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Christopher Wilson and Mark Stocker

English castle and royal residence in Berkshire.

One of a series of castles that William I (reg 1066–87) established around London, Windsor occupied the nearest strong point in the Thames Valley to the west of the city. From William’s reign date the motte and also the distinctive elongated arrangement of lower, middle, and upper baileys that exploits the lie of the land at the top of a great chalk cliff south of the river. By the reign of Henry I (reg 1100–35) the creation of a large hunting forest, together with the proximity of London, made this a favoured royal residence as well as a fortress. The Round Tower, the stone shell-keep on the motte, may date from this time. The systematic replacement of timber defences by stone walls with rectangular interval towers was begun by Henry II in 1165, but work on the lower bailey was unfinished at his death in ...


(d after 1501).

German architect . He is first mentioned in the records of Wasserburg in 1470 as a resident master with citizen status, mainly involved with church building, fortifications and domestic architecture. His first works would have been executed under Stefan Krumenauer ( see Krumenauer family §(2) ), the builder of St James’ Church at Wasserburg. There he completed the side chapels and built spiral stairs in the corner piers; his master’s mark is set above the spiral stairs. The chapel vaults have four S-shaped ribs and a ring in the place of a boss. Between 1470 and 1478 he continued work on the tower, building the three upper storeys (the spire was never built) and enlivening them with thin shafts, pinnacles set above corners, twisted colonnettes and a large ogee-arched window in the centre. In 1483–5 he built the small church of St Achatz on the right bank of the River Inn. The vaults and capitals are similar to those of the outer castle chapel at Burghausen, begun in ...


Dieter J. Weiss, Gregor M. Lechner, Doris Kutschbach, Jeffrey Chipps Smith, Josef Strasser, Andrea M. Kluxen, Jürgen Zimmer, Martina Sitt, Ingrid Sattel Bernardini, Hans Ottomeyer and Eberhard Ruhmer

Dynasty of German rulers, patrons, and collectors. The Bavarian branch of the family (see §I below) was helped in its rise to power by an alliance with the House of Hohenstaufen. The acquisition by marriage of the Rhineland Palatinate in the early 13th century brought division of the inheritance (see §II below). However, the division gave rise to cultural diversity by scattering a number of residences throughout the country. In 1329 the dynastic treaty of Pavia with the Palatinate branch provided for reciprocal inheritance and (until 1356) the alternation of the electorship between the lines. Following a decree on primogeniture (1506) by Albert IV, Duke of Bavaria (reg 1463–1508), Bavaria remained undivided. The Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld branch (see §III below) was a collateral line. On the extinction of the Bavarian and Palatinate branches in the 18th century, however, the Zweibrücken house provided the last kings of Bavaria....


Detlef Zinke

(b Rottweil, Württemberg, c. 1400–10; d Geneva or Basle, 1445–6).

German painter. One of the great innovators in northern European painting, he turned away from the lyricism of the preceding generation of German painters. His sturdy, monumental figures give a strong impression of their physical presence, gestures are dignified, and the colours strong and simple. Even scenes with several figures are strangely undramatic and static. The surface appearance of materials, especially metals and stone, is intensely observed and recorded with an almost naive precision. Powerful cast shadows help to define the spatial relationships between objects. His fresh approach to the natural world reflects that of the Netherlandish painters: the Master of Flémalle and the van Eycks. He need not, however, have trained in the Netherlands or in Burgundy as knowledge of their style could have been gained in Basle. He remained, however, untouched by the anecdotal quality present in their art, while Witz’s pure tempera technique differs emphatically from the refined use of oil glazes that endows Netherlandish pictures with their jewel-like brilliance....


Barbara Butts




Peter Strieder

(b Nuremberg, 1434–7; d Nuremberg, Nov 30, 1519).

German painter and woodcutter. The head of a large workshop which produced altarpieces, memorial pictures, portraits, and designs for glass paintings in late 15th-century Nuremberg, he also provided notable innovations in the art of the woodcut. He is famed as the teacher of Dürer family §(1); after Wolgemut’s death in 1519, Dürer added that date to a portrait of his former master done in 1516, but the 82 years mentioned in the inscription could either be Wolgemut’s lifespan or his age when painted.

