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Article

Betsy Fahlman

(Henry Buckius)

(b Lancaster, PA, Nov 8, 1883; d Lancaster, Oct 23, 1935).

American painter and illustrator. He was deeply attached to Lancaster, where his family had run a tobacco shop since 1770. Although not a Regionalist, Demuth maintained a strongly localized sense of place, and Lancaster provided him with much of the characteristic subject-matter of both his early and later work. He trained in Philadelphia at the Drexel Institute of Art, Science and Industry (1901–5) and at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (1905–11), where his teachers included Thomas Anshutz, Henry McCarter (1864–1942), Hugh Breckenridge (1870–1937) and William Merritt Chase. While still a student, he participated in a show at the Academy (1907), exhibiting his work publicly for the first time.

Demuth was one of the first American artists to be receptive to modernism, to which he was exposed during several extensive and significant trips to Europe in 1907–8, 1912–14 and ...

Article

Ester Coen

(b Fondo, Val di Non, Trentino, March 30, 1892; d Rovereto, Nov 29, 1960).

Italian painter, stage designer, illustrator, decorative artist and writer. After difficult years of study, during which he made his first artistic experiments, he travelled to Turin in 1910 and worked as an apprentice decorator at the Esposizione Internazionale. In spite of spending a year as apprentice to a marble-worker, on his return to Rovereto, he decided to become a painter, choosing subjects associated with Symbolism and social realism. Shortly after publishing Spezzature–Impressioni: Segni e ritmi (Rovereto, 1913), a collection of poetry, prose and illustrations, he moved to Rome, where he met Filippo Tommaso Marinetti at the Galleria Permanente Futurista, run by Giuseppe Sprovieri; through Marinetti he met the Futurists, with whom he exhibited at the same gallery in the spring of 1914 (see Furttenbach [Furtenbach; Furttembach], Josef [Joseph], the elder). This was followed by a one-man show at Trento in July 1914, which closed after a few days because of the outbreak of World War I. He succeeded in returning to Rome, where he was officially welcomed into the ...

Article

Jane Lee

(b Chatou, nr Paris, June 17, 1880; d Garches, Sept 8, 1954).

French painter, sculptor, illustrator, stage designer and collector. He was a leading exponent of Fauvism. In early 1908 he destroyed most of his work to concentrate on tightly constructed landscape paintings, which were a subtle investigation of the work of Cézanne. After World War I his work became more classical, influenced by the work of such artists as Camille Corot. In his sculpture he drew upon his knowledge and collection of non-Western art.

Derain abandoned his engineering studies in 1898 to become a painter and attended the Académie Carrière. He also sketched in the Musée du Louvre and painted on the banks of the Seine. On a visit to the Louvre in 1899 he met the painter Georges Florentin Linaret (1878–1905), who had been his companion at school, and who was copying Uccello in an extraordinary manner; he was studying under Gustave Moreau and later introduced Derain to a fellow pupil, Henri Matisse. Derain’s painting was already influenced by the work of Cézanne, and in ...

Article

revised by Margaret Barlow

(b Blue Earth, MN, Nov 23, 1894; d Vero Beach, FL, April 20, 1989).

American interior and industrial designer. Deskey gained a degree in architecture and studied painting before working in advertising. From 1922 to 1924 he was head of the art department at Juniata College, Huntingdon, PA. In 1921 and 1925 he made trips to Paris, where he attended the Ecole de la Grande Chaumière and the Académie Colarossi, before returning to New York in 1926 as a champion of modern art and design. In 1926–7 he created the city’s first modern window displays for the Franklin Simon and Saks Fifth Avenue department stores. In 1927 he was joined by the designer Philip Vollmer, and the partnership became Deskey–Vollmer, Inc. (to c. 1929). Deskey expanded into designing interiors, furniture, lamps, and textiles, becoming a pioneer of the Style moderne (as Art Deco was known in America). His earliest model for the interior of an apartment was shown at the American Designers’ Gallery, New York, in ...

Article

Alberto Cernuschi

(b Montauban, Sept 30, 1894; d Perpignan, July 21, 1972).

French painter, printmaker, stage designer, illustrator and tapestry designer. He was encouraged to study art by Emile-Antoine Bourdelle, to whom he showed his drawings at the age of 16, and was taught by him at the Ecole de Dessin à la Manufacture des Gobelins. From 1912 to 1914 he attended the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Montauban, and after serving in the infantry during World War I he moved to Paris, where he showed his work regularly at such exhibitions as the Salon des Indépendants and the Salon d’Automne.

