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Susan Young

Byzantine monastery c. 8 km north-east of Paphos in Cyprus. In 1159 the founding hermit Neophytos (b 1134), originally from the island, transformed a natural cave into his retreat, and by c. 1200 a community had grown up around the site. Much of the original coenobitic complex, the Enkleistra, including Neophytos’ cell, a tomb chamber, a chapel and a sanctuary dedicated to the Holy Cross, has survived, together with the decoration. Neophytos’ revised Typikon of 1214 and several of his writings on the organization and development of the community have also been preserved. The katholikon is a domed basilica dating from the first decade of the 16th century.

In 1183 the cell, tomb chamber and sanctuary were painted by an artist who signed himself Theodore Apseudes. The fine quality of the frescoes, which were executed in the ‘Rococo’ style, points to his connection with a major artistic centre, possibly Constantinople. There can be little doubt, however, that the subject-matter and the locations of the paintings were chosen by Neophytos. Many of them reflect his preoccupation with death and salvation, and it has been observed that some convey a more potent message than is immediately apparent from the accompanying texts. In the cell the most striking image is that of the ...



Giles Worsley

Building used for housing horses, usually divided to provide individual stalls or loose-boxes. Stables can be found in most societies whenever horse-users have lived in permanent settlements. Few stables in western Europe survive from before the mid-16th century, but documentary, pictorial and archaeological sources provide a reasonable idea of late medieval examples (Worsley, 1988). Some fittings survive from the early 17th century, and accounts and contemporary references to stable design give a good idea of stable interiors, although the fittings of most earlier stables were modernized in the 19th century. With the decline of the horse as the principal means of transport from the early 20th century, many stables have been demolished or converted to other uses. Modern stables are generally utilitarian.

Stables were designed for practicality but also for display and, in the Baroque period, as part of the architectural complex of the palace or house that they served. Advances in technology seem to have been stimulated first by the growing use of coaches and the introduction of the coach-horse from the mid-16th century, and second, in the late 18th century, by developments in breeding thoroughbred racehorses and hunters....


Erla Bergendahl Hohler

A type of timber-framed church, often with carved decoration, built in Norway and Sweden from the 12th to the 14th centuries.

Buildings made with upright timbers in various ways, as distinct from ‘log’ buildings with horizontal timbers, were common in Europe and in the Viking North. Excavations have shown that a great many early churches on the Continent and in England, and later also in Scandinavia, continued to be built using this technique. The basic form of such primitive churches, as demonstrated by their post-holes, was a simple nave with a smaller chancel, but churches are also found with free-standing posts in the interior, creating an ‘aisled’ type (Ahrens).

The stave churches of Norway represent a unique survival of this type of wooden church architecture. The solid pine trunks, regularly tarred, are raised above ground on a sill frame and have suffered little deterioration—fire and neglect being the main causes of loss. More than 1000 stave churches existed in the Middle Ages; some 30 are still standing, all minor parish churches. Very few are in their original state, and many dedications are lost, but patient research since the mid-19th century has clarified many problems. The buildings show some diversity of plan and detail, presumably reflecting an even larger number of original variants. The type with simple nave and smaller chancel, and the ‘aisled’ type, are the most common; rectangular plans (...


Richard Fawcett

Castle in Central region, Scotland. It was built overlooking the River Forth at a strategically important junction of routes by both land and water, where there was the additional advantage of a high volcanic outcrop as a natural setting for the royal castle required to defend these routes. Although it might be expected that such an important position would have been occupied since prehistory, no physical evidence of this has survived. The first references to a castle are from the reign of Alexander I (reg 1107–24), who is known to have built a chapel there. Since he died at Stirling, almost certainly within the castle, it is probable that by then it was an established royal residence. The castle played a major role in the periodic hostilities with England and, in 1174, was one of those handed over to Henry II (reg 1154–89) to pay for the release of William the Lion (...


