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Article

Edwin Lachnit

(b Bielitz-Biala, Austrian Silesia [now Bielsko-Biala, Poland], March 7, 1862; d Vienna, Jan 2, 1941).

Austrian art historian. After studying classical archaeology and the history of art at the universities of Vienna, Berlin and Munich, where in 1885 he completed a dissertation on the iconography of the baptism of Christ, Strzygowski did research in Rome until 1887, when he took up an academic post in Vienna. His papers on Romano-Byzantine art were criticized by Alois Riegl and Franz Wickhoff as deficient in their analysis of sources and unscientific; thus began a lifelong conflict between Strzygowski and the ‘Vienna School’. Disappointed with the western approach to art history, Strzygowski turned to the East. He made extensive expeditions through Asia Minor, Armenia and Iran. This gave him an anti-Classical awareness of history and made him re-evaluate the civilization of the ‘barbaric’ nomadic peoples in relation to the Classical antiquity of the Mediterranean, thus introducing new dimensions to artistic research.

Strzygowski’s unconventional geographical perspective on art led him to espouse an irrational ‘Nordic myth’ according to which religion, politics, philosophy and the liberal arts had all served as instruments in the ‘southern struggle for power’ to suppress the original ‘northern man’, who was notable for his depth of feeling, his urge to express himself and his propensity for non-objective ornament. These characteristic ‘Nordic’ qualities were supposedly breaking out again in the landscape painting of Arnold Böcklin and in abstract art, while figural expressionism was a symptom of the reprehensible ‘art of the dominant group’. In order to carry out systematic ‘research into the north’, Strzygowski designed a ‘comparative science of art’ which distinguished between exact ‘factual research’ and ‘observer-based research’ underpinned by historical perception; he himself, however, was unable to adhere to this strict division. He dreamt of cooperation with allied disciplines and with the natural sciences within an ‘international house of researchers’, and he attempted to realize this ideal in his extraordinarily popular Wiener Institut. He had already held a professorship in Graz since ...

Article

Studio  

Carola Hicks

[workshop]

Artist’s place of work. The term is also used to define the work of an artist’s assistants or followers.

In the most straightforward sense, a studio is the place where an artist works, its nature determined by the practical needs of production: adequate light by which to see and space in which to create the work of art. Subsequent activities (e.g. storage, display, and sale) and related activities (e.g. training) may also be considerations. Since work in a studio might involve a whole range of artistic practices, often each with several different processes, separate areas of work are required. There has always been some difference between the needs of painting and of sculpture, for example the latter’s requirement of distinct areas for modelling in clay and in plaster, for casting in metal, and for carving in wood and various types of stone. The processes involved in creating a painting require the preparation of drawing implements, paints, wood panels or canvases, and frames; these are all carried out within the studio, but can take place within one large room. On the other hand, a stained-glass studio (whether medieval or 19th century) might have employed many people, who remained segregated within specialist activities, which were carried out in separate areas under the same roof. Although a studio thus implies a specific space reserved for artistic activity, in the medieval period, because so many works were carried out ...

Article

Svomas  

Nicholas Wegner

[Svobodniye (gosudarstvenniye) khudozhestvenniye masterskiye; Rus.: Free State Art Studios]

Art schools set up in several cities in the USSR, including Moscow and Petrograd (St Petersburg), after the October Revolution of 1917. The teaching was dominated by the avant-garde, including Futurists and Productivists, and the schools supported numerous artists in conditions of the harshest subsistence. In December 1918 the First Free Art Studio and the Second Free Art Studio were set up on the basis of, respectively, the Stroganov School of Applied Art and the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture. In November 1920 these merged to form Vkhutemas (Higher (State) Artistic and Technical Workshops).

J. Bowlt: ‘Russian Art in the 1920s’, Soviet Studies, 20/4 (1971), pp. 574–94 J. Bowlt: Russian Art of the Avant-garde: Theory and Criticism, 1920–1934 (London and New York, 1976/R 1988)

Belogrud, Andrey

Brik, Osip

Drevin, Aleksandr

Efros, Abram

Grigor’yev, Boris

Kandinsky, Vasily, §2: Russia, 1914–21

Kobro, Katarzyna

Lebedev, Vladimir

Mansurov, Pavel

Moscow, §II, 3: Art life and organization, after 1917...

Article

Roger White

(b Woodford, Essex, 1714; d London, Sept 27, 1788).

