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Article

Federica Toniolo

(fl c. 1471–1508).

Italian painter and illuminator. He may be identifiable with a certain ‘Laurum de sancto Johanne de Padua’ documented in 1482 in Rome as having given a professional opinion on the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican Palace. In 1508 Bartolomeo Sanvito possessed two works executed by Lauro for the opening hours of a Book of Hours or the Office, which would seem to suggest that he was active as an illuminator. Documentary evidence indicates that Lauro was familiar with Mantegna’s Paduan works and that he worked with Giovanni Bellini at least before his visit to Rome. The main source for the reconstruction of Lauro’s oeuvre is Marcantonio Michiel, who mentioned an altarpiece (1468–71; untraced) in S Maria della Carità, Venice, by Giovanni Bellini, dedicated to St John the Evangelist, with a predella painted by Lauro Padovano. A panel representing the Legend of Drusiana (Berchtesgaden, Schlossmus.) has been identified as belonging to the Carità predella and its style was used as the basis for a catalogue of Lauro’s works until its recent attribution to Leonardo Bellini. Two panels depicting the ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

[Paganus, Matthaeus; Pagano, Matheo]

(fl 1530–59).

Italian fabric designer, and the author of a series of pattern books (all published in by his own press in Venice) for floral and geometrical designers in cutwork, lace (including punto in aria) and reticella. His books include Giardinetto nuovo di punti tagliati (1542, eight editions by 1558...

Article

(fl 1597–1616).

Italian author of pattern books for lacis and needle lace, including Studio delle virtuose dame (Rome, 1597 /R London 1884), Pretiosa gemma delle virtuose donne (Rome 1600–01 /R Venice 1879) and Teatro delle nobili et virtuose donne doue si rappre sentano varij disegni di lauori (Rome ...

Article

Thomas Tolley

[Jean de Paris; Master of Charles VIII]

(b ?1450–60; d Paris, after April 5, 1530).

French painter, illuminator, sculpture designer and architect. The most celebrated and best-documented French artist of his time, Perréal was painter and valet de chambre to three kings of France, Charles VIII, Louis XII and Francis I. In the earliest reliable document to mention him, of 1485, he was a resident of Lyon and painted two escutcheons for use during the celebrations for the entry of Charles of Bourbon into the city. Throughout his career he devoted considerable time to designing props for staging such ceremonial events. Perréal visited Italy on at least four occasions and recorded that he studied ancient remains there. In 1514 he was sent to England to negotiate the marriage of Louis XII and his second wife, Mary Tudor, and to ensure that her wardrobe conformed to French taste. According to Dupont, a portrait of Louis XII in the British Royal Collection (Windsor Castle, Berks) was painted by Perréal and brought to England at this time. Considered by Sterling to be a copy, this portrait is one of few panels that can still be associated with Perréal, who during his lifetime was highly praised for his abilities as a portrait painter....

Article

(fl 1496–1524).

Italian illuminator. He was one of the last great Renaissance illuminators active in Naples and worked in the service of Andrea Matteo III, Duca di Atri. A number of manuscripts known to have been in the Duke’s collection are attributed both to him and to his followers. Between 1496 and 1504 he decorated a copy of Seneca’s Epistulae morales (Vienna, Österreich. Nbib., Cod. Phil. lat. 7). Dating to the beginning of the 16th century and the most splendid of his commissions for Andrea Matteo is the Ethics of Aristotle (Vienna, Österreich. Nbib., Cod. Phil. gr. 4). The frontispiece to each of the ten books is elaborately decorated with scenes synthesizing the content of each book, as well as with mythological scenes and figures; the iconography was almost certainly directed by the Duke. On the frontispiece of the sixth book are inscribed the initials r. f., probably ‘Reginaldus fecit’, and on fol. 80 of the same book the artist signed his name in full. Piramo’s work draws on a number of diverse influences; his classicizing style owes much to the Paduan school, while Ferrarese and Netherlandish–Neapolitan influences may also be noted. Towards the end of his career Piramo returned to Monópoli, in Apulia. In ...

Article

Rafael Moreira

(fl 1547; d Évora, 1569).