Gordana Babić

Monastic settlement situated 30 km south-west of Kraljevo in Serbia. It was founded c. 1186 by the Grand Župan Stephen Nemanja (reg 1169–96). Within its walls are several conventual buildings and three churches: the main church (katholikon) dedicated to the Mother of God (Bogorodica; completed before 1196), the 13th-century chapel of St Nicholas and the King’s Church (Kraljeva Crkva) dedicated to SS Joachim and Anne and built in 1313–14 by King Stephen Uroš II Milutin (reg 1282–1321). In 1196 Stephen Nemanja abdicated and became a monk of Chilandar Monastery on Mt Athos. When he died his relics were translated to Studenica’s katholikon, where he was entombed in a marble sarcophagus and venerated as the first Serbian saint.

The main church belongs to the Raška school of architecture (see Serbia §II 2.) with its tall, single nave surmounted by a gabled roof, two side bays for choirs, a tripartite sanctuary terminating in three semicircular apses, and a deep inner narthex; it also has a dome and a drum, both of which are duodecagonal and supported by four arches above the central bay. The exterior is built of polished marble and adorned with Romanesque carvings. Particularly noteworthy are the relief figures of Christ and the Apostles on the jambs of the west portal, the ...


H. Soukupová

Late medieval castle at Švihov, western Bohemia, Czech Republic, seat of the lords of Rýžemberk, built 1480–1510. The original late 12th-century stronghold stood on the headland above the River Úhlava near the present-day cemetery church of St Jiljí. At the beginning of the 14th century a new moated fort was built at river level on the main road, at the same time as the so-called upper town of Švihov with its regular oblong square and parish church of St Wenceslas. At its southern edge the so-called lower town developed with the hospital church of St John the Evangelist. After 1480 Půta Švihov of Rýžemberk (reg 1479–1504) built a new moated castle on the site of the fort, which had been damaged during the Hussite wars. It was founded on an artificial island protected to the east by the Úhlava and to the north and west by a mill-race, which also separated it from the upper and lower towns....


Patrick Donabédian

Monastery on a rocky promontory overlooking a deep gorge in the district of Goris, in southern Armenia, a region that once formed the ancient principality of Syunik‘ (ad 987–1170). Tat‘ev became an episcopal see in the 8th century and served as the spiritual centre of Syunik‘ from the late 10th century. Surrounded by fortified walls, the monastery was built on a large plot of land; its principal buildings range between the 9th and 11th centuries. By the 11th century it was home to several hundred monks and had its own school and scriptorium where students were instructed in the humanities, applied arts and the copying and illustration of manuscripts.

Tat‘ev suffered considerable damage as a result of earthquakes in 1138 and 1931 and at the hands of the Saljuk Turks in 1170 and the Tatar-Mongols in 1387. In the second half of the 13th century it was restored by the local princes of Ōrbelian. During the 17th and 18th centuries, in addition to the churches, the buildings within the precinct and along the ramparts were reconstructed. Work begun in ...



Önhan Tunca, E. P. Uphill, Rob Jameson, Georges Roux, F. B. Sear, Adam Hardy, Ye. V. Zeymal’, Henrik H. Sørensen, Nancy Shatzman Steinhardt, Chang Kyung-Ho, Bruce A. Coats, H. Stanley Loten, Madeline McLeod and Norman Bancroft-Hunt

Building or site conceived as the dwelling of a deity, whose presence is represented by a holy symbol. The word derives from the Greek word temenos, meaning ‘an enclosure’. In Latin the word templum originally denoted a place marked out for augury by the augur with his staff but later came to mean an area sacred to a particular deity and was also used for a large and elaborate structure dedicated to one or more deities. Temples have played and have continued to play a significant role in most religions, and the architecture of the temples of the ancient world, and of Hindu and Buddhist temples, relate to a complex cosmology. Islamic mosques, however, are built for prayer rather than as the abode of the divinity and are therefore not considered as temples. As the temple is usually considered to provide for private rather than congregational worship, Christian churches are also not usually referred to as temples, although ...


