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Hong Sŏn-p’yo

[ho Wŏnchŏng, Ch’ŏnsimchukche]

(b Seoul, 1860; d Shanghai, 1914).

Korean calligrapher and painter. He was active at the end of the Chosŏn period (1392–1910) and was a nephew of Queen Myŏngsŏng, a member of the Min clan and wife of King Kojong (reg 1864–1907); under the Queen’s protection he played a central role among the conservatives from the age of 19 but abandoned politics to take up painting and calligraphy. In 1895, when the Queen was assassinated by the Japanese, he fled to Shanghai in China, where he spent his days as a calligrapher and painter, earning fame for his ink-orchids and ink-bamboo. Basing himself on the painting style of Kim Chŏng-hŭi, he achieved a level of excellence in his work characterized by strong, sharp brushstrokes. Idiosyncratic features in his paintings of orchids were the blunt tips and right-angled bend in the middle of the orchid leaves. Such paintings were highly regarded, even in the calligraphy and painting world of Shanghai. Fine examples of his work are two ink paintings, ...


Hong Sŏn-p’yo

[ho Kuryongsanin]

(b Seoul, 1878; d Seoul, 1968).

Korean calligrapher and painter. He was born into a highly influential family at the end of the Chosŏn period (1392–1910) and enjoyed a successful civil service career until the Japanese annexation of Korea in 1910, after which he concentrated on calligraphy and painting. As a child he had studied with the calligrapher and painter, Chi Un-su, and in his thirties and forties he was a prolific painter of bamboos and orchids in the style of Min Yŏng-ik. As a result of his association with the Chinese painter Fang Luo, who visited Korea in 1926, he came into contact with the style of the Shanghai school and began to paint sensuous flowering plants in a light palette. After Korean independence from Japan in 1945, his calligraphy was even more acclaimed, and he became actively involved in the Kukchŏn (National Art Exhibition; see Korea, §IV, 3) as a judge and an adviser in the calligraphy section. In calligraphy he was particularly brilliant at semicursive script reminiscent of the standard and clerical scripts of Yan Zhenqing....


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[ Yu Youren ; zi Saoxin ; hao Ranweng, Taiping Laoren ]

(b Sanyuan, Shanxi Province, 1879; d Taipei, 1964).

Chinese calligrapher, poet, journalist and official . Yü Yu-jen came from a scholarly family and began to study the classics and calligraphy at the age of ten. Six years later he was first in the local examinations and in 1903 he passed the provincial examination, the next step in the civil service examinations, to receive his juren. By this time Yü had become interested in the republican cause and wrote a poem criticizing the Manchu court. An order for his arrest was issued while he was preparing for his final examination at the capital, and he fled to Shanghai, where he studied under an assumed name. From 1903 to 1913, Yü published four newspapers in succession, all anti-Manchu; the longest lasting and best known of these was the republican Minli bao (‘The people’s stand’). Yü held a number of high-ranking positions in the republican government from 1912 until his death; in ...


Stephen B. Little

[Juan Yüan]

(b Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, Feb 21, 1764; d Yangzhou, Nov 27, 1849).

Chinese calligrapher, theorist and scholar–official (see fig.). Born into a distinguished Yangzhou family, Ruan passed the civil-service examination to gain the title of jinshi in 1790. Thereafter he held many important official posts, including compiler at the Hanlin Academy, Supervisor of Imperial Instruction (1791), Vice-President of the boards of Revenue (1799) and War (1811), Governor of Zhejiang Province, Governor-General of Hubei, Henan and Guangdong provinces and Grand Secretary (1835). Throughout his career he was interested in historical, bibliographical and epigraphical scholarship. He is said to have owned over 460 bronze ritual vessels of the Shang, Zhou and Han periods (c. 1600 bcc. ad 220). His study of ancient bronze inscriptions, the Jigu zhai zhongding yiqi kuanzhi fatie (‘Copybook of inscriptions on bronzes and sacrificial vessels from the Jigu studio’; 1804), contains reproductions of many ancient inscriptions, and it greatly influenced 19th-century calligraphy....



Richard Edwards

[ Yü-chien ; Ruofen ; Jo-fen ; xing Cao ; zi Zhongshi ; hao Furong Shanzhu ]

(b Jinhua, Wuzhou, Zhejiang Province; fl c. 1250).

