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Robert Winter

Guides to every state in the Union (and some of the major cities) that were written under the auspices of the Federal Writers Project created by the Works Progress Administration/Federal Art Project during the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt. The idea was part of Roosevelt’s attempt to find work for the thousands of Americans who had been left jobless by the Great Depression of the 1930s. Published between 1937 and 1942, each one began with short chapters on subjects such as political history, the arts, architecture, labor movements, economics and education. These were followed by sections on major cities and their resources. About half of each guide was devoted to a series of tours that might be taken along country roads as well as major highways. They included details of small towns that are still valuable to scholars.

The Federal Writers Project hired some important authors, but few of them wrote for the guides. They were composed by people of lesser note such as unknown college professors, amateur naturalists and architecture buffs. The great majority of the researchers were people who had no training in gathering facts but who nevertheless pursued them with care. One also suspects that the high quality of the finished products was the result of the work of capable editors....


Jukka Ervamaa and Pontus Grate

Finnish family of painters and illustrators . They were descended from a Scottish family who moved to Sweden in the 17th century. The von Wright brothers were brought up in a remote region in central Finland and were almost entirely self-taught. They began their careers as zoological illustrators in Stockholm and were among the finest Finnish artists of the first half of the 19th century.

(b Haminalahti, nr Kuopio, June 13, 1805; d Helsinki, July 5, 1868).

In 1826 he moved to Stockholm, and in 1828 with his brother (2) Wilhelm von Wright he began publishing Svenska foglar (‘Swedish birds’), the series of bird illustrations that rapidly established the brothers’ reputation in Finland and Sweden. The work, completed in 1838, consists of 180 hand-tinted lithographs.

Magnus returned to Finland in 1829 and settled in Helsinki, where he played a key role in the development of Finnish art. He worked as a teacher of drawing at the University of Helsinki from ...


Lija Skalska-Miecik

(b Kraków, Jan 15, 1869; d Kraków, Nov 28, 1907).

Polish painter, pastellist, decorative artist, illustrator, writer and theatre director . He was the son of the Kraków sculptor Franciszek Wyspiański (1836–1902) and studied at the Kraków School of Fine Arts, mostly under Władysław Łuszczkiewicz (1828–1900) and Jan Matejko. In 1889 Wyspiański and Józef Mehoffer, the school’s most talented students, were appointed to complete Matejko’s painted decorations for St Mary, Kraków, a task that prompted Wyspiański’s interest in both decorative painting and stained glass. In 1890 he travelled in Italy, Switzerland, France and Germany, and also to Prague. In 1891 he continued his training in Paris, where he remained with intervals until 1894, studying at the Académie Colarossi under Joseph Blanc, Gustave Courtois (1852–1924) and Louis Auguste Girardot (b 1858). Wyspiański also worked independently in Paris, studying paintings in the museums and fascinated by contemporary art. Through Władysław Ślewiński, he met Paul Gauguin and members of the Nabis....


Julia K. Murray

[Ts’ai Hsiang; zi Junmo]

(b Xianyou County, Fujian Province, 1012; d Xianyou County, 1067).

Chinese calligrapher, scholar–official and poet. From an undistinguished provincial family, he rose to prominence as an official after passing the national civil-service examination to become a jinshi in 1030. He attained his highest posts at the courts of the emperors Renzong (reg 1023–63) and Yingzong (reg 1064–7) during the ascendency of the reform faction led by Fan Zhongyan (989–1052) and Ouyang Xiu. Cai is traditionally designated one of the Four Great Calligraphers of the Northern Song (960–1127), along with Su Shi, Huang Tingjian and Mi Fu (see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (iv), (a)). The oldest of the four, Cai played an important role in setting the direction for the development of Song (960–1279) calligraphy and was praised by Su Shi as the greatest calligrapher of the period.

As a calligrapher, Cai achieved distinction in several established scripts: regular script (...


Ju-Hsi Chou

revised by Michael J. Hatch

[Cheng Hsieh; zi Kerou; hao Banqiao, Pan-ch’iao]

(b Xinghua, Jiangsu Province, 1693; d 1765).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, and poet. Equally known as Zheng Banqiao, Zheng Xie was, together with Jin Nong, the most prominent of the group of painters later referred to as the Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou (see Yangzhou school). He grew up with little means and had to sell his family library to pay for his father’s funeral. Taking work as a private tutor in 1718 at the age of 25, he started a small family in the suburbs of Yangzhou, only to see his wife and son die by 1731. He subsequently achieved some success in the official civil service examinations and twice obtained appointments as a district magistrate in Shandong Province from 1742 to 1753. A brief encounter in 1748 on Mt. Tai, Shandong, with the Qianlong emperor (reg 1736–1796) won him the coveted title of Official Calligrapher and Painter (shuhuashi), for which he had a seal carved to commemorate the event. The end of his official career came in ...


