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Douglass Shand-Tucci

(b Hampton Falls, NH, Dec 16, 1863; d Boston, Sept 22, 1942).

American architect and writer. Cram was the leading Gothic Revival architect in North America in the first half of the 20th century, at the head of an informal school known as the Boston Gothicists, who transformed American church design.

In 1881 Cram was apprenticed to the firm of Rotch & Tilden in Boston. His letters on artistic subjects to the Boston Transcript led to his appointment as the journal’s art critic by the mid-1880s. In 1886 he began his first European tour. In 1888 he founded the firm of Cram & Wentworth with Charles Wentworth (1861–97). With the arrival of Bertram Goodhue, the firm became Cram, Wentworth & Goodhue in 1892, and in 1899 Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, with Frank Ferguson (1861–1926) having joined the office as business and engineering partner following the death of Wentworth.

Cram was strongly influenced both by the philosophies of John Ruskin...


(b London, Sept 13, 1879; d Acton, April 8, 1974).

English historian of Islamic architecture. Born in modest circumstances, Creswell attended Westminster School, where he was active in science and mathematics, and the City and Guilds Technical College at Finsbury, where he studied electrical engineering. He became fascinated with the Orient and specifically the Islamic world, gathering systematic notes on every known monument. In 1913 and 1914 his first publications dealt with domes in Iran, concentrating on their ‘origin’ and ‘evolution’, two terms that became essential concerns of his later work. He applied for a job in the Archaeological Survey of India, but World War I intervened, and he went to Egypt in April 1916 as a member of the Royal Flying Corps. In July 1919 he was appointed Inspector of Monuments in the area (occupied by the British Army) that had formerly been Ottoman territory. With the forceful energy that stayed with him until his early nineties, he traversed Syria and Palestine, measuring buildings, recording their condition and photographing them. Out of his Syrian experience, Creswell made plans for a history of the Muslim architecture of Egypt, and after his demobilization found a patron in Fuاad I (...


Sheila Harvey

(b Banbury, Oxon, Sept 15, 1901; d June 30, 1997).

English landscape architect and writer. She attended Swanley Horticultural College in 1920–22 to study fruit farming, but after travelling through Italy she was inspired to design gardens. After returning to England in 1926, she became a pupil of the landscape gardener Edward White (1876–1952) and also worked for Cutbush Nurseries, Barnet, in 1939. From 1945 she practised landscape architecture in London with the assistance of Brenda Colvin. Small projects eventually led to her appointment as landscape consultant to the new towns of Harlow and Basildon (1948–58) and the Central Electricity Generating Board (1948–68). In 1964 she became the Forestry Commission’s first landscape consultant, a post she held until 1976 and where her work broke new ground. Crowe regarded aesthetic and ecological principles as inseparable and she believed that forestry planting should relate to land form. As a result of her influence at the Forestry Commission, landscape considerations were taken into account whenever land was acquired, so that natural rather than artificial boundaries would be used. In ...


J. M. Richards

(b Yorks, Aug 9, 1914; d Aug 11, 1994).

English writer and urban planning consultant. He studied architecture at the Polytechnic of Central London and subsequently worked as a draughtsman in various architects’ offices including that of Berthold Lubetkin and Tecton, but he never qualified or practised as an architect. From 1944 to 1946 he worked in the planning office of the Development and Welfare Department in Barbados, then returned to London and joined the Architectural Review, first as a draughtsman and then as a writer on planning policies and principles. He produced a large number of influential editorial features and case studies on the theory of planning and the design of towns, including criticism of the disregard by local planning authorities of aesthetic and other considerations. Many improvements in the urban and rural environment in Britain during the 1950s and 1960s were due to his influence. The features consisted largely of drawings that conveyed a particularly clear understanding of his ideas, and these had a considerable influence on subsequent architectural illustration styles. He also illustrated several books by other authors. Cullen became a freelance writer and consultant in ...


E. Errington

(b London, Jan 23, 1814; d London, Nov 28, 1893).

