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Bruce Boucher

[Colonna, Jacopo]

(fl Venice, c. 1530; d Bologna, c. 1543).

Italian sculptor. He was the son of a sculptor from Bergamo, Venturino Fantoni (fl c. 1517; d c. 1524). Vasari and Francesco Sansovino mention him as a disciple of Jacopo Sansovino, and his earliest surviving work, a statuette of St Lawrence (1530) made in competition with a St Jerome by Danese Cattaneo (both Venice, S Salvatore), is a modest work showing the influence of Sansovino. His other surviving Venetian work, Christ Showing his Wounds, made for the now destroyed Santa Croce, Venice (c. 1535; Venice, Ca’ d’Oro), is a more accomplished performance in the same vein. Fantoni made an equestrian statue probably also dating from the 1530s for S Marina in Venice, as well as figures of St Dorothy, St Lucy and St Catherine (all destr.) for S Giovanni Novo.

In 1532 Fantoni was engaged on relief decoration for the Scuola di S Rocco, and by ...


Danielle B. Joyner

From the time John Cassian established the first female foundation in Marseille in ad 410, monastic women lived in varying states of enclosure and were surrounded by diverse images and objects that contributed to their devotion, education and livelihood. The first rule for women, written in 512 by St Caesarius of Arles, emphasized their strict separation from men and the world, as did the Periculoso, a directive issued by Pope Boniface VIII (reg 1294–1303) in 1298. Various architectural solutions developed throughout the Middle Ages to reconcile the necessities of enclosure with the access required by male clerics to celebrate Mass and provide pastoral care. Nuns’ choirs, where the women would gather for their daily prayers, were often constructed as discreet spaces in the church, which allowed women to hear or see the Mass without interacting with the cleric, as in the 10th-century choir in the eastern transept gallery at St Cyriakus in Gernrode, Germany. In some Cistercian examples, the nuns’ choir appeared at the west end of the nave. Dominican and Franciscan architecture was largely varied. Double monasteries, which housed men and women, also required careful construction. A 7th-century text describing the church of St Brigida in ...


Riccardo Passoni

(b Valduggia, nr Vercelli, 1475–80; d Milan, Jan 3, 1546).

Italian painter and sculptor. He probably received his training at Varallo at the beginning of the 1490s, a lively period in the town’s artistic life, when extensive works were being carried out at the sacromonte (see Sacromonte). His master was Gian Stefano Scotto (fl 1508), none of whose works has as yet been identified but who, judging from the early work of his pupil, may have been influenced by Lombard artists. Gaudenzio’s early works, such as a painting on panel of the Crucifixion (Varallo, Mus. Civ. Pietro Calderini), were influenced by the poetic art of Bramantino and by the northern Italian classicizing style of the Milanese painter Bernardo Zenale. His early, but self-assured, Angel of the Annunciation (c. 1500; Vercelli, Mus. Civ. Borgogna), painted for the convent of the Grazie, Vercelli, suggests that these sources were soon enriched by his response to the tender Renaissance style of Pietro Perugino (active at the Certosa di Pavia, ...


Annamaria Giusti

(fl Florence, 1589–1612).

Italian craftsman. He was probably a member of the Ferrucci family family of sculptors and masons. He was active in the Galleria dei Lavori, the Medici Grand Ducal manufactory in Florence (see Florence, §II, 2, (i)), and was one of the first Florentine artisans to attempt the difficult technique of pietra dura mosaic. He is known through documents of the late 16th century and early 17th relating to certain works using this technique. He is first mentioned in 1589 as carving letters in lapis lazuli for the coats of arms of Tuscan cities for the Cappella dei Principi, Florence. In 1597 he produced a portrait in soft stone of Cosimo I (Florence, Mus. Opificio Pietre Dure), based on an oil painting by Domenico Passignano. Ferrucci’s supremacy in stone mosaic portraiture was such that he was commissioned to make portraits of Henry IV, King of France, a wedding gift from ...


Alison Luchs

(fl 1498; d Cesena, between Sept 7, 1524 and Jan 21, 1525).

Italian sculptor. Originally from Campione, Lake Lugano, he was mainly active in Cesena, where he is first documented in 1498. Commissions there for marble statues for the cathedral (1510) and for a chapel entrance arch at S Francesco (1513) apparently went unexecuted. His one certain independent work is the signed funerary monument of Luffo Numai (1509; Ravenna, S Francesco). This work of architectural and decorative sculpture, with polychrome stone inlay and rich classical rinceau decoration in high relief, suggests familiarity with Pietro Lombardo’s work in Venice. Pilasters carved in the same style testify to Fiamberti’s role in an earlier documented monument to Luffo Numai (1502; Forlì, S Maria dei Servi, also called S Pellegrino), in which he collaborated with a fellow Lombard, Giovanni Ricci (1440/50–after 1523), his partner from c. 1498 to 1508. The precise division of labour in this monument, however, remains controversial. The Forlì monument has formed the basis for many attributions of figural reliefs to Fiamberti, as well as for his identification (De Nicola) as the ...