He was the son of the painter Valentin Wolgemut (fl 1433/6; d 1469–70), who may have been the Masters, anonymous, and monogrammists family §I (see Masters, anonymous, and monogrammists family §I), though the latter’s work does not begin until after mid-century. He was probably first trained in his father’s workshop. Michael Wolgemut is first mentioned as a painter when instituting legal proceedings in Nuremberg in ...


Peter Kidson, Michael T. Davis, Paul Crossley, Dany Sandron, Kathryn Morrison, Andreas Bräm, Pamela Z. Blum, V. Sekules, Phillip Lindley, Ulrich Henze, Joan A. Holladay, G. Kreytenberg, Guido Tigler, R. Grandi, Anna Maria D’Achille, Francesco Aceto, J. Steyaert, Pedro Dias, Jan Svanberg, Angela Franco Mata, Peta Evelyn, Peter Tångeberg, Carola Hicks, Marian Campbell, Elisabeth Taburet-Delahaye, A. M. Koldeweij, G. Reinheckel, Judit Kolba, Lennart Karlsson, Barbara Drake Boehm, Danielle Gaborit-Chopin, Virginia Chieffo Raguin, Yvette Vanden Bemden, Nigel J. Morgan, Daniel Kletke, Erhard Drachenberg and Scot McKendrick



(b Bristol, 1415; d c.1483).

English topographer. He is the first recorded English antiquary and is particularly known for his Itinerary. An undergraduate at Oxford in 1432, he entered the service of Sir John Fastolf (?1378–1459) and travelled widely as an administrator of Fastolf’s many estates. He spent 12 years as Fastolf’s executor, and in the settlement he was awarded property in Norwich and Southwark and a house in Bristol. Worcestre’s principal antiquarian adventure was a journey from Norwich to St Michael’s Mount in Cornwall. He left a daily diary of his trip (Cambridge, Corpus Christi Coll., MS. 210). The manuscript includes material for a chronicle of recent history, and Worcestre seems also to have been collecting information for a topography of England. He noted inter-town distances, courses of rivers, and lists of bridges, and extracted details from chronicles and calendars. He was keenly interested in the classical revival, and to the plan of a historical guidebook he added detailed architectural descriptions with dimensions, the latter recorded either with a measure or by ‘steppys meis’ (Harvey, p. 28). His great achievement was his Survey of ...


Vincent Mayr

[?Hans Bilger]

(fl 1475–96).

German sculptor. He is documented as active in Frankfurt am Main, Höchst am Main and Aschaffenburg. His seal shows a crossed hammer and chisel with the inscription hans bilhawer [sculptor] worms. Five sculptured altarpieces can be ascribed to him on documentary evidence (Frankfurt am Main, the Weissfrauenkirche, 1475–6, and the Bernhardskapelle, 1476–9; Kirchgarten, near Worms, Abbey Church, 1476; the high altar of the Justinuskirche, Höchst am Main, 1486; and the high altar of the monastery church of Aschaffenburg, 1489–96). Although none of these altars has survived, busts of four Fathers of the Church in Frankfurt (Frankfurt am Main, Liebieghaus), which are ascribed to Hans von Worms, may come from the Aschaffenburg altar, which was dismantled in 1770. Four half-figures are recorded from the predella, and the busts were described in 1606 by the painter Georg Rudolf Henneberger, who had been commissioned to renovate and remodel the altar.

The busts originally stood in front of a wall. They are of lime-wood and are deeply hollowed out at the back, their height varying between 455 and 595 mm. The Aschaffenburg busts can be compared to the busts of the ...


Michael R. McCarthy

English centre of ceramic production. Several kilns, extensive waste deposits and documentary sources suggest large-scale production at Wrenthorpe, W. Yorks, dating to between the 15th and 18th centuries. Wares were made from local clays; they were decorated with imported white-firing clay and were fired in six-flued and bonfire kilns using both wood and coal. The principal and best-known wares were the red-bodied, chocolate-glazed Cistercian wares decorated with trailed slip and pads of white clay, often with stamped or incised decoration, including stylized floral and stag’s head motifs. Forms included posset pots, chafing dishes, costrels, lids and small jugs. From the late 16th century plates were also produced.

