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John Mawer

(b Bodiam, E. Sussex, Feb 17, 1849; d London, Aug 21, 1930).

English designer. He was educated at Marlborough College and New College, Oxford, where he studied drawing under John Ruskin. Although he took Holy Orders in 1873, he continued to practise as a designer and eventually gave up his clerical duties in 1882, the year in which Arthur Mackmurdo founded the Century Guild of Artists, London. In 1883 Mackmurdo and Image opened the Century Guild Workshops. Image painted panels and inscriptions and designed inlaid decoration for furniture made by the Guild and also produced the title-page woodcut for its magazine The Hobby Horse, first published in 1884, which he co-edited from 1886 to 1892. The Guild itself was dissolved in 1888. He undertook design commissions in several fields—stained glass, typography, mosaic and embroidery (for the Royal School of Needlework). He also became active within the Art Workers’ Guild, London, of which he became master in 1900. In the same year he began working for the Glasgow furniture manufacturers ...


Aída Sierra Torres

(b Mexico City, ?1820; d Mexico City, 1897).

Mexican illustrator and printmaker. He probably began his career in 1847 in the workshop of the Murguía publishing house. In 1854, in collaboration with Andrés Campillo, he created an outstanding series of illustrations for the book Los mexicanos pintados por sí mismos, in which he portrayed character types (e.g. Great Poet, lithograph) in the manner of Honoré Daumier. In 1855 he founded the firm Litografía de Iriarte y Compañía. The following year he published portraits of famous personalities in the weekly review El Panorama. He was a co-founder in 1861 of the political fortnightly La Orquesta, on which he worked for more than ten years as an illustrator and eventually as a caricaturist and as editor. Iriarte continued to contribute to a number of periodicals, including El Renacimiento, and his firm also published the weekly San Baltazar (1869–70). He collaborated with Santiago Hernández on numerous illustrations for, among others, ...


M. N. Sokolov


(b Ruza, nr Moscow, June 16, 1864; d Svistukha, nr Moscow, Aug 16, 1910).

Russian painter and graphic artist. He studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture (1878–82 and 1884–5) under Illarion Pryanishnikov and others. He was a member of the Wanderers from 1899 and of the Union of Russian Artists, of which he was one of the founders. Ivanov became dissatisfied with the traditional Wanderers-style realism of the late 19th century and early 20th and with the painting of genre scenes—‘nice little scenes’, as he called them—and he aspired to a strongly dramatic expressive art, in which ‘the heartbeat of the human soul’ could be felt. His series of pictures of migrants, capturing the tragedies of peasant life (e.g. On the Road: Death of a Migrant, 1889; Moscow, Tret’yakov Gal.), is marked by an austere verism.

Ivanov was an innovator in history painting, introducing strong foreshortening effects, framing the composition and seeking to give it the maximum emotional impact. Among his masterpieces of this period are ...


Jorge Alberto Manrique

(b Mexico City, 1867; d Mexico City, 1941).

Mexican painter, illustrator, and teacher. He entered the Academia de San Carlos in Mexico City in 1884. After studying with Santiago Rebull and José Salomé Pina, he soon devoted himself to the painting of historical subjects favored by liberal critics in an attempt to create a Mexican school of painting, as in Columbus at Rábida and the Founding of Tenochtitlán (both Mexico City, Mus. Pal. B.A.). The highest recognition he received was for a painting of great breadth and aspiration, for which he was awarded a medal when it was exhibited in Philadelphia in 1893: the Torture of Cuauhtémoc (1892; Mexico City, Mus. Pal. B.A.) in which, with a sort of academic realism, the dignity of the last Aztec emperor is portrayed in a sordid setting, contrasted with the suffering of the king of Tlacopan and the cold indifference of the conquistadors. He was a professor at the Academia, had work commissioned in Europe (...


(b Paris, May 23, 1813; d Paris, May 7, 1894).