Philippe Rouillard

[?Girolamo da Fiesole]

(fl 1499–1507).

Italian sculptor, active in France. A document of 1499 mentions him as the only sculptor employed by Anne of Brittany (1477–1514) to realize the tomb of her parents, Francis II, 10th Duke of Brittany and Marguerite of Foix (marble; Nantes Cathedral), and also of her children by Charles VIII (marble; Tours Cathedral). However, the recumbent effigies of the first tomb, which was designed by Jean Perréal, were executed by Michel Colombe between 1502 and 1507 (for illustration see Colombe family §(1)). It is possible that Jérôme was responsible for the decoration of the base of the monument with its white marble pilasters and shell-headed niches of red marble. Vitry believed that the design and execution of the decoration of the second tomb could be attributed to him with greater certainty. An Italian Renaissance repertory of ornament, exceptional in France in the early 16th century, appears on the sarcophagus, while the recumbent statues of the deceased are French in conception and style and come from the workshop of Colombe. It has been suggested, not entirely convincingly, that Jérôme contributed the decorative Renaissance framing to the ...


Jürgen Zimmer

(b Dasindo, nr Stenico, c. 1560; d Moravia, after 1626).

Italian architect, sculptor and master builder. His earliest known work is the main doorway (1586) of the parish church at Dasindo. The architraves in this church are also attributed to him. Filippi spent some time in Rome and then was invited to Prague by Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, who in March 1602 appointed him director of building works at Hradčany Castle, the imperial palace, succeeding Giovanni Gargiolli, who had left the imperial service in 1598. In Prague, Filippi worked alongside Joseph Heintz (i) for almost seven years. On 23 March 1604 Filippi submitted an estimate for the continuation of building works begun at Hradčany Castle under Gargiolli, and later that year he acted as a technical adviser in building disputes with Prague burghers. Between 1606 and 1609 he remodelled the Kaiserhaus in Plzeň.

In 1607 Filippi asked the Emperor to double the annual pension that he received in addition to his salary, and his request was granted in ...


(b Florence; fl 1532–45).

Italian sculptor and bronze-founder. He probably trained in Padua and Florence, and he worked extensively in Padua until at least 1545. He was noted for his bronze sculptures, and his workshop produced such decorative objects as inkwells and candlesticks. It is difficult to establish the attributions of these small bronze pieces, but it is certain that Desiderio created the bronze voting urn (1532–3; Padua, Mus. Civ.) commissioned by the Maggior Consiglio of the Comune of Padua. Payments to him are documented in 1532–3. The style of the tripartite bronze urn, which combines Florentine clarity with hints of Venetian models, seems more indebted to Andrea Verrocchio than, as has been suggested, to Andrea Riccio. On the three-faced base there are putti bearing the Comune’s coat of arms; the upper sections display an intricate arrangement of motifs, including lions of St Mark, dolphins, grotteschi and garlands. The urn is considered to be one of the best poured bronzes of 16th-century Padua....


Torbjörn Fulton

(b Namur, c. 1545; d ?Kalmar, c. 1623).

Flemish sculptor and master builder, active in Sweden. He worked in Sweden from the 1580s and is thought to be the master of the monument (1599) to Magnus of Sweden (1542–99), Duke of Östergötland, in the monastery church in Vadstena, and the monument (1598) to Måns Ulfsparre (d 1595) and his wife in the parish church of Kärda, Småland. Duke Magnus’s memorial is a variation of the tumba type—a box-like monument with a sculptured effigy of the deceased on the lid, which protrudes and is carried by columns grouped around the structure. The effigy shows traces of original colouring. This monument type was repeatedly used during the 17th century. Fleming completed Vadstena Castle, with its two decorated gables (1605, 1620) that were probably influenced by the gable (1580s) of the Hall of State of the Royal Palace in Stockholm, attributed to Willem Boy. The Vadstena gables show a two-storey arrangement of pilasters, crowned by a broken-segment pediment and flanked by volutes, with female allegorical figures and warriors placed within niches and flanking the top structure....