Chinese painter, calligrapher and priest . He was active in Lin’an (now Hangzhou), Zhejiang Province. At the age of nine he entered Baofeng yuan (Precious Peak monastery), where he took the name Ruofen and trained in Tiantai Buddhism. After his ordination he was appointed scribe (shuji) at Tianzhu si (India temple) in the Bei shan (Northern Mountain) temple complex near Lin’an. Ruofen Yujian has been confused with another monk–painter, Ying Yujian, from Jingci si (Pure Compassion temple), a Chan Buddhist establishment in the Nan shan (Southern Mountain) temple complex, also situated near Lin’an. Both men are listed in Tuhui baojian (‘Precious mirror for examining painting’; preface 1365) by Xia Wenyan, whose account of Ruofen draws substantially on a description of 1351 by the painter Wu Taisu. The identification of Ruofen rather than Ying Yujian with the painter Yujian is due to the existence of this more complete account and its consistency with the kind of paintings attributed to Yujian....


Ho Chuan-Hsing

[Chu Yün-ming; zi Xizhe; hao Jishan]

(b Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, c. 1460–61; d Suzhou, 1527).

Chinese calligrapher, scholar, essayist and poet . Born into an illustrious Suzhou family, he was commended in the provincial examinations, the second stage of the civil service career ladder, at the age of 33 but failed in several attempts at the national examinations. In 1514 he took office as magistrate of Xingning County in Guangdong Province and in 1522 was promoted to assistant prefectural magistrate of Yingtian District (now Nanjing). He retired after less than a year and died at the age of 67. Zhu was an outstanding representative of certain literary circles in Suzhou, revered not only for his calligraphy, but also for his scholarship, essays and poetry. His individual and non-conformist beliefs made him severely critical of Song Neo-Confucianism, the orthodox teaching of his day, seeing it as both ill-founded and constricting. His love of liberty and adherence to the classics are reflected in his calligraphy, which is at once informed by a thorough acquaintance with the classical masters and executed with an expansive and uninhibited flair....



(b 1694; d 1764).

Japanese poet and calligrapher . She was the adopted daughter of the famous Kaji , who ran the Matsuya tea house in Kyoto and was also a waka (31-syllable classical verse) poet. Yuri’s original family name may have been Kimura. Her initial training in waka and calligraphy came from her mother. Yuri was said to be exceptionally intelligent, and the courtier–poet Reizei Tamemura took a special interest in her and became her mentor. Both her poetry and her relaxed and fluid style of calligraphy reveal her strong personality. Nature was her preferred subject. In 1727, 159 of her poems were published in the Sayuri ba (‘Leaves from a small lily’). The scholar and poet Rai San’yō wrote her biography, exhorting other women to follow her example. She was the mother of the painter Ike Gyokuran ( see Ike family §(2) ).

Japanese Women Artists, 1600–1900 (exh. cat. by P. Fister, Lawrence, U. KS, Spencer Mus. A., 1988), pp. 69, 73–4, 80...


Gordon Campbell

German family of printers. Günther Zainer (b Reutlingen; d Buxheim, 13 April 1478) seems to have been trained in the workshop of Johann Mentelin (c. 1410–78) in Strasbourg, and in 1468 he established the first printing workshop in Augsburg. His publications include the first illustrated Bible (1475), the first printed edition of the De imitatione Christi of Thomas à Kempis and an edition of the 13th-century Golden Legend (Lombardica historia) of the Genoese hagiographer Jacopo da Voragine in which the lives of the saints are illustrated with 231 woodcuts. Johann Zainer (b Reutlingen; d Ulm, c. 1523), who was probably Günther’s brother, moved to Ulm in the early 1470s, where he established a printing workshop that specialized in illustrated books. In 1476 he published the first edition of Aesop’s Fables in German.

A. Fujii: Günther Zainers druckersprachliche Leistung: Untersuchungen zur Augsburger Druckersprache im 15. Jahrhundert, ...


Juliana Nedeva-Wegener

(b Samokov, June 8, 1895; d Sofia, Nov 28, 1971).