Song Xu  

Vyvyan Brunst and James Cahill

[Sung Hsü; hao Shimen]

(b Chongde, Zhejiang Province, 1525; d c. 1607).

Chinese painter and calligrapher. Unlike other literati Southern school painters of the late Ming period (1368–1644), Song Xu came from a humble background. In the 1570s he moved to Songjiang Prefecture, the principal city of which, Huating, later came to be associated with Dong Qichang and his followers. Song is said to have lived in a Daoist shrine; sources record that he was respected as an ‘untonsured monk’ and that he took Buddhist sobriquets. The work of Shen Zhou was the main influence on his landscape manner. A handscroll after the Southern Song (1127–1279) painter Xia Gui, produced when Song Xu was not yet 20, suggests that in his youth he studied masters of the Song period (960–1279) as well.

Song is said to have written a laudatory evaluation of the styles of the 10th- and 11th-century monumental landscapists Li Cheng, Guan Tong and Fan Kuan; however, it seems that, in common with the Huating artists, he favoured the work of the masters of the Yuan period (...


Weihe Chen

[ Zhang Chengshi, Zhang Dian ; Chang Hsü ; zi Bogao ]

(b Wunjunwu [now Suzhou, Jiangsu Province] or Wuxing [now Huzhou, Zhejiang Province], fl early 8th century).

Chinese calligrapher, poet, scholar and government official . He graduated from being a minor official in Changshu to the senior post of Zuoshuaifu Changshi, which earned him the nickname ‘Zhang Changshi’. He was adept at writing poems, especially in qijue (a four-line verse with seven characters to a line and following a strict tonal pattern and rhyme scheme). As a poet he was equally as famous as He Zhizhang (659–755), Bao Rong and Zhang Ruoxu, which earned them the title of Wuzhong sijia (Four Scholars of the Wu Area). He was friendly with He Zhizhang and Li Bai (701–762) and associated with Gao Shi, Li Qi and Yan Zhenqing.

It is as a calligrapher that Zhang is best remembered. He had a good command of kaishu (regular script), which he imparted to Cui Miao and Yan Zhenqing. Yan said that his kaishu was so detailed and penetrating that it could be considered as truth and the correct Way. His uninhibited ...


Ho Chuan-Hsing

[Ou-yang Hsün; zi Xiben]

(b Xiangzhou [now Changsha], Hunan Province, ad 557; d Yingzhou [now Fuyang], Anhui Province, ad 641).

Chinese calligrapher and scholar-official. Born into a family of government officials, he was a talented student who read widely in the classics. He took office under the Sui (ad 581–618) in ad 611 as Imperial Doctor and served under the Tang dynasty (ad 618–907) as censor and as a scholar at the Hongwen Academy, where he taught calligraphy. He attained the status of Imperial Calligrapher and inscribed several of the major imperial stelae. He was a well-rounded man of culture, a scholar and a government official, and along with Yu Shinan (ad 558–638) and Chu Suiliang (ad 596–658) became known as one of the Three Great Calligraphers of the Early Tang (see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (iii)).

Ouyang Xun devoted his creative energies to the development of regular script (kaishu) calligraphy, establishing the aesthetic model for the script. His calligraphy carried on the tradition of Wang Xizhi (...



Kang Woo-Bang

( fl c. ad 632–46).

Korean sculptor, calligrapher and priest. He was prominent during the reign of Queen Sŏndŏk (reg 632–46) of Silla. According to the 13th-century Samguk yusa (‘Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms’) he was proficient in many arts. Three pieces of his work survive from the site of Yŏngmyo Temple, Kyŏngju, North Kyŏngsang Province: a Buddhist trinity, figures of guardians and tiles of halls and of a pagoda. Other works attributed to him include the eight guardian generals at the base of the pagoda at Sach’ŏnwang Temple, Kyŏngju, a Buddhist trinity and the deva kings to the right and left of it at Pŏmnim Temple, Kyŏngju, inscribed hanging boards at both Yŏngmyo and Pŏmnim temples, a further engraved pagoda and 3000 small Buddha figures (destr.)