(b Nuremberg, bapt Oct 6, 1567; d Nuremberg, 1631 or later).

German goldsmith, engraver and medallist. The son of the goldsmith Paul Flindt I (fl 1567; d 1582), he became a master in Nuremberg in 1601, after a lengthy stay in Vienna. A variant of his pf monogram was pvn, for Paul Vlindt Norimbergensis. Apart from a few lead plaques, only one securely attributable piece of his goldsmith work is known, an embossed oval gold-plated silver tray with figural motifs (1606; Moscow, Patriarch’s Pal.). Although he maintained only a small workshop, Flindt exercised a major influence on the development of ornament in the goldsmith work of his time, especially through his serial engravings (over 200 sheets; 1592–1618; see 1985 exh. cat., nos 409–24, 461, 463–6) of all sorts of ornate pieces, garnished with ribbon- and band-ornament and rich figurative centres. These delicately shadowed, plastically modelled sheets, with their Mannerist motifs, created under the influence of Wenzel Jamnitzer, Jost Amman, Hendrick Goltzius and others, were taken by many goldsmiths as ‘classical’ models for their own work. It has been claimed that Flindt invented the embossing technique of copper-engraving, but this had already been practised before him, in Augsburg....


(b Thurgau, 1485–96; d Nuremberg, Nov 23, 1546).

German sculptor, medallist, cabinetmaker, woodcutter and designer. It has been conjectured on stylistic grounds that between 1515 and 1518 he was active in Augsburg and worked in Hans Daucher’s workshop on the sculptural decoration (destr.) of the Fugger funerary chapel in St Anna. His early style was formed by the Italianism of Daucher and of Hans Burgkmair I and also by a journey to Italy in 1520–21. He was briefly active in Ansbach before arriving in 1522 in Nuremberg; there he was documented as master sculptor when receiving citizenship in August 1523. His earliest sculptural work in Nuremberg is thought to have been 22 capitals (early 1520s) for the renovated Rathaus (destr. 1945). The use of Italian Renaissance ornament, such as volutes decorated with acanthus leaves and fluting, represented a progressive development, in contrast to Albrecht Dürer’s Gothic-inspired architectural design of the Ehrenpforte. Flötner’s first-hand study of Italian Renaissance architectural vocabulary is apparent in the ornamentation of the pilasters of the triangular fountain (...


Robin A. Branstator and Adriano Ghisetti Giavarina


Italian family of artists. (1) Giovanni Paulo Fonduli was probably the son of Fondulino de Fonduliis (fl c. 1444–9), a goldsmith and sculptor whose family had long-established ties with the district of Crema. Giovanni’s brother Bartolomeo Fonduli (fl Vicenza, 1471– 1505) also practised as a goldsmith. (2) Agostino Fonduli, son of Giovanni, was an architect as well as a sculptor, working throughout Lombardy and collaborating with Bramante in Milan.

Robin A. Branstator

(fl second half of 15th century).

Sculptor. A contract dated 29 November 1469, written by Fonduli himself, has survived, stipulating the execution of three all’antica terracotta altarpieces for a church to be built in the Castello at Este. From Fonduli’s handwriting and Venetian dialect, it can be deduced that he had had some education and that he had probably worked outside of Crema, in Padua. In a later contract of 3 March 1484...


Henri Zerner

[Fr. Ecole de Fontainebleau]

Term that encompasses work in a wide variety of media, including painting, sculpture, stuccowork and printmaking, produced from the 1530s to the first decade of the 17th century in France (e.g. The Nymph of Fontainebleau). It evokes an unreal and poetic world of elegant, elongated figures, often in mythological settings, as well as incorporating rich, intricate ornamentation with a characteristic type of strapwork. The phrase was first used by Adam von Bartsch in Le Peintre-graveur (21 vols, Vienna, 1803–21), referring to a group of etchings and engravings, some of which were undoubtedly made at Fontainebleau in France (see Fontainebleau, §1). More generally, it designates the art made to decorate the château of Fontainebleau, built from 1528 by Francis I and his successors (see Valois, House of family, §14), and by extension it covers all works that reflect the art of Fontainebleau. The principal artists of the school were ...


Maria Teresa Fiorio

(b Milan, 1540; d Milan, 1587).

Italian medallist, hardstone-engraver and sculptor. During the first half of his career, before 1570, he concentrated on making medals and on rock crystal engraving. From 1570 he turned increasingly to sculpture, especially that (from 1574) for the decoration of S Maria presso S Celso in Milan.