French painter, printmaker and illustrator. In 1830 he worked briefly for an engraver who specialized in cartography, and in that year he produced his first etching, a copy of a head after Rembrandt. From 1831 to 1836 Jacque served in the infantry, seeing action in the siege of Antwerp in 1832. During military service he found time to sketch scenes of army life and is reputed to have submitted two works to the Salon of 1833 in Paris. In 1836 he went to London where he found employment as an illustrator. He was back in France in 1838 and visited his parents in Burgundy, where he became enamoured of the countryside.

Jacque’s graphic works in the early 1840s include caricatures published in Le Charivari in 1843 and a number of vignettes and illustrations that appeared in the publications of the firm Curmer. More significant, however, are his etchings; this medium was beginning to undergo a ...


William R. Johnston

(b Paris, Sept 3, 1837; d Paris, Sept 26, 1880).

French etcher, illustrator and watercolourist. He received his early training from his father, Albert Jacquemart (1808–75), an amateur artist, botanical illustrator, collector and author. From the outset he distinguished himself with illustrations of various objets d’art. His earliest recorded work is an etching of 1859 showing a selection of Japanese and Chinese artefacts, and with Philippe Burty, Henri Fantin-Latour and Félix Bracquemond, among others, he formed a society to study and promote Japanese culture (see Japonisme). Also in 1859 he entered into an association with the Gazette des beaux-arts that lasted for most of his career. To this periodical he contributed plates illustrating the extraordinary range of objects owned by such notable collectors as Charles, Duc de Morny, Victor, Duc de Luynes, and members of the Rothschild family, as well as those found in the Louvre. In these etchings he proved remarkably adept at rendering reflections and varying textures and colours....


Athena S. E. Leoussi

[Janet, Ange-Louis]

(b Paris, Nov 26, 1815; d Paris, Nov 25, 1872).

French painter, illustrator and lithographer. On 5 October 1833 he entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he was a pupil of Horace Vernet, Ingres and Alexandre Marie Colin (1798–1875), but was most influenced by Vernet. He made his début at the Salon of 1836 with two paintings, a Stud Farm and Post Stable and continued to exhibit there until 1870. His subjects consist mostly of hunting scenes and episodes from contemporary French history. Among the latter are works depicting the Crimean War of 1853–6, (e.g. Episode from the Battle of Koughil, Crimea, exh. Salon 1859; Epinal, Mus. Dépt. Vosges & Mus. Int. Imagerie), Napoleon III’s campaigns in Italy in 1859 (e.g. Napoleon III at Solferino, 24 June 1859, exh. Salon 1861; Versailles, Château, on dep. Rennes, Cercle Mil.) and the Mexican expedition of 1861 (e.g. the Battle of Altesco in Mexico, exh. Salon 1864). He also painted religious subjects, for example ...


A. Ziffer

(b Munich, Oct 30, 1868; d Munich, Oct 9, 1940).

German painter, illustrator, teacher and poster designer. The son of the painter Christian Jank (1833–88), he attended Simon Hollósy’s private art school in Munich before studying (1891–6) at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste, also in Munich, under Ludwig von Löfftz (1845–1910) and Paul Höcker (1854–1910). From 1896 he exhibited at the Munich Secession, and he became a member of Scholle, Die, founded in 1899. A regular contributor to the journal Jugend and at the forefront of modernism, he made his mark as a humorous illustrator, portraying allegories and scenes from military life. Jank also designed posters (e.g. Underworld, 1896; Berlin, Mus. Dt. Gesch.). He taught at the Damenakademie (1899–1907). Having come to prominence as a portrayer of events from German history with three monumental paintings for Berlin’s Reichstag building (destr.) in 1905, he collaborated with Adolf Münzer (1870–1952) and ...


Fransje Kuyvenhoven and Geert-Jan Koot


(b The Hague, Jan 2, 1867; d Rotterdam, Feb 5, 1921).