English architect and sculptor. His father Robert (1690–1742), a master mason and monumental sculptor with a successful business in and around the City of London, apprenticed him at the age of 18 to the sculptor Henry Cheere. On completion of the apprenticeship he was given ‘just money enough to travel on a plan of frugal study to Rome’, but his studies there were cut short by news of his father’s death. On his return home he found the family finances in disarray; nevertheless he took over his father’s yard and soon prospered, even though it was some time before the debts were paid off. His own reputation as a sculptor was sufficiently advanced by 1744 for Parliament to commission from him a monument to Capt. James Cornewall in Westminster Abbey, London. In the same year he won the commission for the carved pediment of the Mansion House, London (a building on which his ...

Article

Alan Fausel

(b ?Woolland, Dorset, July 25, 1675; d Stalbridge, Dorset, May 13, 1734).

English painter. The great English exponent of Baroque decorative painting, he was the only one to compete successfully with foreigners for the relatively few large-scale decorative commissions available in England during the first quarter of the 18th century. His skill in this field was remarkable, since his training was irregular and his trips abroad (the Low Countries in 1711 and Paris in 1717) came only after he had reached maturity as an artist.

Thornhill was born into an old Dorset family, and his father, a grocer, probably abandoned both wife and children while Thornhill was still young. Their subsequent move to London meant he grew up in the house of his uncle, the physician Thomas Sydenham. In 1689, aged 14, he was apprenticed to Thomas Highmore (1660–1720), a distant relative and specialist in non-figural decorative painting, which included wainscots and balustrades as well as trompe l’oeil effects. While working for Highmore in great houses such as Chatsworth, Derbys, in the 1690s, Thornhill was exposed to the work of foreign decorative painters, in particular Louis Laguerre, Louis Chéron and Antonio Verrio, all of whom exerted a great influence on his subsequent work....

Article

Ramón Gutiérrez

(b Enguera, Valencia, 1757; d Mexico City, Dec 24, 1816).

Spanish architect, sculptor, and teacher, active in Mexico. He studied at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de S Carlos, Valencia, at a time when Baroque forms were being rejected in Spain and Neo-classicism was being promoted. He was apprenticed to the sculptor José Puchol Rubio (d 1797), who also taught him extensively about architecture. In 1780 Tolsá moved to Madrid, where he studied under Juan Pascual de Mena and at the Real Academia de Bellas-Artes de S Fernando, where his subjects included painting. There he also designed several reliefs, including the Entry of the Catholic Kings into Granada (1784; Madrid, Real Acad. S Fernando). He was selected as an academician in 1789.

Following the endorsement of Juan Adán and Manuel Francisco Alvarez de la Peña, in 1790 Tolsá succeeded José Arias (c. 1743–88) as director of sculpture at the Real Academia de S Carlos de la Nueva España in Mexico City. He took with him a collection of plaster casts for sculptures, many books, and 154 quintals (7 tonnes) of plaster for the Academia. He arrived in ...

Article

Justine Hopkins

(b Solihull, April 9, 1862; d London, Jan 8, 1937).

English painter and draughtsman. He came to painting from a successful surgical career. From 1887 he studied at Westminster School of Art under Frederick Brown, and in 1891 exhibited his first paintings at the New English Art Club, which he supported all his life. In 1892 he became an anatomy demonstrator at the London Hospital Medical School in order to be free to devote more time to painting. In 1893 he finally abandoned medicine on being invited to join the staff of the Slade School of Art in London, where he taught until 1930, succeeding Brown as Professor in 1919. His overriding concern with draughtsmanship and the structure of the body was apparent in his programme of copying from the Antique, from prints and from life; however, he saw this discipline as the basis for developing each artist’s individuality. He influenced such students as Augustus John, Stanley Spencer, Wyndham Lewis, ...

Article

J. James Read

(b March 6, 1821; d Paris, Oct 30, 1907).

French architect, teacher and writer. He trained as an engineer at the Ecole Centrale des Arts et Métiers, Paris, where he later taught (1854–95). After training he ran a ceramics factory before enrolling as a pupil of the architect Louis-Tullius-Joachim Visconti. He developed a particular interest in hygiene in buildings and in 1849 was appointed to a government commission to study the design of public baths. In 1865 he founded the Ecole Centrale d’Architecture in Paris. Set up in opposition to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, it was intended to lead reform in architectural education, giving it a more practical, scientific basis and relating it to the current debate on such social issues as housing. One of the school’s directors was Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, who had been involved in the ultimately unsuccessful attempts to reform the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in 1863. The school was financed by private shareholders, among them many engineers and industrialists but few architects. The architectural profession was in fact critical of Trélat’s venture and ensured that the school never really became established, so that, from ...