J. W. G. Musty: ‘Medieval Pottery Kilns’, Medieval Pottery from Excavations: Studies Presented to Gerald Clough Dunning, ed. V. Evison, H. Hodges and J. G. Hurst (London, 1974), pp. 41–65 S. A. Moorhouse and I. Roberts: Wrenthorpe Potteries: Excavations of 16th and 17th-century Potting Tenements near Wakefield, 1983–86...


Alice R. M. Hyland

[Chin. Wu pai]

Term used to refer to a group of literati painters ( see China, People’s Republic of, §V, 4, (ii) ) active in the city of Suzhou and the surrounding area of Wu xian (Wu County) from the mid-15th century to the late 16th. Although it was not a school in the strict sense, members had similar goals: to stress the close relationship between poetry, calligraphy and painting and to communicate their own characters through the direct and spontaneous manipulation of brush and ink. In time, this latter goal superseded the mere description of external reality. Frequently these artists alluded to the past through style or theme.

Scholar–amateur painting flourished in Suzhou and elsewhere during the Yuan period (1279–1368), but the first emperor of the succeeding Ming dynasty (1368–1644), the Hongwu emperor (reg 1368–98), distrusted and persecuted the scholarly class. He restored the practice of summoning leading artists to court and encouraged these professional painters to revive the Southern Song (...


(d before 1520).

Architect probably of German origin, active in Austria . His name suggests that he may have come from Lower Bavaria (Wulzingen near Passau) or Upper Styria. He was active in Upper Austria and Styria between 1476 and 1517. The building inscriptions on the parish churches of Zell am Pettenfirst (c. 1490) and St Georgen in Attergau (c. 1496) and on the church (1513–14) in Weissenkirchen prove that they were built by him. At Whitsun 1516 Wultinger is recorded in the Admont masons’ lodge book (Graz, Steiermärk. Landesarchiv), perhaps because he worked in the area controlled by that lodge; his name and his master’s mark are given, and Wultinger is described as being ‘from Vegklenmargk’ (Vöcklamarkt), where he had built the parish church in 1512–13.

The rich adornment and twin aisles characteristic of Wultinger’s churches are related to a group of Styrian double-naved hall churches built from the first half of the 15th century that depended on the Salzburg lodge, which was responsible for their elaborate decoration. Wultinger habitually placed free-standing piers within the body of the church on the axis of the windows in the side walls, so creating a sequence of opposed, triangular bays; the resulting net and star vaulting recurs like a leitmotif in almost all of his buildings. Other characteristic features of Wultinger’s buildings include the use of a wide variety of free-standing pier shapes—octagonal, decagonal, smooth and cylindrical, twisted into spirals or incised with diamonds—and the rich use of sculptural decoration, particularly heads and foliage, on consoles and keystones. Wultinger’s ability to manipulate space was influential, as at the parish church in Gaishorn (...


Johannes Zahlten

German dynasty of rulers and patrons. Although the family can be traced back to 1050, its extensive patronage began with Eberhard V (reg 1459–95), who was subsequently first Duke of Württemberg (reg 1495–6). He founded the university of Tübingen (1477) and donated to the Stiftskirche St Georg at Tübingen three stained-glass windows, the middle one of which shows the Life of the Virgin (c. 1478; in situ) by Peter Hemmel von Andlau and three other masters from Strasbourg, and to the Stiftskirche at Urach a richly decorated, Late Gothic prie-dieu (1472). Under Christopher, Duke of Württemberg (reg 1550–68), the Altes Schloss in Stuttgart was extended on a grand scale (see Stuttgart §3) and the conversion of the chancel of the Stiftskirche St Georg at Tübingen into a burial place for the ruling house, begun by Ulrich VI, Duke of Württemberg (...


M. C. Lacarra Ducay

(fl Saragossa, 1462; d 1505).

Spanish painter. He was of Castilian origin and worked in Aragon during the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella. His workshop in Saragossa was inherited by his son Juan, who was also a painter and a follower. Between 1482 and 1496 Miguel Ximénez collaborated with the painter Martín Bernart of Saragossa on a series of altarpieces, notably the high altar retable (1485; Saragossa, Mus. Prov. B.A.) from the church at Blesa (Teruel), which depicts the Legend of the True Cross. In his independent works, the altarpiece (Madrid, Prado) for S María, Ejea de los Caballeros (Saragossa), that of the Virgin of Villaverde in the church at Luna (Saragossa) and that of St Martin of Tours for S Pablo, Saragossa (Saragossa, Mus. Prov. B.A.), a development is noticeable from a Gothic style of Netherlandish and German origin, influenced by Rogier van der Weyden and Martin Schongauer, to the more naturalistic language of the Renaissance, with experiments in perspective and modelling....