Bulgarian printmaker, graphic designer, illustrator, bookbinder, art historian, theorist, critic and teacher . He is considered to be the founder and leading representative of 20th-century Bulgarian graphic art, who in the 1920s developed his own style in the spirit of the national tradition, but with a contemporary western European outlook. In 1919 he graduated from the National Academy of Arts (Natsionalna Hudozhestvena Academia), Sofia. In 1922–4 he studied at the State Academy of Graphic Art and Book Decoration, Leipzig, where he made an in-depth study of graphic techniques. After his return to Bulgaria, he was engaged in a variety of activities, including ex-libris, illustration, bookbinding and the design of postage stamps and banknotes. From 1924 until his death he was a professor of graphic and decorative arts at the National Academy of Arts. His output of graphic art was prodigious and included woodcuts (Basilica of St Sofia, 1925; e.g. Sofia, N.A.G.), coloured mezzotints (...


Sergey Kuznetsov

( Dmytriyevych ) [ Zamiraylo, Victor Dmitriyevich ]

(b Cherkasy, Kiev province, Nov 24, 1868; d Novy Petergof, Leningrad Region, Oct 2, 1939).

Ukrainian painter, printmaker and illustrator . He studied at the Kiev Drawing School (1881–6) under Mykhailo Murashko (1844–1909), who encouraged the independent development of his talents and taste without the pedantry of academicism or of the Wanderers. The influence of Gustave Doré is evident in his work of this period. From 1888 he participated in the exhibitions of the World of Art group, the Moscow Fellowship of Artists and the Union of Russian Artists. In Kiev he worked with Mikhail Vrubel’ on the restoration of the wall paintings in the church of St Cyril (1883–4) and on the decoration of the cathedral of St Vladimir (1885–90; initially on the basis of designs by Viktor Vasnetsov). In 1907–14 he produced the panels Battle at Kerzhenets and Subjugation of Kazan’ for the Kazan’ Station in Moscow to designs by Nicholas Roerich. In his easel works he used predominantly sepia, occasionally adding touches of watercolour, and he made extensive use of lamp-black. In ...


Ni Zan  

Wen Fong

[Ni Tsan; zi Yuanzhen; hao Yunlin]

(b Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, 1301; d 1374).

Chinese painter and calligrapher. He is designated one of the Four Masters of the Yuan (1279–1368), with Huang Gongwang, Wu Zhen and Wang Meng.

Ni Zan’s family were of Xixia (Tangut) origin. His tenth-generation ancestor Shi came to China as Xixia ambassador in 1034–7 at the time of Emperor Renzong (reg 1023–63), and the family settled in Duliang (modern Anhui Province). In 1127–30, under Emperor Gaozong (reg 1127–62), Ni Zan’s fifth-generation ancestor Yi moved south with the Southern Song (1127–1279), settling at Zhituo village in Wuxi, modern Jiangsu Province, where the Ni family prospered. Ni Zan and his elder brother Ying were the sons of a concubine, Yan. Their father died when they were young, and they were raised by their eldest half-brother, Ni Zhaogui (1279–1328). Ying was mentally incompetent, and after Zhaogui’s death Ni Zan assumed responsibility for the family estate, a role ill-suited to his natural inclinations. He led a privileged and secluded home life for 20 or more years; in the mid-1340s he spent most of his time among rare books, antique paintings, calligraphy and flowers in his favourite studio, the Qingbi ge (‘Pure and secluded pavilion’)....


Lynette Bosch

[Llorenz Saragozza]

(b Cariñena, Aragon; fl 1364; d 1401).

Spanish illuminator and painter. He worked in Valencia and Barcelona and was responsible for the continuation of the so-called International Gothic style in Catalonia, Aragon and Valencia. He is recorded in Valencia from 1364 to 1366; in the latter year he was working in Barcelona, where he was paid by Queen Eleanor (d 1374) for two retables, one of St Nicholas for the Franciscan convent in Calatayud and the other of St Catherine for the Franciscan convent in Teruel, both of which are untraced. In 1373 King Peter IV of Aragon (reg 1336–87) referred to him in a letter to the Council of Albocacer as the best painter of Barcelona. Lorenzo later returned to Valencia, where he is documented from 1377 to 1401, the year of his death. His varied commissions there included an embroidered cloth for the Armourers’ Guild (1390; untraced) and a series of ceiling paintings for the Casa del Peso Real (...


(b Chicontepec, Veracruz, Jan 1, 1947).