Article

(b London, Sept 9, 1694; d London, Dec 23, 1739).

English painter and illustrator of Dutch origin. He was first instructed in drawing by his father, John Vanderbank the elder (d 1717), a tapestry-weaver of Soho, London. He worked at Kneller’s Academy from its foundation in 1711 but broke away in 1720 and with Louis Chéron set up a new school in St Martin’s Lane, London, at which a greater emphasis was placed on life drawing. He had begun as a portrait painter and in the 1720s attracted sitters who included Isaac Newton (1725; version, London, Royal Soc.), Martin Folkes (untraced; mezzotint by J. Faber, 1737) and Thomas Guy (London, Guy’s Hosp.). Royal commissions included George I (1726; Windsor Castle, Berks, Royal Col.) and Queen Caroline (1736; Goodwood House, W. Sussex). At that time he also did some decorative painting, executing designs on a staircase at 11 Bedford Row, London (c. 1720); this commission included an equestrian portrait of ...

Article

Ilaria Bignamini

(b London, Nov 17, 1684; d London, July 24, 1756).

English writer, engraver and antiquary. Born to Catholic parents, he first trained (c. 1698–1701) under an unknown French engraver, after which he was apprenticed to Michael van der Gught (1660–1725) until 1709. Vertue was an early member of Godfrey Kneller’s Academy of Painting and Drawing in Great Queen Street (1711–c. 1720), London, where he drew from life, and the Rose and Crown Club, to which numerous artists and patrons belonged. From 1726 he also attended the meetings in London of the Virtuosi of St Luke. In 1717 he was appointed engraver to the Society of Antiquaries, contributing to its Vetusta monumenta. He was also employed by Oxford University to engrave plates for its annual Almanacks and contributed to a number of illustrated works, including Aubrey de la Motraye’s Travels through Europe, Asia, and into Parts of Africa (1723), Thomas Salmon’s The Chronological Historian...

Article

Marita Sturken

Culture of images and visuality that creates meaning in our world today. This includes media forms such as photography, film, television, and digital media; art media such as painting, drawing, prints, and installations; architecture and design; comic books and graphic novels; fashion design, and other visual forms including the look of urban life itself. It also encompasses such social realms as art, news, popular culture, advertising and consumerism, politics, law, religion, and science and medicine. The term visual culture also refers to the interdisciplinary academic field of study that aims to study and understand the role that images and visuality play in our society; how images, gazes, and looks make meaning socially, culturally, and politically; how images are integrated with other media; and how visuality shapes power, meaning, and identity in contemporary global culture.

The emergence of the concept of visual culture as a means to think about the role of images in culture and as an academic field of study is a relatively recent phenomenon, emerging in the late 1980s and becoming established by the late 1990s. There were numerous factors that contributed to the idea that images should be understood and analysed across social arenas rather than as separate categories, including the impact of digital media on the circulation of images across social realms, the modern use of images from other social arenas (such as news and advertising) in art, and the cross-referencing of cultural forms displayed in popular culture and art. It was also influenced by the increasingly visible role played by images in political conflict and a general trend toward interdisciplinarity in academia....

Article

Christina Lodder

[Vysshiye (Gosudarstvennyye) Khudozhestvenno-Tekhnicheskiye Masterskiye ; Rus.: Higher (State) Artistic and Technical Workshops]

Soviet school of art and architecture, active in Moscow from 1920 to 1930. It was established by state decree on 29 November 1920, on the basis of the first and second State Free Art Studios (Svomas), which had themselves been set up in December 1918 by fusing the old Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture with the Stroganov School of Applied Art. The Vkhutemas was conceived explicitly as ‘a specialized educational institution for advanced artistic and technical training, created to train highly qualified master artists for industry, as well as instructors and directors of professional and technical education’. Official concerns reflected contemporary artistic discussions on the role of art in the new society and its participation in industrial production; this was called ‘production art’, although the term covered a wide range of approaches, from applied and decorative art to the emerging concept of design promoted by the First Working Group of ...