John Nelson Tarn and Matico Josephson

Multi-storey housing, specifically that provided for the working classes, as opposed to Apartment building, which refers to flats for the middle and upper classes. Although the term is known from the 16th century, it came into regular use during the 19th century and the early 20th. Tenements are separate dwellings or flats off a shared staircase and are a common building type in Scotland, northern Europe, and North America. Except for the developments described below, such housing is less frequent in England. In ancient Rome a similar block of workers’ housing was called an Insula.

Tenements are particularly associated with housing provided for workers for the new mills and factories following the Industrial Revolution and with urban growth in the first half of the 19th century. At first, single family houses were divided up and rooms let off as tenements or flats; subsequently, buildings specifically for the poor were constructed on the principle of sets of rooms that could be let in combinations of from one to three or four, or that might be designed as small self-contained flats. Sometimes they shared lavatories and washing facilities but there was always some common access system....


C. A. Burney

[Turk.: ‘earth castle’; Rusahinili; Toprak Kale]

Site in eastern Turkey on a limestone spur of Mt Zimzim, overlooking modern Van. This Urartian citadel was built by Rusa, probably Rusa II (reg c. 680–c. 640 bc), and first attracted the attention of European scholars in 1877 when bronzes came on to the antiquities market. The ensuing British Museum excavations by Captain Emilius Clayton, Dr Raynolds and Hormuzd Rassam in 1879, although destructive, provided the first archaeological context for the previously published Urartian cuneiform inscriptions from Van. C. Lehmann-Haupt (from 1898), and subsequent Russian and Turkish expeditions followed. The principal collections of finds are in the British Museum in London, the Hermitage in St Petersburg and the Louvre in Paris.

The fortress was naturally defensible on three sides, with water brought, on the evidence of a contemporary inscription, probably from the artificial ‘Lake of Rusa’ (Keşiş-Göl). A rock-cut channel also brought water from a spring almost 2 km away into an enormous rock-hewn hall, with basin, drain and benches. A rock-cut spiral staircase, with 56 steps and lit by three windows, led from there into the fortress. The fortification walls are discernible only by the typically Urartian rock-cut ledges serving as base for the masonry....


Felipe Valbuena

Castle in the province of Valladolid in Castile, Spain. Built as an expression of the strength of the influential Enríquez family, whose capital was at Medina de Rioseco, the castle is one of the most important and best-preserved fortresses in Valladolid. It was begun c. 1406, when Don Alfonso Enríquez, 1st Admiral of Castile, obtained licence from John II to erect a fortress in Torrelobatón; the only fortification there was a modest stone enclosure surrounding the village. The castle was involved in the Comunera rebellion against Charles I (Holy Roman Emperor Charles V). The rebel army occupied the fortress for a few weeks from February 1521, severely damaging some parts of it. After the decisive Battle of Villalar Charles I ordered an assessment of the damage by master masons and carpenters, with the intention of rebuilding it, and these repairs must have been carried out in the following years. Plays were occasionally performed in the courtyard in the late 16th century, and in the 18th century the administrators of the Duque de Medina de Rioseco lived there. The castle is now used as a store for farm produce....


Zygmunt Świechowski

[Ger. Trebnitz]

Cistercian nuns’ church dedicated to the Virgin and St Bartholomew, near Wrocław, Poland, containing significant remains of an Early Gothic sculptural programme. It was founded in 1202 by Henry I, Prince of Silesia (reg 1201–38), and his wife, Hedwig (1174–1243), and colonized in 1203 by nuns from St Theodore’s Convent in Bamberg, Germany. A document of 1203 records that the Duke sent one of his masons, Dalemir from Zajączkowo, near Legnica, who presumably began the building. The documents of 1208 and 1234 that mention lapicida Jacobus magister operis are medieval forgeries.