Portuguese architect. He is earliest recorded in 1547 as a frequenter of bookshops in Lisbon, defending the humanist André de Resende (1498–1573) and the royal bookseller João de Borgonha in a chance argument in the street against the grammarian Fernando Oliveira, who was suspected of Protestant leanings. The fact that the subject of the quarrel was the Tratado da esfera by Pedro Nunes (1541) shows that Pires was no stranger to cosmography and geometry. The first work attributable to Pires was in fact an exercise in mathematical proportion, the church of Bom Jesus at Valverde, 10 km south of Évora. Local tradition assigns the work to Pires’s lifelong patron, the Cardinal-Infante Henrique, Archbishop of Évora and later King Henry, suggesting a close collaboration between the two men. Work must have begun soon after the foundation of the Capuchin monastery at the site in 1544, although the name of Pires only appears in ...

Article

Laura Suffield

[Christopher]

(b ?nr Tours, c. 1520; d Antwerp, July 1, 1589).

Flemish printer, publisher and bookbinder of French origin. He was apprenticed c. 1545–6 as a bookbinder to the bookseller and bookbinder Robert Macé II (fl 1522–46) in Caen, where he also married. He moved briefly to Paris and in 1549 travelled to Antwerp, where he became a citizen the following year and worked as a bookbinder until an accident to his arm in 1555 prevented him from practising his trade. He was granted a privilege to work as a printer in February 1555, the year in which his first book appeared, Giovanni Michele Bruto’s L’Institution d’une fille de noble maison, printed for Joannes Bellerus. An edition of Seneca’s Flores (1555) was the first to incorporate Plantin’s famous colophon of a pair of compasses. Between 1555 and 1562 his press produced 169 editions; however, the discovery of a Calvinistic text at his press in 1562 resulted in the seizure and sale of all his goods and his removal to Paris. He returned in ...

Article

Marco Collareta

(b Mantua, July 10, 1533; d Ferrara, Feb 26, 1611).

Italian writer. He entered the Jesuit Order in 1559, and was an energetic teacher, diplomat and campaigner against heretics. He also wrote a great many books, the outstanding works being the Moscovia (1586), important for information on the Russia of that time, and the Bibliotheca selecta (1593), a broad and systematic treatise on divine and human sciences. The 17th book of the Bibliotheca selecta deals with poetry and painting. Like other parts of the work, it was published on its own (1595), with additions and under the title Tractatio de poesi et pictura ethnica, humana et fabulosa collata cum vera, honesta et sacra. Possevino was convinced of the close affinity between poetry and painting and believed that painters must have a wide literary and scientific education. He referred to the major ancient and modern writers on painting, providing the first attempt at a critical bibliography on the subject. The theological and moral correctness of images interested him intensely. The ...

Article

Enrica Banti

[Preda]

Italian family of artists. The family is first documented in Lombardy in 1467 and was repeatedly cited at least until 1508. Leonardo de Predis married three times and had six sons, of whom (1) Cristoforo de Predis, (2) Giovanni Ambrogio de Predis and Evangelista de Predis (b 1440–50; d 1490–91) were those mainly involved in artistic activity. Another son, Bernardino, collaborated with Giovanni Ambrogio, but no independent work by him is known. Evangelista, Cristoforo’s brother, is mentioned in a document dated 1472. He lived with Giovanni Ambrogio in the Porta Ticinese quarter of Milan, in a house where Leonardo da Vinci stayed for some time during his residence in the city. The contract for the altarpiece commissioned by the Confraternità dell’ Immacolata Concezione for S Francesco Grande, Milan, which contained Leonardo’s Virgin of the Rocks (London, N.G.), mentions him as collaborating with Leonardo and Giovanni Ambrogio.

(b...

Article

(b Bergen-Mons, Henegouwen, c. 1465; d Bruges, Jan 1529).

South Netherlandish painter. He probably came into contact with Simon Marmion, the renowned painter and book illuminator from Valenciennes, via Jacquemart Pilavaine, a publisher and illuminator in his native Bergen. Provoost married Marmion’s widow, Jeanne de Quaroube, before 1491, and it is thus assumed that Marmion was his teacher. In 1493 Provoost moved to Antwerp, a promising town for artists, where he registered as a master in the Guild of St Luke, but in 1494 he travelled to Bruges. He became a citizen there and soon played an important part in the painters’ guild. In 1506 Maximiliaen Frans (1490–1547) was his pupil. Provoost received commissions for decorative work from the town council and church authorities in 1509, 1513 and 1520, the year of the Triumphal Entry of Charles V into Bruges, for which he worked on the decorations. He returned to Antwerp the same year to meet Albrecht Dürer, who may have drawn his portrait. Dürer visited Bruges in ...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Normandy c. 1449; d London 1529/30).