Article

(b Paris, Dec 6, 1668; d Rome, Dec 11, 1737).

French painter, administrator and teacher of Flemish origin. He trained with his father Philippe Vleughels (?1620–94), a Flemish painter who had moved to Paris in 1642; he was also a pupil of Pierre Mignard I. In 1694 he came second in the Prix de Rome competition with Lot and his Daughters Leaving Sodom (untraced); despite repeated attempts, he failed to win the first prize. He became a close friend of Watteau and was, like him, greatly influenced by Flemish painting, notably that of Rubens. In 1704 Vleughels travelled to Italy at his own expense. From his base in Rome he made trips to Venice (1707–9) and Modena (1712–14) and was much influenced by the work of the Venetian colourists, particularly Veronese, whose works he copied (drawings Paris, Louvre, Cab. Dessins). In 1716, back in Paris, he was approved (agréé) by the Académie Royale and in the same year was received (...

Article

Krystyna Sroczyńska

[pseud. Ptaszek ]

(b Warsaw, June 15, 1764; d Warsaw, April 20, 1826).

Polish painter, printmaker and teacher. He trained as a master builder and then from 1780 studied under André Lebrun (1737–1811) in the school of painting at the Royal Castle in Warsaw, as well as under Jakub Monaldi and Simon Bogumił Zug. In 1785 Vogel produced several watercolour copies of vedute of Warsaw by Bernardo Bellotto, which laid the foundations of his future career. He also became Bellotto’s first successor in the field of veduta painting. From 1785 Vogel painted over 100 vedute of the capital and its environs (e.g. Panoramic View of Warsaw from Praga, 1816; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.), many of which, because of their detail and precision, were later used to reconstruct monuments destroyed during World War II. From 1787 until 1800, on the recommendation of Stanislav II Poniatowski, who appointed him his Government Illustrator, and later, on his own initiative, Vogel made several trips around Poland, painting views of castles and their ruins, and of large and small towns mainly in the Wisła River basin. From ...

Article

( Colomann )

(b Penzing, nr Vienna, July 13, 1841; d Vienna, April 11, 1918).

Austrian architect, urban planner, designer, teacher and writer. He was one of the most important architects of the 19th and 20th centuries—in 1911 Adolf Loos called him ‘the greatest architect in the world’—and a key figure in the development of 20th-century European architecture. His work, spread over more than half a century, embodies the transition from mid-19th-century historicism to the earliest expressions of 20th-century Modernism. Wagner was an influential teacher and theorist, and in addition to his executed work he designed and published more than 100 ambitious schemes, the last volume of his Einige Skizzen being published posthumously in 1922; this long series of often fantastic but always highly pragmatic and carefully thought out projects included urban plans, museums, academies, parliament buildings and public monuments.

After studying at the Technische Hochschule in Vienna from 1857 to 1860 and spending a short period at the Bauakademie in Berlin, where he became familiar with the work of Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Wagner studied from ...

Article

Rudolf M. Bisanz

(b Vienna, Jan 15, 1793; d Helmstreitmühle in der Hinterbrühl, nr Baden, Aug 23, 1865).

Austrian painter. He received sporadic art lessons of varying quality in Vienna between 1807 and 1820, first under Zinther and then with Johann Baptist Lampi, Hubert Maurer (1738–1818), Josef Lange (1751–1831) and Wilhelm Johann Nepomuk Schödlberger (1799–1853) at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste. After 1811 he made a meagre living painting miniatures and giving art lessons. Perhaps more significant than this haphazard formal training was Waldmüller’s extensive copying after the Old Masters at the court and municipal art galleries of Vienna, mostly between 1817 and 1821. His copy of Jusepe de Ribera’s Martyrdom of St Andrew (1821; Vienna, Gemäldegal. Akad. Bild. Kst.) is an example of his accomplished technique. However, commissions for copies barely enabled him to support himself.

In 1822 Waldmüller made his début at the Vienna Akademie exhibition with five original paintings. Three years later he made his first trip to Italy, and in ...

Article

Shearer West

(b ?Yarmouth, 25 April ?1721; d London, Feb 6, 1786).