Yangji’s Buddhist sculptures were all made from clay, which he was adept at moulding. He lived at Sŏkchang Temple in Kyŏngju, the Silla capital. When the temple site was excavated, many clay artefacts assumed to be Yangji’s work were discovered, among them heavenly spirits carved freely in unrestrained postures and sporting finely detailed muscles. A brick engraved with a Buddha and pagoda was also unearthed. All that remains of what have been described as the guardian generals of Sach’ŏnwang Temple amounts to no more than a single brick relief of a ...


Ann Barrott Wicks

[Yang Yen-p’ing]

(b Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, July 26, 1934).

Chinese painter and calligrapher. Yang graduated in architecture from Qinghua University in 1958 and worked for the Chemistry Industrial Bureau. Her marriage to the artist Zeng Shanqing in 1956 introduced her to China’s leading painters and awakened her own desire to paint. In 1966, a few months before the advent of the Cultural Revolution, Yang was able to secure a position in the Beijing Art Company. As a relatively new and unknown artist, she escaped the persecution endured by established painters in the turbulent decade to follow. While officially painting portraits of Chairman Mao and other government-commissioned subjects she privately practised her craft. In 1980 she was appointed Professional Painting Master at the Beijing Painting Academy.

Yang’s earliest works are oil landscapes that evoke the mystical terrain of ancient Chinese mountains (see Cohen, fig.). She turned to traditional Chinese materials – brush, ink and water-based pigments on paper – soon after she transferred to the Painting Academy. Her first works on paper were figures delineated with delicate, hair-like lines. She used the same line sparingly in early landscapes (see Lim, fig.). In ...


Jeremy Howard

( Mikhaylovna )

(b Petrovsk, Saratov province, 1893; d nr Karaganda, Kazakhstan, 1938).

Russian painter, printmaker and illustrator. She studied at the school of painting, drawing and sculpture run by Mikhail Bernshteyn and Leonid Shervud in St Petersburg (1911–14), where she was influenced, through her contact with the progressive artist Mikhail Le-Dantyu (1891–1917) and the writer Il’ya Zdanevich (1894–1975), by the principles of Neo-primitivism espoused by Mikhail Larionov. Her most productive and original contribution to Russian art started immediately after the 1917 Revolution when she founded the Today (Segodnya) collective of artists in Petrograd (St Petersburg) with the aim of producing lubok-style four-page children’s books created from linocuts and popular prints, for example her illustrations for Walt Whitman’s O Pioneers (Pionery, 1918; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.). Although Today ceased its activities when Yermolayeva left for Vitebsk (now Viciebsk) in the autumn of 1919, she continued to illustrate children’s books after 1925 for the newly created Detgiz publishing house. She drew on the formal principles of Russian signboard painting in her illustrations for ...


Gordon Campbell

[Mehmed Esad Yesari; Yesari; As‛ad Yasārī]

(d Istanbul, 1798).

Ottoman calligrapher. Born paralysed on the right side of his body and palsied on the left, he was given the nickname ‘Yesari’ (left-handed). He learnt the art of calligraphy from Mehmed Dedezade, gaining his diploma (Turk. icazet) in 1753–4. Appointed calligrapher at the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul by Mustafa III (reg 1757–74), Esad Yesari achieved fame for his mastery of nasta‛līq script (e.g. a calligraphic specimen, Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., G.Y. 325/4488), and his inscriptions adorn mosques, tombs, fountains and hospices in Istanbul. He was buried in the vicinity of the Fatih Mosque, Istanbul. Among his many pupils was his son Mustafa Izzet Yesarizade (d 1849), who received his diploma from his father. Mustafa Izzet wrote a beautiful nasta‛līq script and his inscriptions also adorn buildings in Istanbul.

See also: Islamic art, §III, 2(v): Calligraphy, after c 1800

Ş. Rado: Türk hattatları [Turkish calligraphers] (Istanbul, n.d.), pp. 182–4, 209...