He came from a family of Swiss origin, from Ticino, and was active mainly in Milan. According to Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo, his great friend, Fontana in his early career was active mainly making medals and engraving on rock crystal and hardstones (pietre dure). Based on references in Lomazzo, portrait medals of Ferdinando Francesco D’Avalos and Lomazzo (both Milan, Castello Sforzesco) have been attributed to Fontana. The latter, which dates from 1560–61, shows Lomazzo presented to Prudence and Fortune on the reverse. The medal dedicated to Avalos, who was Governor of Milan from 1560, is more elaborate and of higher quality. It has been suggested (Rossi) that it reflects Bernardino Campi’s painted portrait (untraced) of Avalos done in ...


Margarita Estella

(b ?Valencia, c. 1480; d Santo Domingo de la Calzada, Logroño, Dec 22, 1540).

Spanish sculptor. He is recorded in Valencia from 1500. In 1509 he moved to Saragossa to work on the main retable in the cathedral of Nuestra Señora del Pilar, which is modelled on the Gothic altarpiece in the cathedral of La Seo, Saragossa. The Pilar retable, one of Forment’s noblest works, is made in alabaster and has three vertical sections surmounted by Gothic cresting and a central open section that houses the tabernacle (sagrario). The sculpture includes Forment’s self-portrait and that of his wife, as well as reliefs on the base and main body depicting the Presentation, the Assumption and the Birth of the Virgin that show his knowledge of Renaissance art. In Saragossa, Forment also carved the main wooden retable (1511–24), which is Gothic in structure, in the church of S Pablo and that in the church of S Miguel de los Navarros (1518...


Charles Avery

[Francheville, Francqueville, Pierre de]

(b Cambrai, 1548; d Paris, Aug 25, 1615).

Flemish sculptor. From a noble family, he learnt to draw in Paris in 1562–4. In 1565 he went to Innsbruck, presumably to assist Alexander Colin on the great tomb in the Hofkirche for the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, and this is probably where he learnt sculpture. Archduke Ferdinand of Austria gave him a letter of introduction to Giambologna c. 1570, and he went to Florence, where he was sufficiently skilled at carving to become a partner of Giambologna, not merely an assistant. Francavilla’s first important commission, for 13 marble statues of mythological subjects for the garden of a villa at Rovezzano, came from Abbot Antonio Bracci in 1574 and was delegated to him probably because Giambologna was heavily occupied. The earliest of these to be signed and dated, Zephyr (1576) and Apollo (1577; both London, Kensington Pal.), are obviously derivations of compositions by Giambologna. Four others (Windsor Castle, Berks, Royal Col., East Terrace Garden) are less indebted to the master, while the last in date is quite different from his style, showing ...



Claude Schaefer



Janet Cox-Rearick

[François Premier style; Francis I style; Fr. Style François Ier]

Term used to describe the architecture and sculpture of the first phase of the French Renaissance, which coincided with the late rule of Louis XII and the early rule of Francis I (1515–c. 1530). The style was revived in the 19th century for architecture and the decorative arts (see Renaissance Revival). In architecture it is a hybrid style characterized by an overlay of imperfectly understood Italian ornamentation on traditional Gothic forms. An important early example is the Gaillon, château of (1508–10) built by Cardinal Georges I d’Amboise (see Amboise, d’ family, §1); others, built mainly for courtiers and patricians, are the châteaux (or parts of them) at Oiron, Vendeuvre, Chenonceaux, château of, Bury, château of, Azay-le-Rideau and elsewhere. These works feature an adoption of the decorative vocabulary of Milanese Quattrocento architecture, an ornamented mode of pilasters, medallions and grotesques, to which French architects trained in the Flamboyant style readily responded. This style was continued in ...


Antonia Boström

(fl 1486; d Milan, 1526).

Italian sculptor and mason. In 1486 he entered Giovanni Antonio Amadeo’s workshop at the Certosa di Pavia, and in 1506 he went with Amadeo on one of his visits to work at Milan Cathedral. He was commissioned in 1495 by the Ospedale Maggiore in Milan to execute the marble tomb of Daniele Birago, Archbishop of Mitilene and his brother Francesco Birago (completed c. 1500; Milan, S Maria della Passione), which depicts Daniele Birago guarded by four putti, reclining on his funeral bier, supported on two sarcophagi placed in tiers. An exuberant example of Lombard classical decorative ornament, it illustrates his debt to the repertory of decoration he would have learnt at Pavia. In 1497 he was paid for a figure for Milan Cathedral, which has been identified as the Judas Maccabeus, whose pose and antique armour suggest that Fusina was familiar with the Lombardo family’s works in Venice and Padua. A figure of the ...