British archaeologist, numismatist and engineer. He obtained an Indian cadetship in 1828 through the patronage of Sir Walter Scott and received his commission as Second Lieutenant, Bengal Engineers, in 1831. After training at Addiscombe and Chatham, he was sent to India in 1833. Friendship with James Prinsep encouraged an immediate interest in Indian antiquities and led to his excavation of the Sarnath stupa (1835–6). After three years with the Sappers at Calcutta, Delhi and Benares (Varanasi), he was appointed an aide-de-camp (1836–40) to Lord Auckland. A geographical mission (July–September 1839) to trace the sources of the Punjab rivers in Kashmir provided access to the antiquities of the region. While Executive Engineer to Muhammad ‛Ali Shah, the ruler of Avadh (1840–42), he discovered the Buddhist site of Sankasya (Sankisa).

As a field engineer, he saw action during the Bundelkund rebellion (1842), at Punniar (...


(b Soignies [Hainault], nr Brussels, Oct 23, 1695; d Munich, April 14, 1768).

French architect of Flemish origin, active in Bavaria. A discriminating and imaginative artist, he successfully imported the Parisian Rococo, at the height of its popularity, into the Munich area: his glittering adaptations of French ideas far surpass the original models. In the 18th and 19th centuries de Cuvilliés’s work was known chiefly from collections of his ornamental designs, which were made between 1738 and 1768.

At the age of 11, de Cuvilliés entered the service of Maximilian II Emanuel (reg 1679–1726), exiled Elector of Bavaria, as a court dwarf and was educated by him. In 1714 he returned with Maximilian to Munich, where he was taught mathematics and fortification design. In 1715 he was appointed draughtsman to the Bavarian Director General of Building, Graf Ferdinand von der Wahl. Two years later he served as an ensign in the Bavarian army, apparently in the position of a fortifications engineer. During ...


(b 1838; d ?London, 1913).

English architect and designer. He studied under the architect James Kellaway Colling (c. 1815–1905), an expert on Gothic architecture, and spent several years as assistant to Matthew Digby Wyatt, who at the time was working on the then India Office (1867–8), Whitehall, London. Davis was a designer of architectural ornament, furniture, wallpaper, textiles, ironwork and ceramics, and in 1870 some of his designs were published in Building News. For James Shoolbred & Co., London (fl 1870–1900s), he designed furniture in the medieval, Jacobean, Stuart, Louis XVI and Japanese styles and in the style of Robert Adam and James Adam, illustrated in the company’s catalogue Designs of Furniture … and Interior Decoration (1876). A selection of furniture designed by Davis and manufactured by Shoolbred was shown at the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876. In 1885 he published Art and Work, which contains 85 lithographic plates of ornament for marble, stone and terracotta and designs for furniture, ceramics, metalwork and textiles, accompanied by notes on the design sources; among the plates are several after drawings, previously unpublished, by the ...


Anne van Loo

(b Brussels, Dec 17, 1890; d Brussels, June 24, 1985).

Belgian architect, urban planner, writer and teacher. He studied at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels and then built several houses (1912–13) in the Rue Marcel Liétard, Brussels, including his own, that were inspired by English domestic architecture. During World War I he was a prisoner in Germany, where he built a commemorative monument in the prison camp at Munsterlager and wrote a book on the formation and reconstruction of Ypres (1918). De Ligne became an important architect of the modern movement in Belgium and was one of the few Modernists to write on the history of towns and study their development. From 1919 to 1921 he built the garden city of Zaventem and several private houses, as well as garden city suburbs at Auderghem and Woluwe-Saint-Pierre, Brussels. Other major works included a prize-winning entry (1927; with J. Hendricks) to the international competition for the Palace of the League of Nations, Geneva; a dispensary (...


Hakon Lund

[Lauritz] (Lauridsen)

(b Århus, March 4, 1706; d Copenhagen, Sept 5, 1759).

Danish architect and architectural historian. He trained as a military engineer and served in the Engineers’ Corps from 1725. With the financial support of King Frederick IV, he departed in 1729 on a tour to Germany, Italy, France, Holland and England in order to study civil architecture. He returned to Denmark in 1731 and began work on the Royal Palace in Roskilde, demonstrating his familiarity with south German and Austrian Baroque architecture. In 1733 he became a court architect and in 1735 was entrusted with the royal building on Zealand and Lolland-Falster. His most important projects of this period were the repeated rebuilding of and extensions (1733–44) to the Hirschholm Castle (destr.), north of Copenhagen. He appears here to have used ideas gathered in France and Germany, without giving the impression of eclecticism.