Anglo-Norman printer. Pynson became a printer in London, initially as an assistant to William Caxton. In the early 1490s he succeeded William de Machlinia as the principal printer of law books in London; his press also printed an illustrated edition of Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales. On the accession of King Henry VIII in ...

Article

Celia Carrington Riely

revised by Katharine Burnett

[Tung Ch’i-ch’ang; zi Xuanzai; hao Sibo, Siweng, Xiangguang, Xiangguang jushi; Wenmin]

(b Shanghai, Feb 10, 1555; d Dec 1636).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, connoisseur, theoretician, collector, and high official.

At the age of 12 Dong Qichang, the son of a local school teacher, passed the prefectural civil-service examination to qualify as a Government Student (shengyuan) and was awarded a coveted place in the prefectural school. Mortified, however, at being ranked below his younger kinsman Dong Chuanxu because of his clumsy calligraphy, from 1571 Dong resolved to study calligraphy in earnest. His initial models were rubbings of works by the Tang-period (618–907 ce) calligraphers Yan Zhenqing and Yu Shinan (558–638), but soon realizing the superior merits of the Six Dynasties (222–589 ce) calligraphers, he turned to the works of Zhong You (151–230 ce) and the great Wang Xizhi (see Wang family (i), (1)). After three years he was confident of having grasped their style, and no longer admired works by the Ming-period (...

Article

Gordon Campbell

(b Augsburg, 1447; d Augsburg, 1527–8).

German printer. While still a child he moved to Mainz, where he trained as a printer, probably in the workshop of Johann Gutenberg . In the 1470s and early 1480s he worked as a printer in Venice, and in 1486 he accepted an invitation to return to his native Augsburg, where his workshop became the most important producer of colour printing in Germany. Ratdolt’s many innovations include the first title-page, the first type-face catalogue, the first texts of geometry and astronomy to be illustrated with diagrams and the first books with illustrations in three colours. He first printed music in ...

Article

[Raimondi, Vincenzo; Raimondo, Vincenzo]

(b ?Lodève; fl 1535; d Rome, Feb 10, 1557).

French illuminator, active in Italy. He is thought to have come from Lodève in Languedoc and worked on the decoration of liturgical manuscripts for the Sistine Chapel during the pontificates of Leo X, Clement VII and Paul III. He is the only illuminator mentioned between 1535 and 1549 in the Vatican registers of the Tesoreria secreta. Although his output must have been large, by the late 20th century little had been firmly attributed to him. One of the most important works agreed to be his is the Psalter (Paris, Bib. N., MS. lat. 8880) illuminated for Pope Paul III and dated 1542. The miniatures are minutely worked but lacking in inventiveness; he evidently borrowed freely from the work of such contemporary painters as Raphael and Michelangelo. The only full-page miniature in the Psalter, God Creating the Stars, is strikingly similar to Michelangelo’s representation of the same subject on the Sistine chapel ceiling. Most of the border motifs are taken from the decorative schemes of ...

Article

Jürgen Zimmer

(b c. 1532; d c. 1592–3).

German draughtsman, publisher, wood-engraver and painter. In 1548 he published a textbook of writing instruction and in 1551 one on arithmetic. In 1560–63 he made a model of Augsburg (Augsburg, Maximilianmus.) and in 1563 a map of the city, which was used in simplified form in the monumental Civitates orbis terrarum (1572–1618) by Georg Braun and Franz Hogenberg (fl c. 1560–c. 1590/94). His Augsburger Meilenscheibe (c. 1565, frequently reissued), a disc with a plan of Augsburg at the centre, with lists of towns and distances radiating from it, was a practical instrument for travellers from and to the most important trade and cultural centre of 16th-century central Europe and is to be seen in close conjunction with the Reissbüchlein (Augsburg, 1563) by Jörg Gail.

