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Anne K. Swartz

[A. I. R. Gallery]

Art gallery in New York. Founded in 1972, Artists in Residence, or A. I. R. Gallery, was the first artist-run, not-for-profit gallery dedicated to women artists in the USA. Encouraged by the burgeoning Women’s Movement, a group of women artists wanted to create meaningful opportunities to show their art and have it seen and discussed. There were few options for women creating art to show it since few of the commercial galleries would show work by women. Women artists might occasionally have a single work included in a group show at a commercial gallery, but it was rare, and solo exhibitions of women artists were rarer still. So, women artists had to develop their own occasions to show their art.

A. I. R. Gallery’s mission is “to advance the status of women artists by exhibiting quality work by a diverse group of women artists and to provide leadership and community to women artists.” The gallery was founded by a group of artists—Dotty Attie (...




Islamic dynasty that ruled in south-east Anatolia from 1098 to 1408. The Artuqids were descendants of a Turkoman military commander in the service of the Saljuq dynasty; his family settled in Diyarbakır and carved out two principalities, one in Diyarbakır and the other in Mardin and Mayyafariqin. The branch in Diyarbakır fell to the Ayyubid dynasty in 1232, but the other branch survived, sometimes in vassalage, until it was extinguished by the Qaraqoyunlu dynasty. In the 12th century the Artuqids battled against the crusader County of Edessa; it was an Artuqid who took captive Baldwin at Harran in 1104.

Four large Artuqid congregational mosques survive, at Diyarbakır, Mardin, Mayyafariqin (now Silvan) and Dunaysir (now Kızıltepe), all with plans based on that of the Great Mosque of Damascus (see Islamic art, §II, 5(ii)(e)). The one at Diyarbakır (12th century) has a courtyard in the Classical revival style then in vogue in Syria, but the other buildings, of the late 12th century and early 13th, show a synthesis of Syrian and Anatolian decoration, as does the architectural style of the Saljuq dynasty of Anatolia. This style is continued at Mardin in the Sultan ‛Isa Madrasa (...


Dieuwertje Dekkers


(b The Hague, Dec 18, 1837; d The Hague, Nov 5, 1890).

Dutch painter and collector . From 1855 to 1864 he trained with Johannes Egenberger (1822–97) and Louis Royer (1793–1868) at the Amsterdam Academie. There he met Jozef Israëls, whose fishing subjects were to be a lasting source of inspiration for Artz. Unlike Israëls, however, Artz depicted only the more cheerful sides of the fisherman’s life. Technically, he distinguished himself from Israëls in his use of sharp outlines and bright colour. Between 1866 and 1874 Artz stayed in Paris where he set up his own studio at the suggestion of Courbet. Here he maintained close contacts with his colleagues Jacob Maris and Frederik Kaemmerer (1839–1902) as well as the art dealer Goupil & Co. During this period Artz produced mainly fashionable genre scenes and a number of Japanese subjects. His control over line and colour became more powerful.

In 1874 Artz moved permanently to The Hague where he took up the fisherman genre again. In the early 1880s he established his reputation definitively with such works as ...


(b March 31, 1740; d Wardour, Wilts, Dec 4, 1808).

English patron and collector . A leading Roman Catholic, he made a Grand Tour to Italy in 1758. In 1763, having already inherited the estate and part ruinous castle at Wardour, Arundell married Mary Conquest; soon after he commissioned a full-length portrait of himself from Joshua Reynolds (c. 1764–7; sold London, Robinson & Fisher, 21 June 1900) and another of Mary, Lady Arundell of Wardour (c. 1764–7; sold London, Christie’s, 6 March 1914, lot 112). He employed the landscape gardener Richard Woods in 1764–8, but in 1770–76 the architect James Paine built for Arundell a magnificent new Wardour Castle in the Palladian style, while Lancelot Brown made further improvements (1774–5) to the grounds, adding new plantations and a lake. Wardour’s interiors include Paine’s finest staircase and, on the music-room ceiling, a copy by Pompeo Batoni of Guido Reni’s fresco Aurora (1613–14; Rome, Pal. Rospigliosi–Pallavicini, Casino dell’Aurora). In Rome the Jesuit priest ...