In 1736, when the interiors of Christiansborg Castle in Copenhagen (begun in 1731 under the supervision of ...


Ryszard Brykowski

Church dedicated to St Michael at Dȩbno in the province of Nowy Sa̧cz, southern Poland. The 15th-century wooden church at Dȩbno has interested art historians since the middle of the 19th century; the stencilled paintings that decorate the interior were then regarded as an expression of ‘Slavonic taste’; soon afterwards the monument was defined as ‘a work in the pointed arch style’. In the 1920s it was included in the ‘Tatra Highlands group of wooden churches’ and regarded as the most characteristic and earliest example of a medieval wooden church in Poland.

A church was first mentioned on the site in 1335. Most of the present church is now dated to the second half of the 15th century: the curtain arch surmounting the south door is typical of Saxon architecture of the period, and the paintings are independently dated c. 1500. The nave and the chancel are both rectangular with a narrow sacristy north of the chancel. The spacing of the roof rafters with collar-beams corresponds to the width of the chancel, creating ‘plank-boxes’ on the sides of the wider nave, a structural solution typical of wooden Gothic church architecture in Little Poland. The lap joints and dowels survive, with the incised carpenter’s marks. Also original are the beam-framed ceiling, the same height in the nave and chancel; the ornate rood-screen; the western choir gallery; the west door and the door leading to the sacristy, both with pointed arches, and the south door; and a window with a curtain arch in the east wall of the chancel....



Robert W. Gaston

Principle of appropriateness, controlling composition, representation and location in the visual arts. Decorum may determine that a pictorial or sculptural subject is suitable for an architectural setting, such as Vulcan’s forge over a fireplace, or that kinds of buildings are fitting in urban or rural contexts or appropriate for persons of certain status. Liturgical functions influenced by decorum dictate the placement of paintings, mosaics and sculpture in religious buildings. In narrative painting, graphic art and sculpture, decorum affects how the protagonists dress, gesture and move, the intensity of their emotional expression, their facial or physical types and skin colour, the identifying attributes given the figures, their numbers, scale and proximity to sacred personages if they are the artist or patron and the historicity of the landscape or architectural settings.

Changing devotional and theological considerations also regulated these details. Compare, for example, the suppression of physical suffering in depictions of Christ’s Passion in Early Christian art and its accentuation in brutal martyrdoms painted for Catholic patrons in Counter-Reformation Italy. The display of the Christ child’s genitals in Italian Renaissance painting was sanctioned by Incarnation theology, but ...


Claudia Bölling

(b Gladbeck, Aug 30, 1920).

German architect, teacher and writer. After serving in the German army, he studied architecture (1946–8) at the Technische Hochschule, Stuttgart, under Richard Döcker and Rolf Gutbrod (b 1910), remaining there as a lecturer until 1951. In that year he formed a partnership with Heinrich Bartmann (Bartmann & Deilmann) in Münster, but it was his second partnership (1953–5) with Architektenteam, a group of architects in Münster including Max Clemens von Hausen (b 1919), Ortwin Rave (b 1921) and Werner Ruhnau, that brought him professional recognition. In 1954 the group won the competition for the new Stadttheater (1954–6), Münster, whose asymmetrical, informal planning and setting embody a deliberate move away from the formal architecture of the Third Reich. Built of glass and concrete, the front façade demonstrates the idea of exposing the theatre-goer to the street, with auditorium and stage both clearly expressed on the exterior elevations. Part of the old theatre wall was incorporated into the foyer of the new building as a memorial, a characteristic device of post-World War II German architecture, the most prominent example being Egon Eiermann’s Kaiser-WilhelmGedächtniskirche (...


Claire Baines

(b Paris, 1734; d Paris, Oct 11, 1789).