Burglind Jungmann

Korean family of scholars and painters. They were descended from Yi Kyang-gun, eighth son of King Sŏngjong (reg 1469–94) of the Chosŏn dynasty (the family name of this dynasty was Yi). Two of Yi Kyang-gun’s great-grandsons, (1) Yi Kyŏng-yun and (2) Yi Yŏng-yun, were painters and were influenced by the Chinese Zhe school . Yi Kyŏng-yun’s son, (3) Yi Ching, a court painter, also worked in the Zhe school tradition. Two other sons, Yi Ch’uk (1566–1637) and Yi Wi-guk (b 1597), had the reputation of being good calligraphers.

(b 1545; d 1611).

As a direct descendant of King Sŏngjong in the fourth generation, he was not allowed to sit any examinations. He did, however, achieve the title of nobility of Hangnim-su (senior fourth rank) and later gained promotion to Hangnim-jŏng (senior third rank). The artist used both titles as sobriquets. Contemporary texts reflect his reputation as a painter. Thus, Yi Myŏng-han (...



Burglind Jungmann



Alice R. M. Hyland

[T’ang Yin; zi Bohu; hao Ziwei, Liuru]

(b Suzhou, April 6, 1470; d Suzhou, Jan 7, 1524).

Chinese painter, poet and calligrapher. He was born into the merchant class of Suzhou, where his father was a restaurateur, and although lacking social standing, he received an excellent education. He was a brilliant student and became the protégé of Wen Lin (1445–99), the father of Wen Zhengming. His friends in Suzhou scholarly circles included Shen Zhou, Wu Kuan (1436–1504) and Zhu Yunming. In 1498 Tang Yin came first in the provincial examinations in Nanjing, the second stage in the civil service examination ladder. The following year he went to Beijing to sit the national examinations, but he and his friend Xu Jing (d 1507) were accused of bribing the servant of one of the chief examiners to give them the examination questions in advance. All parties were jailed, and Tang Yin returned to Suzhou in disgrace, his justifiably high hopes for a distinguished civil service career dashed forever....


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[Liu Yung; hao Shi’an]

(b Zhucheng, Shandong Province, 1720; d Beijing, 1805).

Chinese calligrapher and scholar–official. The son of a Grand Secretary, he passed the civil-service examination to become a jinshi in 1751, then progressed from one official post to the next, working his way up through the ranks of government administration. Although there are no works extant from his early years, most texts report that Liu studied the works of Zhao Mengfu first, and then, in middle age, those of Dong Qichang and Su Shi. As a follower of Zhao and Dong, the standard models of the day, Liu is often categorized as a calligrapher of the Copybook (tie) school (see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (vii)).

Liu spoke out courageously against Heshen (1750–99), the corrupt guardsman who from about 1775 held sway over the Qianlong emperor and so abused his power that the Qing court slid into decline. Liu is thus traditionally respected as a figure of honesty and integrity, and some critics say that these qualities are reflected in his calligraphy. His best works, generally in small regular script (...


Yi Sŏng-mi

[cha Ch-ŏngji ; ho Pihaedang , Maejuk-hŏn , Nanggan-kŏsa ]

(b 1418; d 1453).

Korean calligrapher, painter, poet and collector . Also known as Prince Anp’yŏng, he was the third son of King Sejong . His talents in poetry, painting and calligraphy earned him the title of ‘three excellences’. He sponsored many gatherings of scholars, poets and artists in his studio and became the major patron of An Kyŏn , who painted the famous Dream Visit to the Peach Blossom Land (1447; Tenri, Cent. Lib.) based on a dream that Yi Yŏng had related to him. Prince Anp’yŏng’s collection of Korean and Chinese paintings must have served as inspiration for many contemporary painters. Its contents are known thanks to the Hwagi (‘Notes on painting’) section of the statesman Sin Suk-ju’s Pohanjae chip (‘Collected writings of Pohanjae [Sin Suk-ju]’). This is a valuable record, unique in that no other catalogue of painting collections of the Chosŏn period is known. The Hwagi lists 189 paintings and 33 items of calligraphy, mainly by Chinese painters and calligraphers of the Song (...


(b Seoul, 1861; d Seoul, 1905).

Korean calligrapher and painter. Born into the Min household, a distinguished and influential family during the period of King Kojong (reg 1864–1907), he held a number of high-ranking government posts, reaching the position of Grand Chamberlain in 1905. However, he strongly opposed the Protection Treaty concluded with force by Japan in that year and committed suicide. As well as being an accomplished calligrapher, he excelled in painting bamboos and orchids in Chinese ink, but few of his works survive....