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Gordon Campbell

Article

Alastair Laing

(b Paris, Sept 29, 1703; d Paris, May 30, 1770).

French painter, draughtsman and etcher. Arguably it was he, more than any other artist, who set his stamp on both the fine arts and the decorative arts of the 18th century. Facilitated by the extraordinary proliferation of engravings, Boucher successfully fed the demand for imitable imagery at a time when most of Europe sought to follow what was done at the French court and in Paris. He did so both as a prolific painter and draughtsman (he claimed to have produced some 10,000 drawings during his career) and through engravings after his works, the commercial potential of which he seems to have been one of the first artists to exploit. He reinvented the genre of the pastoral, creating an imagery of shepherds and shepherdesses as sentimental lovers that was taken up in every medium, from porcelain to toile de Jouy, and that still survives in a debased form. At the same time, his manner of painting introduced the virtuosity and freedom of the sketch into the finished work, promoting painterliness as an end in itself. This approach dominated French painting until the emergence of Neo-classicism, when criticism was heaped on Boucher and his followers. His work never wholly escaped this condemnation, even after the taste for French 18th-century art started to revive in the second half of the 19th century. In his own day, the fact that he worked for both collectors and the market, while retaining the prestige of a history painter, had been both Boucher’s strength and a cause of his decline....

Article

Claire Dumortier

Belgian centre of ceramics production, near Charleroi. Potters were working in Bouffioulx from the 13th to the 15th century. The first mention of a master potter at Bouffioulx was in 1528, brown and grey salt-glazed stoneware being made from c. 1530. During the first half of the 16th century wares produced included tankards with ovoid bodies (often decorated with a figure) and ovoid pitchers, sometimes with three handles and decorated with three faces. During the second half of the 16th century production also included schnellen (tall, tapering tankards). The influence of the Raeren workshops is evident especially in the decoration, which included armorial bearings, medallions, figures, flowers and foliage.

D. A. Van Bastelaer and J. Kaisin: ‘Les Grès-cérames ornés de l’ancienne Belgique ou des Pays-Bas improprement nommés grès flamands Châtelet et Bouffioulx’, Bulletin des Commissions royales d’art et d’archéologie [cont. as Bull. Comm. Royale Mnmts & Sites], 19 (1880), pp. 98–182...

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Bouge  

Gordon Campbell

Article

Gordon Campbell

Pot or other vessel, usually pottery or porcelain, for holding boughs for ornament; it normally has a cover with holes through which the boughs or branches are inserted. In the 19th century the term was used in a general sense to denote a flower-pot, and also to refer to a bouquet of flowers....

Article

Gordon Campbell

Oval chamber pot for ladies, designed for use when travelling, and so in England sometimes sold as ‘coach pots’. The eponym of the bourdalou is popularly believed to be the Jesuit preacher Louis Bourdaloue (1632–1704), whose sermons were said to be so long that ladies began to bring to church these chamber pots concealed in their muffs with a view to using them hidden under their capacious dresses. The earliest surviving examples, however, were made at Delft c. 1710. Thereafter they were made (in porcelain, pottery and silver) by European factories and (for export) by Chinese and Japanese factories. Wedgwood sold cream-coloured earthenware ‘coach pots’, and European manufacturers of porcelain bourdalous included Chantilly, Höchst, Meissen and Sèvres; these delicately decorated products are sometimes mistaken for gravy boats. There is a bourdalou museum in the Zentrum für Aussergewöhnliche Museen (ZAM, the Centre for Unusual Museums) in Munich. In modern French this sense of ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

English manufacturer of stoneware and earthenware in Derbyshire from 1809 to the present. In 1806 a Derbyshire potter called William Bourne leased the rights to a seam of clay in Denby, and in 1809 established a pottery to make bottles; he installed his son Joseph Bourne as manager of the Denby Bottle Works, which became known as Joseph Bourne and later as Joseph Bourne & Son. Joseph Bourne opened a second pottery in Belper in ...

Article

Elizabeth Adams

English ceramic manufactory. The first Bow patent for ‘a certain material whereby a ware might be made … equal to … China or Porcelain ware imported from abroad’ was taken out in east London in December 1744 by the Irish artist Thomas Frye (c. 1710–62) and by Edward Heylyn (1695–1765). The early undertaking, significantly named ‘New Canton’, was founded to undercut Chinese imports and was probably financed by Alderman George Arnold (1691–1751). John Weatherby (d 1762) and John Crowther (d 1790), who had been partners in pottery and glassmaking ventures since 1725, completed the board of proprietors. An important ingredient in the original paste and mentioned in the 1744 patent was ‘Unaker’, possibly a china clay imported from Carolina. The soft paste used at Bow was unique in being the first to incorporate calcined bone-ash (mentioned as ‘Virgin earth’ in the second Bow patent of ...