English draughtsman, illustrator and painter. In 1735 he was apprenticed to a goldsmith; he studied at the St Martin’s Lane Academy, London, where he was influenced by Gravelot. He worked briefly as a decorative painter in partnership with Francis Hayman, presenting topographical roundels of Christ’s Hospital, St Thomas’s Hospital and Greenwich Hospital to the Foundling Hospital (all before 1748; in situ).

Wale was among the most prolific book illustrators of the third quarter of the 18th century, producing illustrations for over 100 publications. The fact that he did not engrave his own designs may have contributed to the enormity of his output: he usually supplied only a pen-and-ink drawing, sometimes tinted, which would then be engraved; he could also be repetitive. Around 1751 he designed a series of prints of Vauxhall Gardens, which were etched and engraved by Thomas Bowles (b c. 1712) and Johann Sebastian Müller (...

Article

Helmut Börsch-Supan

(b Berne, bapt June 22, 1637; d Berne, 1710).

Swiss painter, active in France and Germany . His work is diverse in form—ranging from portrait miniatures to ceiling paintings—and eclectic in manner, drawing on a wide range of 17th-century influences. Like his biography, it is marked by restlessness and inner division. The surviving oeuvre securely attributed to him comprises only 56 oil paintings, 47 miniatures, 60 drawings and 2 etchings (Glaesemer). The quality is uneven, and a clear line of development is difficult to discern. A decline in Werner’s creative powers set in long before his death.

Werner was the son of a painter of the same name ( fl 1637; d after 1675). He left the Calvinist milieu of Berne in 1649 to train in Basle and from 1650 learnt oil painting in Frankfurt am Main under Matthäus Merian (ii), a cosmopolitan and versatile painter. He went on to Italy between 1652 and 1654. In the tradition of Hans Rottenhammer II, Friedrich Brentel I and Johann Wilhelm Baur, Werner treated the subject-matter of the large-format panel painting with great delicacy. In a ...

Article

William Garner

(fl 1752–61; d Dublin, 1790).

Irish stuccoist. He is a typical example of the many plasterers working in Dublin during the mid-18th century whose work remains largely unidentified. In 1752 he was described as a plasterer when admitted as a freeman of the City of Dublin. In 1756 he was paid £534 for ‘plaistering and stucco’ in the city’s Rotunda Hospital, where it is thought he decorated the staircase ceiling. In 1761 he worked at 9 Cavendish Row and at 4 and 5 Parnell Square, three houses built by Bartholomew Mosse (1712–59), Master Builder of the Rotunda.

West is variously described in legal documents as plasterer, Master Builder and merchant, and it is known that he developed property in Lower Dominick Street, Granby Row, Great Denmark Street and City Quay. He built 20 Lower Dominick Street before 1758, and the ceilings there can be attributed to him. Various motifs in the hall—serrated acanthus in high relief and birds holding flowers—are also to be found in the staircase hall of 56 St Stephen’s Green. This latter work is crowded and crudely modelled, though the ceiling of Lower Dominick Street’s hall is one of the most daringly conceived and freely modelled Rococo ceilings in Dublin. Here, trophies of musical instruments, caryatids and birds standing on pedestals are close in treatment to those in the Rotunda Chapel. At Florence Court, Co. Fermanagh, the dining-room ceiling is similar to that in the back drawing-room of 9 Cavendish Row, with its flat acanthus set within robust rectangular mouldings. Although West is popularly associated with the bird motifs found in Dublin Rococo plasterwork, few are actually to be found in the houses where he is known to have worked. Nothing by West can be dated later than ...

Article

Karin Kryger

(b Copenhagen, Sept 1, 1731; d Copenhagen, Dec 14, 1802).

Danish sculptor, writer and designer . He was the son of the sculptor Just Wiedewelt (1677–1757) and trained in the shop belonging to his father and godfather, the sculptor Didrik Gercken (1692–1778). In 1750 Wiedewelt travelled to Paris, where he worked under the sculptor Guillaume Coustou (ii), and studied contemporary French sculpture. Despite his subsequent admiration for Classical antiquity, he continued to work in this style throughout his career. In 1753 he won the silver medal from the Académie Royale de Peinture et Sculpture in Paris. The following year he went to Rome, where he came into contact with such leading cultural figures as Anton Raphael Mengs and Johann Joachim Winckelmann, whose knowledge of Classical art and judgement of contemporary works greatly influenced Wiedewelt. He kept all the studies made in Italy for later use as a source of inspiration.

Wiedewelt had returned to Copenhagen by 1758...