Dutch painter, designer and illustrator. From 1883 to 1885 he was a student at the Academie van Beeldende Kunsten in The Hague and then went to Liège and Paris. Between 1899 and 1901 he travelled with Marius Bauer to Egypt, Tunis and Morocco. After his return to the Netherlands in 1902 Middle Eastern motifs dominated his work. He is best known for his brightly coloured paintings of Arabian streets with sharp contrasts of light and dark. His work is easily distinguishable from that of Bauer because of its completely different interpretation of the subject, with clear outlines, a monumental conception and strong colours. Unlike the mystical Bauer, Jansen devoted little attention to the human figure in his paintings; he was much more interested in the rendering of architectural features, preferably in bright sunlight.

Jansen also produced pastels and a few etchings and lithographs, but otherwise concentrated on the applied arts. He created murals (for example in the former ‘Terborch’ coffee house on the Bezuidenhout in The Hague) and glass paintings. He illustrated M. Smit’s ...


P. Knolle

(b Leeuwarden, Sept 24, 1770; d Amsterdam, Oct 6, 1836).

Dutch painter, illustrator, printmaker and actor. He received his training from his father, Rienk Jelgerhuis (1729–1806), and from the landscape painter Pieter (Pietersz.) Barbiers II. While travelling with his father through the Dutch Republic he produced illustrations for almanacs, political cartoons and engravings of current events. In 1806 he settled in Amsterdam.

Jelgerhuis was famous primarily as an actor; his manual for actors, Theoretische lessen over de gesticulatie en mimiek, was published in 1827 by Pieter Meijer Warnars, whose bookshop Jelgerhuis had depicted in an attractive painting in 1820, The Bookshop of Pieter Meijer Warnars on the Vijgendam, Amsterdam (Amsterdam, Rijksmus.). With his drawings and paintings of towns (e.g. A Street in Amersfoort, 1826; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.), landscapes and church interiors and his portraits he achieved a distinctive place for himself among Dutch artists. His scenes are remarkable for their lively rendering of human activity, unusual in topographical drawings of the period, although the figures in his subtle, brightly lit paintings often seem somewhat clumsy....


Gitte Valentiner


(b Oldenburg, Jan 25, 1846; d Copenhagen, July 28, 1906).

Danish painter, illustrator and ceramicist of German origin. He trained in Copenhagen at the Akademi, graduating in 1868. In his early years as an artist he was much in demand as a portrait painter: his skill is clear in examples such as Partikulier Kunze and his Son (1871; Copenhagen, Hirschsprungske Saml.). The subjects of this and later portraits are clearly marked by their environment, their way of life and their occupations. Jerndorff also painted historical portraits, such as the full-length figures of officers from the war of 1848–50 and the war of 1864: Claude du Pat (1855), General Bülow (1890), Colonel Lunding (1892) and General Rye (1895; all Hillerød, Frederiksborg Slot). Jerndorff’s biblical compositions are rather arid and academic, but his landscapes, such as Autumn on the Heath (1895; Randers, Kstmus.), seem fresh and spontaneous in treatment. Most of Jerndorff’s landscape paintings are small, intimate studies with careful rendering of flowers and plants. He was also an imaginative illustrator, notably for editions of Danish folk tales. He also produced ceramics, working together with the ...


Blanca García Vega

(b Valencia, 1757; d Madrid, after 1807).

Spanish illustrator, printmaker and painter. He was nominated Miembro de Mérito of the Real Academia de S Fernando, Madrid, in 1781. He made reproductive engravings of paintings and illustrated such books as Juan Antonio Pellicer’s (1738–1806) annotated edition of Don Quixote (1797), the Fábulas morales (1781–4) by Félix María de Samaniego (1745–1801) and the 1803 edition of the short stories Novelas ejemplares by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (1547–1616). In his depiction (1790) of the fire in the Plaza Mayor in Madrid and in his interiors of prisons and barracks he pioneered the use of aquatint. He produced the series Caprichos y bombachadas and illustrated the title-page of Ideas y caprichos pintorescos (Madrid, 1807). He had two sons: Laureano (1802–58), an engraver, and Vicente (1796–1857), a history painter.