French decorative designer, engraver and architect. In 1747 he was apprenticed to the sculptor Jean-Baptiste Poullet (d 1775), but he seems not to have completed his apprenticeship. By 1767 he styled himself ‘architecte et professeur pour le dessin’. In 1768 he published the first volume of his most important work, the Nouvelle iconologie historique. It contains 110 plates, nearly all engraved by Delafosse himself, with designs for furniture, decorative objects and architectural ornament in the heavy, classicizing, Louis XVI style. In addition, each design bears a particular, usually complex, symbolic or iconological meaning, pertaining to an almost encyclopedic range of subject-matter. In some of his designs he manipulated abstract shapes in new ways, using such forms as truncated columns, cones, pyramids, spheres, discs and rectangles, sometimes carefully shaded to appear simultaneously three-dimensional and flat. His compositional methods were characteristic of the most revolutionary architectural designs of the period, such as those of Etienne-Louis Boullée and Claude-Nicolas Ledoux. In these images he used discrepancies of size, employing Piranesi’s device of juxtaposing tiny human figures with immense architectural elements, sometimes heavily rusticated to emphasize the contrast further; reversals of weight and balance; and spatial ambiguities, playing off three-dimensional objects against two-dimensional shapes. He divorced familiar architectural elements—the base of a column, a pediment, a single Ionic volute—from their usual functions and placed them in new and witty contexts....


Paul Gerbod

(b Paris, Feb 26, 1781; d Versailles, July 12, 1863).

French writer and painter. The son of the architect Jean-Baptiste Delécluze, in 1796 he entered the studio of Charles Moreau (1762–1810), who introduced him to Jacques-Louis David. He tried to make a career as a painter between 1808 and 1814, exhibiting pictures, such as The Rape of Europa (exh. Salon 1808) and Augustus and Cinna (exh. Salon 1814; Barnard Castle, Bowes Mus.), that show his loyalty to the Neo-classical school. He also produced three watercolours depicting the events of 1814 (Versailles, Château).

In 1815 Delécluze abandoned painting in favour of writing art criticism. After travelling in Italy and England, he wrote his first article, published in the Lycée français, and he subsequently wrote an account of the Salon of 1822 in the Moniteur universel. In November 1822 he wrote an obituary of Antonio Canova for the Journal des débats and continued to contribute to that newspaper until his death. He wrote for several other journals, including ...


Jean-Pierre Babelon


(b Lyon, March 2, 1591; d ?Paris, before Oct 8, 1661).

French mathematician, engineer and theorist. He settled at an early age in Paris, where he associated with such intellectuals as Marin Mersenne and Etienne Pascal; the latter’s son, Blaise Pascal, claimed to be Desargues’s disciple and was interested in his geometry of conic sections. Desargues was particularly interested in building techniques that involved the application of scientific knowledge, for example for the draught of chimneys, on which he corresponded with Mersenne and René Descartes, and lifting pumps, the subject of a proposal approved by the city of Paris in 1626, in which a series of fountains to clean the streets was planned. In 1636 he published a treatise on perspective, but he subsequently concentrated on architecture, including a design proposal for the Hôtel de Ville, Lyon. He also became interested in stonecutting (stereotomy), publishing a treatise on the subject in 1640. He used this specialized knowledge when building staircases, which were greatly admired by his contemporaries. Examples (all destr.) include the stairs of the north wing in the courtyard of the château of Vizille, Isère (...


Françoise Hamon

(b Nov 1653; d Paris, May 1728).

French architect and theorist. He figures as a draughtsman of plans in the Comptes des Bâtiments du Roi from the age of 16. He may have taken part in the competition to invent a French order of architecture in 1672, before being sent to Rome on a royal bursary. He spent his two-year stay there recording ancient architecture. On his return, at the request of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, he published Les Edifices antiques de Rome dessinés et mesurés très exactement (1682). For this work he was formally congratulated by the Académie and rewarded with the sum of 2,000 livres. Claude Perrault used the variations noted by Desgodets in the proportions of the Classical orders as a basis for his theory that the canons of the orders were subject to free interpretation.

The Edifices antiques was reprinted in 1779, and Desgodets’s work is today regarded as the beginning of modern scientific ...


Francesco Paolo Fiore and Pietro C. Marani

(Pollaiolo) [Francesco di Giorgio]

(b Siena, bapt Sept 23, 1439; d Siena, bur Nov 29, 1501).