(b Nov 23, 1797; d Ashburnham Place, nr Battle, E. Sussex, June 22, 1878).

English collector . He was educated at St John’s College, Cambridge, and travelled extensively in his youth, collecting many examples of fine art in Italy and Eastern Europe. After he succeeded his father, George, 3rd Earl of Ashburnham (1760–1830), he remained at Ashburnham Place, the family seat in Sussex, for which his grandfather, John, 2nd Earl of Ashburnham (1724–1812), had commissioned drawings and plans (c. 1767) for improvements to the park from ‘Capability’ Brown, and his father had commissioned extensive improvements to the house from George Dance the younger (see Dance family, §3). He occupied himself with his collections and the running of the estates. The extensive library of rare books and manuscripts that he accumulated contained four main sections. In 1847 he bought from Guglielmo Libri (1803–69) a collection of ancient codices, works of medieval literature and illuminated manuscripts from the schools of England, France, Italy, Flanders and Germany. These included the ...


Ruth Olitsky Rubinstein

(b Staines, Oct 14, 1874; d nr Raynes Park, Surrey, May 15, 1931).

English archaeologist and collector . He began his study of Classical archaeology at Winchester; his father moved to Rome in 1890, and during holidays they explored the Campagna with the archaeologist Rodolfo Lanciani. Having read Classics at Christ Church, Oxford (1898), he became the first student at the British School at Rome in 1901 and its director in 1906. His earliest articles, on the topography of the aqueducts and roads of Rome and the Campagna, were later developed into books. Tomassetti listed 323 publications (including excavation reports) by Ashby on the Campagna, many of them pioneering works. Ashby’s studies of 16th-century and later drawings of Roman monuments include his publication (1904, 1913) of the Coner Sketchbook (London, Soane Mus.), while his interest in Renaissance collections of ancient statues enabled him to identify works that had once stood in the Villa d’Este at Tivoli (1908) and led him to produce a bibliographical analysis of the engravings by Giovanni Battista de Cavalieri and his followers (...


Ken Brown and Karen L. Brock

Shogunal dynasty that ruled Japan during the Muromachi period (1333–1568). According to the anonymous Taiheiki (‘Chronicle of great peace’; ?1370–71), Ashikaga, the name of a town in Shimotsuke Province (now Tochigi Prefect.), was taken as a family name by a branch of the military Minamoto family. The Ashikaga came to power when the first Ashikaga shogun, Takauji (1305–58), overthrew the Hōjō regents in Kamakura and installed the ambitious Emperor GoDaigo (reg 1318–39) in Kyoto. When GoDaigo refused to name Takauji as shogun, the latter deposed him and replaced him by his own candidate. GoDaigo fled to Yoshino (Nara Prefect.), where he set up a rival court. The schism continued during the early Muromachi period, which is also known as the Nanbokuchō (‘Northern and Southern Courts’; 1336–92) period. Takauji and his son, the second shogun Ashikaga Yoshiakira (1330–67), paid respect to the old aristocracy in Kyoto, but the third shogun, ...



David Howarth

(b Lichfield, May 23, 1617; d London, 18/May 19, 1692).

English antiquary, collector and writer . He was the son-in-law of William Dugdale and the beneficiary and legatee of the collections of John Tradescant the elder and younger (see Tradescant). The Tradescants were the first in Britain to create a cabinet of curiosities, both natural and artificial, with a European reputation. In 1656 Ashmole and John Tradescant the younger compiled a printed catalogue of the Tradescant rarities called Musaeum Tradescantianum, the first catalogue of its kind. In 1662 Tradescant the younger left Ashmole his cabinet. In 1666 Ashmole completed a catalogue of the collection of Roman coins in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, and in 1672 he published The Institution, Laws and Ceremonies of the Most Noble Order of the Garter with plates by Wenzel Hollar. In 1675 Ashmole began negotiations with the University of Oxford about donating his collections. In the spring of 1679 work began on what has come to be known as the ...