M. Ossorio y Bernard: Galería biográfica de artistas españoles del siglo XIX...



Michel Melot

French family of illustrators and painters. [Charles-Henri] Alfred Johannot (b Offenbach am Main, 21 March 1800; d Paris, 7 Dec 1837) and his brother Tony Johannot (b Offenbach am Main, 9 Nov 1803; d Paris, 5 Aug 1852) were born to a French Protestant family of papermakers and in 1806 went to live in Paris with their father, François Johannot, who, despite financial ruin, was one of the first to try to import the new invention of lithography to France. Alfred and Tony were taught to draw by their father and their elder brother Charles (1795–1824), and they were thoroughly acquainted with the new techniques of illustration: lithography, woodcut and steel engraving. Between 1830 and 1850 French publishing was undergoing a complete change in taste and technique; books were being deluged with images, whether in the form of separately printed plates or more especially small vignettes integrated with the text. The Johannot brothers provided French publishers with thousands of illustrations for major publications of Romantic literature presented in demi-luxe editions for an increasingly large and cultivated public. Their technical virtuosity was allied to a fertile imagination, and they created a graphic style that, with its nervous and dramatic line, contrasting tones, movement, calculated distortion and extravagant expressiveness, could evoke the most powerful emotions. Some of the captions to their illustrations have become famous and reflect the drama of the images: ‘Kill us then! I tell you I love him’ (illustration by Tony for ...


Laura Suffield

(b Montevideo, Uruguay, Feb 11, 1872; d Ditchling, Sussex, Nov 26, 1944).

British calligrapher, typographer and teacher. He went to Great Britain to study medicine at Edinburgh. Poor health forced him to abandon medicine, but he took up the study of calligraphy, influenced by his investigations of letter shapes in manuscripts in the British Museum, London. From 1899 until 1912 he taught writing and lettering at the London County Council School of Arts and Crafts; from 1901 he also taught at the Royal College of Art. From 1910 to 1930 he designed type for the Cranach Press of Graf Harry Kessler (1868–1937) in Weimar and from 1916 to 1929 worked on an alphabet of block letters, based on the proportions of Roman capitals, for London Transport designs and posters. Johnston was a leading member of the artistic community known from 1920 as the Guild of St Joseph and St Dominic, was President of the Arts and Crafts Society (1933–6...


John E. Bowlt


(b Pereslavl’-Zalessky, Yaroslavl’ province, Sept 6, 1866; d Pereslavl’-Zalessky, Feb 9, 1943).

Russian illustrator and stage designer. After studying law at Moscow University, he enrolled in 1892 at the Academy of Arts in St Petersburg, where his principal mentors were Pavel Chistyakov (1832–1919) and Il’ya Repin. In 1896 he moved to Munich and with Grabar’ attended the private studio of Anton Ažbé. In 1900 he returned to St Petersburg, receiving his Academy diploma (1902) and in 1907 becoming a professor there. Kardovsky was one of the foremost students of the great draughtsman Chistyakov, whose graphic principles he maintained in his precision, sobriety and sense of measure. Although Kardovsky explored various styles, including Impressionism and Jugendstil, and enthusiastically supported Mikhail Vrubel’, whose posthumous exhibition he organized in 1912, he was concerned more with faithful representation than with formal experiment, demonstrating his consistency and common sense from 1902 in his prolific output as a book illustrator. Occasionally Kardovsky explored the discipline of political caricature, as in his illustrations for the radical journals ...


Lewis Johnson


(b London, Aug 10, 1823; d London, Jan 4, 1891).