The church was consecrated in 1219, but building work continued for many years. It is built of brick with granite and sandstone details. The traditional ground-plan consists of an aisled nave, a transept and a choir terminating in an apse. The choir was originally flanked by two apsed chapels. A three-aisled crypt beneath the choir had columnar supports and still has groin vaults (in one bay a rib vault). The nave and aisles were constructed in the so-called ...


Michael Kiene

University building that served as a centre for teaching, examinations and academic ceremonies. University palaces came into existence in western Europe from the end of the 15th century. Universities were at first mobile communities that, in the event of dissension, could easily migrate to other cities in what were known as peregrinationes academicae; they owned no established premises, not even for teaching and conferring degrees. The sources indicate that any area of sufficient size was considered suitable for teaching purposes: this might be in town halls (Bologna, Modena, Pavia, Fano), teachers’ homes, shops, or on the streets and squares of university towns.

The earliest university to be granted property for its own use was Cambridge, England. Under Nigel de Thornton’s foundation of 1278 the university owned the land on which, a century later, the construction of the Old Schools, the first university palace in Europe, was put in hand (now much altered). The plan was for a closed rectangular court with lecture rooms, libraries, a chapel and a senior common room; there were no living-quarters such as were provided by the colleges. The north wing was built between ...



Fernando Marías

Spanish castle situated in Almería. It is one of a series of fortresses (together with those of Mula, Murcia and Cuevas de Almanzora in Almería) built at the beginning of the 16th century by Pedro Fajardo y Chacón, first Marqués de los Vélez (1484–1540) and Governor of the kingdom of Murcia. The fortress has an elongated ground-plan and is crowned on the north front by a keep. The most important part of the ensemble is the square courtyard, which was removed from Spain in 1904 and is now in New York (Met.), with the position of the east and west galleries reversed (see Blumenthal patio; see images tab for additonal illustrations).

According to an inscription in the courtyard, the castle was built between 1506 and 1515 after Fajardo received the lordship of the town from Ferdinand II and Isabella (1503), took up residence there (...





Ulrich Knapp

Type of aisleless hall church in which the thrust of the vaulting is taken by tongues of wall—wall pillars—that jut out into the building. The wall pillars assume the same function as buttresses, except that the external wall of the wall-pillar church starts at the outside face of the buttresses, which are extended in the form of tongues, so that additional space is gained internally. This form developed in the late 13th century (e.g. the choir of St Mary, Marburg, consecrated 1297) and first appeared in a fully evolved form in the mid-15th. It allowed relatively large, wide areas to be built cheaply and quickly from bricks or rubble. The spaces between the wall pillars were generally used as chapels, with the altar placed at right angles to the longitudinal axis.

The constructional principle of the wall-pillar church has its roots in the development of architecture from c. 1300...


Leonard K. Eaton

Building for the storage of goods, especially those in transit. In Western architecture the warehouse has a history that can be traced back to the ancient world, although this building type has also been of substantial architectural interest in other cultures. The earliest known examples are the horrea of Roman times. For Rome and her armies the organization of an adequate food supply was of fundamental importance. The necessary storage of corn required special conditions, and granaries had to be dry, cool, free from vermin and able to resist the considerable lateral thrust that grain exerts. Hence Roman granaries were solidly built, brick-vaulted and efficiently planned. Those at Ostia (early 2nd century ad) are particularly impressive. The Horrea Epagathiana (c. 145–50) is typical, with a rectangular plan and different-sized rooms opening on to a central court with a brick-piered arcade. Two staircases lead to the second floor, which has a similar arrangement of rooms, and there is an unrestored third floor. An elaborate security system guarded against pilfering. The courtyard has a cistern to collect rain water, and a black-and-white mosaic with meander patterns, a swastika, a tiger and a panther. Few warehouses of architectural significance survive from the early Middle Ages, although the great medieval tithe barns (e.g. ...