Mexican draughtsman, printmaker, painter, and illustrator. Zenil is known for his reworking of recognizable Pop Mexicanist imagery—or known icons of Mexicanismo (mexicanidad; Mexican identity and culture)—such as the Mexican flag, sacred heart, Virgin of Guadalupe, calaveras (skulls), and lotería (Mexican bingo) symbols among others—while collapsing boundaries of the sacred and the profane and challenging the heteronormative. Zenil has been dubbed a member of the stylistic movement neomexicanidad (Neo-Mexicanism), alongside such Mexican artists as Javier de la Garza (b 1954), Julio Galán, and Rocío Maldonado. Zenil has acknowledged Enrique Guzmán (1952–86) as the initiator of Neo-Mexicanism in his work Oh Santa Bandera (a Enrique Guzmán) (1996; Mexico City, Museo Universitario Arte Contemporáneo), which is a reworking Guzmán’s ¡Oh! Santa bandera! (1977) that reiterates Guzmán’s early ironic reinterpretation of Mexican iconography as cultural critique.

A pioneer of Mexican Post-modernism in using strategies of appropriation, fragmentation, parody, and text, Zenil rejected the dominant style of ...


Mayching Kao

[Fang Chao-ling]

(b Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, Jan 17, 1914; d Hong Kong, February 20, 2006).

Chinese painter and calligrapher. Born into a prosperous and well-educated family, Fang developed an early interest in art. She studied at the University of Hong Kong and Oxford University before devoting herself to art from the 1950s onwards. The foundations of her art were traditional. A student of Qian Songyan (1899–1985), Zhao Shao’ang (b 1905) and Zhang Daqian, she grasped firmly the spirit and techniques of her native tradition, especially the expressive calligraphic line. In addition to studying Chinese literature and philosophy, she ‘walked 10,000 miles’ to visit scenic landscapes in China and elsewhere. She was also open to influences from modern developments in Western art. Her personal and individualistic style evolved from a synthesis of these factors, expressing her profound empathy for the joys and sorrows of life and her refreshing vision in bold compositions and powerful brushwork.

Wucius Wong: ‘Fang Zhao-ling’, Orientations, 13/11 (1982), pp. 44–55...


Roger Goepper

[ Yen Chen-ch’ing ; zi Qingchen ; Lu Gong ]

(b Shandong Province, ad 709; d 785).

Chinese calligrapher, scholar, writer and government official . His family, members of the gentry, moved within Shandong from the north to the south, giving him an acquaintance with the different cultural traditions of both areas. After the early death of his father he was educated by his uncle, Yan Yuansun. At the age of 28 he passed the civil service examinations to become a jinshi. He was prefect of Dezhou and governor of Pingyuan, both in Shandong Province, and he held high positions at the imperial library, in the Ministry of Justice and as preceptor of the crown prince. In 767 he received the title Duke of Lu (Lu Gong) for his honesty and integrity as investigation censor of the Bureau of Administration. An outstanding example of Confucian loyalty, he fought against the rebellion of An Lushan in 755 and against Li Xieli in 781; Li took him prisoner and had him strangled in 785....


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[Lo Chen-yü; zi Xuetang; hao Chensuntang]

(b Huaian, Jiangsu Province, Aug 3, 1866; d Lüshun, Liaoning Province, June 19, 1940).

Chinese writer, collector and calligrapher. He is particularly well known for his studies of oracle bone script (jiagu wen), the earliest Chinese writing, so called because it was found on animal bones and shells used for divination (see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (i), (a)). Luo’s friend Wang Yirong (1845–1900) and Liu E (1857–1909) were the first to collect the bones, which they discovered and rescued from pharmacists, who ground them up for medical prescriptions. The importance of oracle bones for early Chinese history was more widely recognized in 1899 after large quantities of them were unearthed at the Yinxu site in Anyang, Henan Province. Sun Yirang (1848–1908), Wang Guowei (1867–1927) and Luo investigated the texts on the oracle bones, and Luo dated them to the latter part of the Shang period (c. 1600–c. 1050...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[ Chao Chih-ch’ien ; zi Huishu ; hao Beian ]

(b Kuaiji, Zhejiang Province, Aug 8, 1829; d Nancheng, Jiangxi Province, Nov 18, 1884).

Chinese calligrapher, seal-carver, painter and scholar . After his example, it became common for artists to attempt to be competent in painting, calligraphy and seal-carving rather than to specialize in a single discipline. Zhao was one of the greatest artists of the late Qing period (1644–1911), although much of his work displays a disquiet and unbalanced awkwardness that conflicted with Chinese aesthetic values of the time.