Matico Josephson

American multi-ethnic arts organization based in New York’s Chinatown. The Asian American Arts Centre (AAAC) and its predecessors, the Asian American Dance Theatre (1974–93) and the Asian Arts Institute (1981–8), emerged from the milieu of the Basement Workshop, the first working group of the Asian American Movement on the East Coast, whose mouthpiece was the journal Bridge (1970–81). After the closing of the Basement Workshop in 1987, the Dance Theatre and the Asian Arts Institute were consolidated as the AAAC.

Directed by Eleanor S. Yung, the Dance Theatre was at the core of the organization’s activities from the 1970s through the early 1990s, performing traditional dances from several Asian cultures alongside modern and postmodern forms. In the early 1980s, the Asian Arts Institute began to hold exhibitions and collect slides of artists’ work and documentation of their activities, working primarily with artists involved in the downtown art scene. Early programs included open studio events for artists working in Chinatown and exhibitions of the work of Arlan Huang (...


Linda Whiteley

(b Paris, Nov 19, 1799; d 1869).

French colourman, stationer, dealer and collector . During the 1830s in Paris he was one of a small number of dealers in artists’ supplies who turned to dealing in pictures as a side-line. He was also a stationer, and this brought him into contact with a number of young writers, including Alphonse de Lamartine, and Balzac, of whose talent he was an early admirer. At first Asse began to buy paintings for private enjoyment. In 1845 he moved premises from the Rue de Bellechasse to the Rue du Bac. His picture gallery there, decorated in the Renaissance Revival style popular in the reign of Louis-Philippe, was separated from the shop by an anteroom hung with green wool damask and displaying a painting of the Virgin by Pierre Mignard I. His tastes may have predisposed him to collecting paintings dealing with literary themes, a genre he admired. He bought Franz Xaver Winterhalter’s first successful Salon painting, ...


(b New York, March 31, 1848; d Hever Castle, Kent, Oct 18, 1919).

British collector of American birth. He was a member of a wealthy family whose fortune came from fur trading; he became interested in art and antiquity during his appointment as American Minister in Rome (1882–5), rapidly acquiring a fine collection of ancient and Renaissance sculpture. He transferred the collection to England when his term as minister ended, dividing it between his country houses at Cliveden, Bucks, and Hever Castle, Kent. His eclectic, Neo-classical displays were in keeping with the nostalgic grandeur of Edwardian England. At Cliveden, eight Roman sarcophagi in the forecourt were matched on the rear terraces by Renaissance fountains and balustrades exported from the Villa Borghese in Rome. Hever Castle, the childhood home of Anne Boleyn, was restored and enlarged by Astor far beyond its medieval extent, and a Renaissance atmosphere was achieved by means of the placement of numerous Roman sculptures, including further fine sarcophagi (sold in ...


I. G. Bango Torviso

Spanish dynasty of rulers and patrons. The 8th- to 9th-century Asturian kingdom on the north-west coast of Spain was the nucleus of resistance to the Muslim invaders. It became organized into a genuine state, with proper ecclesiastical and court systems, in the reign of (1) Alfonso II. Following Alfonso’s victories over the Muslims, the kingdom expanded and consolidated; it was maintained during the reign of (2) Ramiro I, while (3) Alfonso III took advantage of Muslim weakness and annexed the whole Duero Valley, repopulating the newly acquired lands with people from the north and Mozarabs (Christians who had preserved their faith in areas under Muslim control). Alfonso’s sons began a new dynasty with the capital in León.

, King of Asturias (reg 791–842). He had to overcome great difficulties in order to reach the throne, and his reign was marked by a number of conspiracies. From childhood he was under the protection of monastic communities, which influenced his whole life. He lived like a monk, surrounded by a monastic élite that was to be the inspiration for the whole administrative and political theory underlying the Asturian kingdom. There were numerous diplomatic contacts with the Carolingian empire. With the discovery of the tomb of St James the Great in Compostela, Alfonso began the construction of the first great basilica over the Apostle’s grave. In ...