Desnoyer lived and worked among the Cubists, but like the Fauves he favoured bright primary colours, marrying colour and line in landscapes, still-lifes and portraits. His debt to both movements is visible in paintings such as La Foire du Trône (1927; Paris, Pompidou). He also produced an illustrated edition of La Fontaine’s Dies Irae (Editions Mortier, 1947) and stage designs for the Opéra Comique in Paris, for example for Henri Barrand’s ...

Article

(b Mont-de-Marsan, Nov 4, 1874; d Paris, Oct 28, 1946).

French sculptor and illustrator. In 1891 he entered the Ecole des Arts Décoratifs in Paris, where he studied under the French sculptor Hector Lemaire (1846–1933). Two years later he went to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where for three years he studied under Louis-Ernest Barrias. He also frequented the Louvre and the Musée des Monuments Français, learning as much there as at the fine art schools. He first exhibited in 1898 at the Salon des Artistes Français in Paris with a bust of Joseph Biays and continued to exhibit there until 1900. In 1901 he exhibited his bust of Marc Worms (1901; Paris, Mme Cl. Michel priv. col., see 1974 exh. cat., pl. 4) at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts in Paris. He exhibited there until 1923.

Despiau’s first success at the Salon came with his bust Little Girl from Landes (1904...

Article

David Elliott

(Aleksandrovich)

(b Kursk, May 21, 1899; d Moscow, June 5, 1969).

Russian painter, graphic artist and designer. He studied at the Khar’kov Art School (1915–17), breaking off his studies to join the Red Army. By 1919 he had returned to Kursk, where he was designing the stencilled propaganda ROSTA posters that spread throughout the Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic following Mayakovsky’s original examples (see Agitprop). In 1921 he moved to Moscow and studied under Vladimir Favorsky at Vkhutemas (the Higher Artistic and Technical Workshops) until 1925. While still a student he worked on illustrations and designs for a number of new magazines such as Bezbozhnik (‘The Atheist’) or Prozhektor (‘Searchlight’).

In the mid-1920s Deyneka started to make easel paintings and became a leading member of the Society of Easel Painters (OST), which reflected advanced tendencies in representational painting rather than the literalism of the Wanderers. His major paintings of the period are The Defence of Petrograd (...

Article

Vanina Costa

(b Nogent-sur-Marne, Aug 20, 1911; d Toulon, Aug 30, 1967).

French painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He grew up in Brittany, moving to Paris to study art and advertising from 1928 to 1931. Having decided to become a painter, he worked alone until World War II at Concarneau (1930–33 and 1938–41) and Rabat, Morocco, painting landscapes and still-lifes and documenting these places and their inhabitants in a number of undated and largely untitled lithographs and linocuts (Paris, Bib. N., see Richar 1976, nos. 1–23). He lived briefly in Brittany during the war, where he studied the work and theories of Paul Sérusier after being introduced to his widow. Deyrolle, however, dated his birth as an artist to 1944, when he first exhibited abstract works at the Salon d’Automne. In Paris, where he had settled in 1942, he met other abstract painters such as Jean Dewasne and Hans Hartung through his association with the Galerie Denise René. He continued to draw on Paul Sérusier’s work, particularly in terms of figure/ground relationships, but used black outlines, not to detach figures from the background, as with Sérusier, but to create contradictory sensations of space with flat shapes in muted earth colours. In later works such spatial concerns were conveyed by rhythmic patterns of visible brushstrokes, as in ...

Article

Amanda Kavanagh

[Francis] (Bernard)

(b London, Nov 27, 1853; d London, Oct 17, 1928).

English painter and illustrator. He studied in the studio of his father, Thomas Francis Dicksee (1819–95), who painted portraits and historical genre scenes; he then entered the Royal Academy Schools, London, where he was granted a studentship in 1871. He won a silver medal for drawing from the Antique in 1872 and a gold medal in 1875 for his painting Elijah confronting Ahab and Jezebel in Naboth’s Vineyard (untraced), with which he made his début at the Royal Academy in 1876. He also began to work as an illustrator during the 1870s, contributing to Cassell’s Magazine, Cornhill Magazine, The Graphic and other periodicals. During the 1880s he was commissioned by Cassell & Co. to illustrate their editions of Longfellow’s Evangeline (1882), Shakespeare’s Othello (1890) and Romeo and Juliet (1884).