English illustrator and caricaturist. Keene’s family left London for Ipswich where he spent two years at school; thereafter, he preferred to be known as an ‘Eastern Counties man’, not as a cockney ‘like Hogarth and Cruikshank’. Encouraged by his mother, Keene followed apprenticeships with an architect and with Whympers, the wood-engravers, pursuing his studies at the Clipstone Street Art society. Early work for the Illustrated London News was followed by employment with Punch. Keene’s illustrations for Punch introduced, wherever possible, the social side of the magazine’s political concerns. This emphasis prevailed from his first design, A Sketch of the New Paris Street-sweeping Machines (Dec 1851), which gave an observer’s view of the cannon used by Louis Napoleon to suppress opposition to his recent coup d’état, to his last, ’Arry on the Boulevards (Aug 1890), in which an aging middle-class Englishman ponders his newspaper, unaware of the eye of the French waiter upon him. His fascination with dialect and other marks of provincial difference suited ...


(b Pozsony [now Bratislava, Slovakia], Dec 13, 1834; d Budapest, Sept 2, 1902).

Hungarian painter, draughtsman, illustrator and critic. He studied drawing with his father, the landscape painter Karl Klette von Klettenhof (1793–1874), while he was a law student at the University of Pest. In Vienna he continued as a law student and also attended Carl Rahl’s art school in 1855. In 1861 he studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Munich under Eduard Schleich and Friedrich Voltz (1817–86) and in the private school of Johann Heinrich Fischbach (1797–1871). In 1867–8, under the patronage of the liberal Romantic writer Baron József Eötvös, Keleti undertook a long European tour to study teaching methods in art academies, with the intention of establishing such an institution in Hungary. The Design and Drawing Teachers‘ Institute was founded in Budapest in 1871, and Keleti was its Director until his death. In the 1870s he became a well-known painter of historical landscapes and views. His detailed and picturesque drawings were in the Neo-classical and Romantic style of his father and of his professors. His most famous painting is ...


(b Vienna, June 23, 1871; d Achrain, nr Kitzbühel, Tyrol, March 17, 1964).

Austrian painter, etcher and illustrator. He studied at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste in Vienna under the Austrian painters Julius Berger (1850–1902), Leopold Karl Müller (1834–92), Josef Mathias von Trenkwald (1824–97) and August Eisenmenger (1830–1907). He also learnt etching from the Austrian etcher William Unger (1837–1902). From 1899 he worked as an illustrator on the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in Words and Pictures and Allegories and Emblems and for the Meggendorfer Blätter. From 1899 to 1901 Kempf exhibited his work at the art exhibitions of the Vienna Secession. During this period he produced the oil paintings Listening, Frog King, Flower Fairy, Early Spring and Madonna’s Head, as well as making over 100 engraving plates. He belonged to the Gesellschaft bildenden Künstler Wiens from 1902, having taken part in all their exhibitions since 1895. In 1903 he founded a group of artists in ...


Julius Kaplan

(b nr Termonde, Sept 12, 1858; d Brussels, Nov 12, 1921).

Belgian painter, illustrator, sculptor, designer, photographer and writer. He was one of the foremost Symbolist artists and active supporters of avant-garde art in late 19th-century Belgium. His wealthy family lived in Bruges from 1859 to 1864, moved to Brussels in 1865, where Khnopff remained until his death, and spent their summers at a country home in Fosset, in the Ardennes. Fosset inspired numerous landscapes that owe a strong debt to Barbizon-style realism (see 1979 cat. rais., p. 210), which dominated advanced Belgian painting in the late 1870s. Khnopff abandoned law school in 1875, and, turning to literature and art, he studied with Xavier Mellery at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. During visits to Paris (1877–80) he admired the work of Ingres and was especially attracted to the painterly art of Rubens, Rembrandt, the Venetian Renaissance and particularly Delacroix. At the Exposition Universelle of 1878 in Paris he discovered Gustave Moreau and Edward Burne-Jones, both of whom indelibly influenced his art. He studied with ...