Rogel reproduced the works of several artists in woodcuts, for example the Geometria et perspectiva (Augsburg, 1567...

Article

Sadiqi  

S. J. Vernoit

[Ṡādiqī; Ṡādiqī Beg; Ṡādiqī Beg Afshār]

(b Tabriz, 1533–4; d Isfahan, 1609–10).

Persian calligrapher, painter, poet and chronicler. He came from a notable family of the Khudabandalu Turkmen tribe. At the age of 32 he turned to art, studying under the poet–calligrapher Mir San‛i at Tabriz; in 1568 Sadiqi moved to the Safavid capital at Qazvin, where he studied painting with Muzaffar ‛Ali. Sadiqi rose quickly in the royal atelier. The last major manuscript produced for the Safavid ruler Tahmasp (reg 1524–76), a copy (London, BL, Or. MS. 12985) of Asadi’s Garshāspnāma (‘Book of Garshasp’), dated 1573–4, has one painting (fol. 85v) attributed to Sadiqi, and he played a leading role in illustrating the incomplete copy (dispersed) of the Shāhnāma (‘Book of kings’) made for Isma‛il II (reg 1576–8). The seven paintings ascribed to Sadiqi show such characteristics of his early style as distinct colouring, hard contours, flat architecture and rigid figure drawing. During the reign of Muhammad Khudabanda (...

Article

Cristina Gonzalez

(b Sahagún, León, 1499; d Mexico, 1590).

Spanish writer, missionary, linguist, and ethnographer. Bernardino de Sahagún wrote and compiled the Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España (c. 1577), a comprehensive account of the Aztecs. Before arriving in New Spain (Mexico), he studied at the prestigious Universidad de Salamanca, one of the principle centers of culture in western Europe. He took the habit of the Franciscans while still a student. In 1529, at the invitation of friar Antonio de Ciudad Rodrigo, one of the twelve Franciscan friars to arrive in Mexico with Martín de Valencia in 1524, he sailed to New Spain as a missionary. In Mexico City he witnessed the ruins of the Templo Mayor and, according to friar Juan de Torquemada, commissioned a painting of the site and sent it to Spain. He was custodian of the monastery in Tlalmanalco and also resided at the monastery in Xochimilco before becoming a teacher of classics and history at the trilingual imperial Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco in ...

Article

Christopher L. C. E. Witcombe

(Martínez [Martini; Martino] de)

(b ?Salamanca, Spain, 1478; d Rome, 5 July, 1562).

Spanish book and print publisher, active in Italy. Salamanca was in Rome by 1519 when he published Amadis de Gaula. Subsequently he published Ordo perpetuus divini officii secundu[m] Romana[m] Curia[m] (1520; printed by Antonio Blado), Esplandian (1525), La Celestina (c. 1525; with Jacopo Giunta), Antonio de Guevara’s Libro aureo de Marco Aurelio (1531), a Quignon Breviary (1535; with Giunta and Blado), Hernando da Salazar’s Las yglesias & indulgentias de Roma (1539), Las obras de Boscan (1547), a writing manual (1548; printed by the Dorico brothers) and Juan de Valverde’s Historia de la composicion del cuerpo humano (1556; with Antoine Lafréry). In 1538 he began also to publish prints. His address, often abbreviated (Ant. Sal. exc.), appears on the second or later state of over 250 prints. Of this number, at least 150 are by ...

Article

Article

Federica Toniolo

(b Padua, 1435 or 1438; d Padua, after 1518).

Italian scribe and illuminator. He was also the most important humanist scribe in Padua, whose monumental epigraphic style was influential also in Rome and Naples. He is first documented as ‘scriptor’ at the end of the 1450s in Padua, where he was in contact with academic circles and in particular with Bernardo Bembo (1422–1519), a Venetian patrician, who in those years was a student in Padua and for whom Sanvito produced splendid manuscripts (e.g. the Oratio gratulatoria, London, BL, Add. MS. 14787). In these, as in other works executed in Padua in the late 1450s and early 1460s, script and decoration were revived in a humanist and antiquarian vein, aimed at recreating the Classical codex. From 1469 to 1501 Sanvito was in Rome at the papal court, where he transcribed numerous books, some signed with the monogram b.s., for such illustrious patrons as the humanist Bartolomeo Sacchi or il Platina (...