Yi Sŏng-mi

[cha Ch-ŏngji ; ho Pihaedang , Maejuk-hŏn , Nanggan-kŏsa ]

(b 1418; d 1453).

Korean calligrapher, painter, poet and collector . Also known as Prince Anp’yŏng, he was the third son of King Sejong . His talents in poetry, painting and calligraphy earned him the title of ‘three excellences’. He sponsored many gatherings of scholars, poets and artists in his studio and became the major patron of An Kyŏn , who painted the famous Dream Visit to the Peach Blossom Land (1447; Tenri, Cent. Lib.) based on a dream that Yi Yŏng had related to him. Prince Anp’yŏng’s collection of Korean and Chinese paintings must have served as inspiration for many contemporary painters. Its contents are known thanks to the Hwagi (‘Notes on painting’) section of the statesman Sin Suk-ju’s Pohanjae chip (‘Collected writings of Pohanjae [Sin Suk-ju]’). This is a valuable record, unique in that no other catalogue of painting collections of the Chosŏn period is known. The Hwagi lists 189 paintings and 33 items of calligraphy, mainly by Chinese painters and calligraphers of the Song (...


Ho Chuan-Hsing

[Chu Yün-ming; zi Xizhe; hao Jishan]

(b Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, c. 1460–61; d Suzhou, 1527).

Chinese calligrapher, scholar, essayist and poet . Born into an illustrious Suzhou family, he was commended in the provincial examinations, the second stage of the civil service career ladder, at the age of 33 but failed in several attempts at the national examinations. In 1514 he took office as magistrate of Xingning County in Guangdong Province and in 1522 was promoted to assistant prefectural magistrate of Yingtian District (now Nanjing). He retired after less than a year and died at the age of 67. Zhu was an outstanding representative of certain literary circles in Suzhou, revered not only for his calligraphy, but also for his scholarship, essays and poetry. His individual and non-conformist beliefs made him severely critical of Song Neo-Confucianism, the orthodox teaching of his day, seeing it as both ill-founded and constricting. His love of liberty and adherence to the classics are reflected in his calligraphy, which is at once informed by a thorough acquaintance with the classical masters and executed with an expansive and uninhibited flair....


Bruno Adorni

Italian family of architects, builders and engineers . Bernardino Zaccagni (b Torrechiara, nr Parma, c. 1460; d Parma, c. 1530) and his sons Benedetto Zaccagni (b 26 Nov 1487; d 26 Jan 1558), also known as il Torchiarino, and Gian Francesco Zaccagni (b 21 Feb 1491; d 1543) were active in Parma from the late 15th century to the 16th. Bernardino’s name is linked with the most important architectural works produced in Parma in the early 16th century. Between 1498 and 1507 he completed the Benedictine church of S Benedetto, Parma, which was begun in the local vernacular by Pellegrino da Pontremoli in 1491. Its graceful gabled façade, articulated by four elongated pilaster strips, betrays an ignorance of the rules of the Classical orders. Bernardino’s Benedictine church (1507–9) at Pedrignano, near Parma, also seems alien to the Renaissance climate and may have been inspired by local Lombardic churches. In ...


Li Zai  

Roderick Whitfield

[Li Tsai; zi Yizheng]

(b Putian, Fujian Province; d 1431).

Chinese painter. He became one of the leading court painters in the reign of the Xuande emperor (reg 1426–35) and one of the forerunners of the Zhe school. The Japanese monk–painter Tōyō Sesshū, who visited China in 1468, called him one of the most important masters of the period. Together with Xia Zhi, a student of Dai Jin, and Ma Shi, he painted a long handscroll in 11 scenes that illustrated couplets from a famous poem by Tao Yuanming, showing the elegant figure of the poet at various stages on his return to his native village. Each scene presents a vignette rather than a complete landscape, with quite large figures and landscape details, both exhibiting a brilliant command of the brush in the style of the Southern Song (1127–1279) academy. Li Zai’s monumental landscape style, based on the imposing compositions of the Northern Song period (960–1127...