightness and imagination, qualities that stand beside the radical simplicity seen in the work of Eugénio dos Santos....