As a painter, Zhao specialized in plant life. His early work is characterized by soft, detailed brushwork and brilliant, translucent colours. Plants of Zhejiang (1861; Tokyo N. Mus., see Tokyo kukuritsu, p. 162), a set of four hanging scrolls, is one of his early masterpieces: each scroll shows an unusual choice of plants and flowers and an immense range of colours and techniques. In one of the scrolls, the clublike arms of a prickly pear cactus are drawn in wet colour, with thistles added in ink while the paint was still wet; next to this is a complicated web of arched oleander leaves. Against this manipulation of wet colour, with its subtly vibrating edges, the pink and white oleander flowers are opaque. The fact that each composition is cut by the border of the scroll and that many elements within the paintings are interwoven gives a sense that the plants are reaching beyond their confines and enhances the vitality of the work. In contrast, the colours in Zhao’s later paintings are muted; there is an increased use of ink, and the brushwork is more exaggerated. ...


Richard Edwards

[Shen Chou; zi Qi’nan; hao Shitian]

(b Xiangcheng, nr Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, 1427; d Xiangcheng, 1509).

Chinese painter, calligrapher and poet. He is generally considered to be the leading literati master of his time, the artist to whom the establishment of the Wu school is most often and aptly attributed. Wu was the ancient geographical area centred on the city of Suzhou, where Shen Zhou lived all his life. Artists of the Wu tradition (not a school in the strict sense) were literati or scholar-amateurs who emphasized the importance and interdependence of poetry, painting and calligraphy. Their aesthetic ideals and aims were thus in direct contrast with those of the professional and court painters of the Zhe school, the leading exponent of which was Dai Jin.

Shen’s ancestors suffered substantial losses in the turmoil that accompanied the end of the Yuan dynasty (1279–1368). When Shen’s great-grandfather, Shen Liangchen (1340–1409), established the family estates at Xiangcheng, c. 16 km north-east of Suzhou, on a flat plain honeycombed with watercourses, he laid the foundations for the family’s renewed prosperity. Shen Zhou represented a fourth generation of wealth, high social position and deep knowledge of China’s cultural traditions. Shen Liangchen had been a younger friend of the Yuan-period painter Wang Meng, and Shen’s grandfather, ...


G. Jansen

(b Kralingen, June 13, 1866; d Bussum, Jan 8, 1947).

Dutch sculptor. He received his first artistic training in Amsterdam, first in the form of drawing lessons from painter and illustrator Bernard Willem Wierink (1856–1939) and later at the Quellinusschool under the direction of engineer Emmanuel Constant Edouard Colinet (1840–90) and at the School for Applied Arts. There he became friendly with, among others, Joseph Mendes da Costa; through the society Labor et Ars he met Gerrit Willem Dijsselhof, Jan Eisenlöffel, H. P. Berlage, K. P. C. de Bazel and J. L. Mathieu Lauweriks. In the company of these young artists, who disliked the traditional styles, his attention was directed particularly to ancient Egyptian and Assyrian art.

In 1893 Zijl was invited by Berlage to collaborate on his building (destr. 1964) for De Algemeene life insurance company on the Damrak, Amsterdam. For this building and particularly for the Koopmansbeurs (1898–1903), Amsterdam, also by Berlage, he developed a style that can be seen as the high point of his career. This so-called ‘architecture sculpture’ is always considered as a subsidiary to the architectural concept of the whole, therefore contributing to the ...


Lenka Bydžovská

(b Vadin, near Havlíčkův Brod, Nov 5, 1890; d Prague, Oct 12, 1977).

Czech painter and illustrator . He studied painting in Prague, first in private schools, then at the School of Applied Art (1907–9). In autumn 1907 he made his first, brief visit to Paris. Shortly after his return he succeeded for the first time in expressing his own inner world, infused with a new melancholy, in a small pastel Valley of Sadness (1907; painted version, 1908; both Prague, N.G.), which he looked upon as his talisman throughout his life. His early work ranged from flat and linear painting in the Gauguin tradition, via remarkable collages made from coloured foil, to rhapsodic Expressionism, as in Antichrist (1909; Prague, N.G.). Several self-portraits of 1908–9 bear witness to his quest for himself and to his penchant for self-stylization.

Zrzavý’s emphasis on the symbolic and psychic roots of his artistic work brought him into the Sursum group, which in 1910–12 attracted the second Symbolist generation in Bohemia, including ...