Article

Rory Spence and Ursula Hoff

Australian family of artists and writers founded by the landscape painters Arthur Merric Boyd (1862–1940) and his wife Emma Minnie Boyd (1858–1936). Their children included (William) Merric Boyd (1888–1959), who founded Australia’s first significant studio pottery at Murrumbeena with his wife, the ceramicist Doris Lucy Eleanor Boyd (c. 1883–1960); and (Theodore) Penleigh Boyd (1890–1923), who was a noted landscape painter and etcher. Penleigh’s son (1) Robin Boyd became a well-known architect and writer, who helped to develop a more critical approach to Australian architecture and culture. Merric and Doris had five children, all of whom became artists and were at some stage involved with ceramic art. Among them were Lucy Boyd (b 1915); Guy Boyd (1923–88), who was also a sculptor; David Boyd (b 1925); and Mary Boyd (b 1926), who married John Perceval (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

English centre of ceramics production. Town in Derbyshire where a group of manufacturers of household wares in brown stoneware were active from the 18th century to the early 20th. The most prominent factories were Oldfield & Co. and S. & H. Briddon. The Brampton potter Thomas Davenport (1815–88) emigrated to Utah, where he and his descendants worked as potters....

Article

(b 1733; d 1824).

French inventor of hard-paste porcelain, using kaolin from Alençon; he made a small number of pieces from 1763–8, most of which are in the museum at Sèvres. He secured an English patent in 1766, but it specified neither materials nor method, and so did not inhibit William Cookworthy from developing English porcelain....

Article

Claudine Stensgaard Nielsen

[Andersen, Hans]

(b Brændekilde, Fyn, April 7, 1857; d Jyllinge, March 30, 1942).

Danish painter, glass designer and ceramicist. He trained as a stonemason and then studied sculpture in Copenhagen at the Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi (1877–81), where he decided to become a painter. In 1884 he changed his name from Andersen to Brendekilde after his place of birth, as he was constantly being confused with his friend Laurits Andersen Ring, who moreover also took the name of his birthplace. In the 1880s Brendekilde and Ring painted together on Fyn and influenced each other’s work. Brendekilde’s art had its origin in the lives of people of humble means and in the country environment of previous centuries. He painted landscapes and genre pictures. He himself was the son of a woodman, and his paintings often contain social comment, as in Worn Out (1889; Odense, Fyn. Kstmus.), which shows the influence of both Jean-François Millet and Jules Bastien-Lepage. Brendekilde was a sensitive colourist, influenced by Impressionism, for example in ...

Article

Roberto Pontual

revised by Gillian Sneed

(b Recife, Jun 11, 1927).

Brazilian painter and ceramicist. Brennand began his training in 1942 under sculptor and ceramicist Abelardo da Hora (1924–2014), and later studied painting with Murilo Lagreca (1899–1985) and Álvaro Amorim, founder of the Pernambuco Escola das Belas Artes. Brennand’s early paintings depicted flowers and fruit with simple lines and bright colors. In 1947 he won the first prize at the Salon of the Museu do Estado de Pernambuco, Recife. He made an extended visit to Europe from 1949 to 1952, living mainly in Paris, where he studied with the Cubo-Purists André Lhote and Fernand Léger, whose tumescent forms had a lasting influence on his work. During this period, he also became familiar with the work of Pablo Picasso and Joan Miró, which inspired him to focus on pottery and ceramics. He was also inspired by the eccentric architecture of Antoni Gaudí, which he observed on a trip to Barcelona in the 1950s. On his return to Recife, where his family had long been responsible for a vast output of industrial ceramics, he dedicated himself increasingly to his work with art pottery. In 1954 he completed his first large-scale ceramic panel. Beginning in 1958 and throughout his career he carried out ceramic murals in several Brazilian cities and abroad, the most outstanding being the ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

English pottery established in 1883 by Henry Tooth and William Ault; its formal name was H. Tooth & Co. Ltd. Tooth had recently left Linthorpe Art Pottery, where he had worked with Christopher Dresser, who continued to contribute designs to the Bretby pottery. The pottery was initially housed in Church Gresley, Derbys, but with a year it had moved to Woodville, Derbys, where it was to remain until it closed in ...

Article

Peter Gibbs

(b New Plymouth, New Zealand, Oct 26, 1935).