Susan Walker

revised by Gordon Campbell

[Lucius Vibullius Tiberius Claudius Atticus Herodes]

(b Athens, ad 103; d Athens, ad 177).

Teacher, writer, politician and patron. He was born into a family long distinguished for its services to Athens. A sophist, Herodes also followed a Roman career, serving in ad 134–5 as financial officer for the province of Asia. He overspent the budget for a new aqueduct for the city of Alexandria Troas, displeasing the Emperor Hadrian (reg ad 117–38). In ad 139–40 Herodes directed the Panathenaic festival in Athens. He commissioned a mechanical ship to carry Athena’s robe to the Acropolis; the ship was later conserved above the stadium at Ardettos, rebuilt by Herodes to seat 50,000 spectators. The stadium at Delphi was replated with marble, and Herodes gave an aqueduct and fountain decorated with family and imperial portraits to the Panhellenic sanctuary at Olympia (see Olympia §1). He also gave fine statues at Isthmia and Corinth, where he is said to have rebuilt the theatre. Herodes married a member of the Roman high aristocracy, Appia Annia Regilla, and became consul ordinarius in ...


Molly K. Dorkin

Prior to the 20th century, the attribution of works of art was not governed by rigid regulations, and art dealers and auctioneers assigned attributions based purely on aesthetic grounds. Works were attributed to the artist whose manner they most closely resembled, but they were not further distinguished on the basis of quality; as a result, many paintings purchased as Renaissance masterpieces in the 18th or 19th century have since been downgraded to studio works or even much later pastiches.

Historically, the patrons who commissioned Old Masters placed a premium on subject-matter rather than originality, and popular narratives were requested by multiple patrons, creating conditions in which the demand for copies could flourish (see Copy). Popular compositions were often reproduced many times: by the master himself, an apprentice in his workshop, or even a later follower or imitator. A master trained his apprentices to approximate his manner as closely as possible, and sold the finished work under his own name. In some cases a master would paint the most important part of a work (such as the faces of the central figures) before delegating the rest to apprentices. Through the 19th century, pupils at prestigious institutions were taught by making copies of works by acknowledged masters. Many pieces, particularly drawings (which for much of their history were working tools, rather than art objects), were unsigned. Damaged or incomplete works of art were subjected to extensive restoration or reworking by later artists, a process that can cloud the question of attribution....



Antony Thorncroft

revised by Darius A. Spieth

Public sale in which items are sold to the highest bidder. Auction houses, the organizers of such sales, act as intermediaries between buyers and sellers and, in return, typically charge one party or both parties a percentage of the price attained for their services. As a type of commercial transaction, auctions are not unique to the trade in art and antiques, but they play a major role in art-related business because they establish benchmark prices and because they make the price formation process transparent. Art auctions have a long and varied history, going back to Classical antiquity. The modern history of auctions, as a major commercial platform for art buying and selling, begins at the turn of the 18th century in Flanders and Holland, before taking root a few decades later in Paris and London. In Paris, for many years any type of auction could only be administered by state appointed ministerial officials, the ...


Molly K. Dorkin

An expert with a specialization in a distinct category of fine or decorative arts or other collectables at an auction house, responsible for researching Attributions and setting pre-sale estimates. Specialized auctions of works of art were recorded in Amsterdam as early as 1608, when they emerged as a subcategory of after-death estate sales. It remains unclear whether or not items were appraised for value by dedicated appraisers, forerunners of modern-day auction house specialists, in order to set estimates prior to the sales.

The Auction as a sale process reached England from Holland in 1676, and the first auction of paintings in London took place in 1682. It was widely accepted that the paintings offered at auctions were luxury goods rather than masterpieces, and the ‘specialists’ in charge of sales bestowed attributions with a generous hand. By the end of the 17th century more educated and discerning specialists had begun to emerge, including Edward Davis and Parry Walton (...


Wojciech Włodarczyk