Italian architect, engineer, painter, illuminator, sculptor, medallist, theorist and writer. He was the most outstanding artistic personality from Siena in the second half of the 15th century. His activities as a diplomat led to his employment at the courts of Naples, Milan and Urbino, as well as in Siena, and while most of his paintings and miniatures date from before 1475, by the 1480s and 1490s he was among the leading architects in Italy. He was particularly renowned for his work as a military architect, notably for his involvement in the development of the Bastion, which formed the basis of post-medieval fortifications (see Military architecture & fortification, §III, 2(ii) and 4(ii)). His subsequent palace and church architecture was influential in spreading the Urbino style, which he renewed with reference to the architecture of Leon Battista Alberti but giving emphasis to the purism of smooth surfaces. His theoretical works, which include the first important Western writings on military engineering, were not published until modern times but were keenly studied in manuscript, by Leonardo da Vinci among others; they foreshadowed a number of developments that came to fruition in the 16th century (...


Mary M. Tinti

Architecture, design and conceptual art partnership. Diller Scofidio + Renfro [Diller + Scofidio] was formed in 1979 by Elizabeth Diller (b Lodz, Poland, 1954) and Ricardo Scofidio (b New York, NY, 1935) as an interdisciplinary design practice based in New York.

Diller studied at the Cooper Union School of Architecture in New York (BArch, 1979) and then worked as an Assistant Professor of Architecture (1981–90) at the Cooper Union School of Architecture, becoming Associate Professor of Architecture at Princeton University in 1990. Scofidio, who also attended Cooper Union (1952–5), obtained his BArch from Columbia University (1960) and became Professor of Architecture at Cooper Union in 1965. In 1997 Charles Renfro joined the firm and was made partner in 2004, at which point the partnership changed its name to Diller Scofidio + Renfro. While the couple (who are married) initially eschewed traditional architectural projects in favor of installations, set design and landscape design, by the 21st century their firm had received commissions for both new buildings and renovations of existing architecture. Diller and Scofidio were the first architects to receive a MacArthur Foundation fellowship (...


Allan Doig

(b Utrecht, Aug 30, 1883; d Davos, Switzerland, March 7, 1931).

Dutch painter, architect, designer and writer. He was officially registered as the son of Wilhelm Küpper and Henrietta Catharina Margadant, but he was so convinced that his mother’s second husband, Theodorus Doesburg, was his father that he took his name. Little is known of his early life, but he began painting naturalistic subjects c. 1899. In 1903 he began his military service, and around the same time he met his first wife, Agnita Feis, a Theosophist and poet. Between about 1908 and 1910, much influenced by the work of Honoré Daumier, he produced caricatures, some of which were later published in his first book De maskers af! (1916). Also during this period he painted some Impressionist-inspired landscapes and portraits in the manner of George Hendrik Breitner. Between 1914 and 1915 the influence of Kandinsky became clear in such drawings as Streetmusic I and Streetmusic II (The Hague, Rijksdienst Beeld. Kst) and other abstract works....


Andrei Doicescu

(b Brăila, Jan 8, 1902; d Bucharest, May 10, 1981).

Romanian architect, urban planner, theorist and teacher. He trained (1925–32) at the High School of Architecture and at the Academy of Fine Arts, Bucharest. In 1936–9 he was responsible for extensive development projects in Bucharest, including those for the integration into the city of such new areas as the Herastrau residential quarter, Baneasa housing estate and Cotroceni Avenue. He also contributed to the design of important buildings, such as the Village Museum (1936), and designed Mioritza Fountain, Mioritza Fountain Square (1936), all in Bucharest. In the late 1930s he travelled in Italy, particularly Tuscany, where he found affinities with his own approach to architecture in the restrained use of decoration to achieve natural light effects on surfaces, in the flat roofs and in the subtle handling of materials. Doicescu developed an architectural style characterized by simple volumes adapted to environmental and functional requirements, revealing a sensitivity in his use of materials and rejecting any artificial assimilation of the International Style or the highly decorative Byzantine Revival tradition in Romanian architecture. In ...