Dicksee’s paintings are executed with textural fluidity and rich orchestrations of colour. They reveal a curious blend of influences, in particular the classicism of Frederic Leighton and the abstracted idealism of G. F. Watts. His predilection for the decorative aspects of painting grew out of his studies with ...

Article

Jean E. Feinberg

(b Cincinnati, OH, June 6, 1935).

American painter, sculptor, printmaker, illustrator, performance artist, stage designer and poet. He studied art at the Cincinnati Arts Academy (1951–3) and later at the Boston Museum School and Ohio University (1954–7). In 1957 he married Nancy Minto and the following year they moved to New York. Dine’s first involvement with the art world was in his Happenings of 1959–60. These historic theatrical events, for example The Smiling Workman (performed at the Judson Gallery, New York, 1959), took place in chaotic, makeshift environments built by the artist–performer. During the same period he created his first assemblages, which incorporated found materials. Simultaneously he developed the method by which he produced his best known work—paintings, drawings, prints and sculptures that depict and expressively interpret common images and objects.

Clothing and domestic objects featured prominently in Dine’s paintings of the 1960s, with a range of favoured motifs including ties, shoes and bathroom items such as basins, showers and toothbrushes (e.g. ...

Article

Richard Cork

(b Gravesend, Kent, 1885; d London, Aug 29, 1939).

English painter and illustrator. She studied at the Slade School, London, in 1902–3, then trained under Max Bohm at Etaples and in 1910–13 at La Palette, Paris, under Jean Metzinger, John Duncan Fergusson and Dunoyer de Segonzac. As a result she developed a Fauvist style using rich impastos. She contributed several brusquely simplified illustrations to Rhythm magazine during 1911 and exhibited Fauvist canvases at the Allied Artists’ Association in 1912 and 1913. She exhibited with S. J. Peploe and Fergusson at the Stafford Gallery in 1912, but an encounter with Wyndham Lewis the following year led to a dramatic change in her work. By spring 1914 she had become an enthusiastic member of the Rebel Art Centre, and her name appeared on the list of signatures at the end of the Vorticist manifesto in the first issue of Blast magazine (1914).

Little survives of Dismorr’s Vorticist work, but her illustrations in ...

Article

Paul J. Karlstrom

(b Fresno, CA, Jan 24, 1875; d Tucson, AZ, Nov 13, 1946).

American painter, muralist and illustrator. Born on a ranch near Fresno in California’s Central Valley, he spent his early years immersed in the lore of the Old West. A frail child, he occupied his time drawing Western subjects and at one point sent his sketchbook to his idol, Western painter and sculptor Frederic Remington, who encouraged the boy’s efforts. Dixon’s family moved in 1893 to the San Francisco Bay Area, and he enrolled briefly at the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art, where he studied with Arthur F. Mathews. Dixon described Mathews’s teaching as follows: ‘His method was to pounce upon our work, so like a growling dog he scared me out of my boots.’ Except for private study with landscapist Raymond Dabb Yelland (1848–1900), Dixon was largely self-taught. After only three months at the MHIA, he went to work as an illustrator for the San Francisco dailies and the ...

Article

Marian Burleigh-Motley

(Valerianovich)

(b Novgorod, Aug 14, 1875; d New York, Nov 20, 1957).

Russian graphic artist, painter and stage designer. He first studied art from 1885 to 1887 at the School of the Society for the Encouragement of the Arts, St Petersburg, and then enrolled in St Petersburg University from where he graduated in Law in 1898. Unwilling to give up his early interest in art, in 1899 he went to Munich to study under Anton Ažbé and Simon Hollósy and met there the large colony of Russian artists, including Igor’ Grabar’. He also saw the work of German Jugendstil artists.

Dobuzhinsky returned to St Petersburg in 1901, and in 1902 he was invited by Grabar’ to join the World of Art (Mir Iskusstva) group in 1902. His first works were historical landscapes in the manner of Alexandre Benois, but he soon began to portray the specific traits of the contemporary industrialized city and its suburbs, in both paintings and prints. In Man in Glasses...

Article

Jean-Pierre de Bruyn

(b Lille, Feb 8, 1861; d Ghent, Jan 7, 1938).