New Zealand potter. In 1960 he obtained a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Auckland and in 1961 became a full-time studio potter. His interest in historical methods of potting and firing and in the relationship between the arts and industry led to his construction of small-scale railways and a variety of firing kilns. A particular interest was in using coal-fired kilns to achieve a salt-glaze finish to his work, as can be seen in his ‘Thinso’ jug (see New Zealand §VII 2.). Brickell is best known for his sculptural terracotta work, many examples of which are held in New Zealand institutions and museums. A relief tile mural by Brickell is on display in the offices of Waitaki Refrigeration Ltd, London. In 1987 Brickell published A New Zealand Potter’s Dictionary, a guide to the materials and techniques of pottery for New Zealand and South Pacific Island potters....

Article

(b Harrow, Middx, May 4, 1948).

English potter. After a foundation year at Leeds College of Art (1966–7), she studied ceramics at the Central School of Art, London (1967–70), and then at the Royal College of Art (1970–73) under Hans Coper. She is well known as a teacher and writer as well as a potter. She began her career decorating tiles. Her first solo exhibition was at the Amalgam Gallery, London, in 1976. In 1979 the Crafts Council, London, held an important show of her colourfully glazed and painted jugs, decorated with naive, figural motifs. The jugs gained her fast recognition and with hindsight were regarded as a breakthrough for British ceramics. She hand-built her pieces from slabs of earthenware that were rolled flat, painted and then cut and used to construct asymmetrical vessels. The early naive motifs of 1976 to 1979 (jugs, 1978; London, V&A) gave way in the 1980s to abstract patterns, and her forms became tougher and more complex (green vessels set, ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b c. 1779; d c. 1864).

American potter who made red earthenware domestic wares in Goshen, CT, for 72 years. There is little documentary evidence of the activities of most American potters of the period, but Brooks is an exception. The extensive records, together with the archaeological excavation of the site of his pottery, has meant that he is the best understood American potter of the 19th century. His workshop is now a working exhibition in Old Sturbridge Village, where a replica of his kiln was built in ...

Article

Ellen Paul Denker

(b Valcartier, Qué., May 16, 1836; d Trenton, NJ, May 4, 1922).

American sculptor, ceramic modeller and teacher of Canadian birth. Broome received his artistic training at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia, where he was elected an Academician in 1860 and taught (1860–63) in the Life and Antique department. In 1854 he assisted Thomas Crawford with the statues on the pediment of the Senate wing of the US Capitol in Washington, DC, and tried unsuccessfully to establish a firm for architectural terracotta and garden ornaments in Pittsburgh and New York.

From 1875 Broome was employed as a modeller by the firm of Ott & Brewer in Trenton, NJ. The parian porcelain sculpture he created for their display at the Centennial International Exhibition of 1876 in Philadelphia won him medals for ceramic arts (e.g. Plaque; New York, Met.). Following his success at the Exhibition and at the Exposition Universelle of 1878 in Paris, for which he was Special Commissioner from the USA, he was active as a teacher and lecturer and was keenly interested in educational, political and industrial reforms. He also continued as a modeller for potters in Ohio and Trenton, including the ...

Article

(b Leiden, Oct 19, 1877; d Zoeterwoude, Oct 23, 1933).

Dutch potter and sculptor. He trained as a drawing teacher but took a particular interest in bookbinding, decorative woodcuts and household pottery. From the example of the Arts and Crafts Movement he learnt the value of traditional techniques and craftsmanship. In 1898 he settled in Gouda in order to perfect his technical knowledge of pottery-making. Three years later he started his own ceramics firm in Leiderdorp. His ceramics are characterized by their intentionally plain shapes, combined with mostly geometric linear ornament and frequently with sculptural decoration applied in low relief. His work attracted international attention and gained awards at several exhibitions, including the Esposizione Internazionale d’Arte Decorativa in Turin (1902) and the Exposition Universelle et Internationale in Brussels (1910). Around 1907 Brouwer began to experiment with large-scale ceramic decoration. His terracotta ornaments and façade sculptures were greatly admired by contemporary architects, who secured him important commissions in this field, for example the ...

Article

Luciana Arbace

(b ?Turin; d Rato, 1771).

Portuguese potter of Italian birth. He came from Turin, where he probably had some experience of maiolica manufacture. In 1767 he went to Portugal where he became the first director of the Real Fábrica do Rato in Lisbon. During the early years Brunetto’s personality dominated the factory’s production. Shapes and patterns were based on Italian prototypes, especially those from the factories in Turin and ...