Belgian painter, sculptor, illustrator, and stage designer. He studied music at the Koninklijk Muziekconservatorium and sculpture at the Gewerbeschule, Ghent (after 1877). He visited Paris in 1887 and Italy in 1890, with a grant from the city of Ghent. He was deeply impressed by the masters of the Quattrocento, and was encouraged to take up painting after meeting Constantin Meunier (1891). He painted Symbolist scenes and was influenced by Art Nouveau. After exhibiting his work with Les XX in Brussels (1893), he made decorative panels for Oostakker Castle.

As an illustrator Doudelet worked on Pol De Mont’s Van Jezus (Antwerp, 1897) and books by Maurice Maeterlinck, for example Douze chansons (Paris, 1896) and Pelléas et Mélisande (Brussels, 1892 or 1922). He illustrated the periodicals Réveil (1895–1896), De Vlaamsche school, Mercure de France, Pan, L’Eroica, Nuovo Convito, De Vlaamsche School, Woord en beeld...

Article

(b Topeka, KS, April 27, 1899; d Nashville, TN, Feb 3, 1979).

American painter and illustrator. He was a leading artist of the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s and 1930s (see African American art §I 2.). He studied at the University of Nebraska and then in Paris with Charles Despiau and Othon Friesz (1925–31). Douglas was the earliest African American artist consciously to include African imagery in his work, which emphasized the creativity and continuity of African American culture, despite slavery and segregation. He was, however, criticized by his contemporaries for his idealism. In 1934, under the sponsorship of the Public Works of Art project (see United States of America, §XII), he designed a number of murals, including four panels depicting Aspects of Negro Life for the Schomburg Library in Harlem (New York, Pub. Lib.); this work and such others as Judgment Day (1939; USA, priv. col., see exh. cat., no. 99) and Building More Stately Mansions...

Article

Colette Gaiter

(b Grand Rapids, MI, May 24, 1943).

African American graphic designer and illustrator. Douglas studied commercial art at the City College of San Francisco, learning graphic processes and techniques that allowed him to combine visual skill and message into art. He worked with the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense in the San Francisco Bay Area and, as the artist and Minister of Culture for the organization, Douglas worked on its newspaper, The Black Panther, from 1967 until it stopped production in 1978. The party’s co-founders Huey Newton and Bobby Seale, along with Eldridge Cleaver, combined alternative news and illustrations by Douglas and others to counteract mainstream media presentations of issues affecting black people and other people of colour throughout the world.

The Black Panther Party believed in art as a weapon of political empowerment and Douglas was given the title of ‘revolutionary artist’. The party’s ten-point programme demanded an end to racism’s effects on housing, employment, health, education, and incarceration. Police brutality was the primary issue in black communities that led to the party’s initial formation. Douglas’s signature cartoons in ...

Article

Barbara Haskell

(Garfield)

(b Canandaigua, NY, Aug 2, 1880; d Long Island, NY, Nov 23, 1946).

American painter. He worked as an illustrator in New York (1903–7). In 1907 he travelled to Paris and southern France, where under the influence of Henri Matisse and Paul Cézanne he experimented with a style characterized by bright colours, curvilinear rhythms and non-naturalistic representation. On his return to the USA in 1909, his association with Alfred Stieglitz began. In 1910 he moved to a farm in Westport, CT. At this time he created some of the first distinctively non-representational works produced by an American, for example the Abstractions series (all priv. cols, see Morgan, pp. 100–103). The ten pastels that he showed in his first one-man exhibition at Gallery 291 (1912) consisted of simplified, stylized motifs, the circular and saw-tooth forms of which interpenetrated and overlapped to create an organic Futurism. In them he expressed his belief that objects are not discrete, isolated entities, but active forces whose rhythms are in constant interplay with their environments....

Article

Janda Gooding

(b Perth, July 6, 1915; d Perth, May 25, 2000).

Australian painter and book illustrator. Grand-daughter of a pioneer pastoralist of the Kimberley region in Western Australia, she first saw the Kimberley in her teens and was profoundly influenced by contact with the indigenous people. Working with her sister, Mary Durack (1913–94), she produced many illustrated children’s books that drew upon the lives and stories of indigenous children. The most popular children’s book was The Way of the Whirlwind (1941). Travel to Europe in 1936 and 1937 allowed her an opportunity to see great art collections and, during another visit in 1955, she studied briefly at the Chelsea Polytechnic in London. Durack’s first solo exhibition was in 1946, with an exhibition held in Perth of pictures of the north-west of Western Australia. Indigenous people of Western Australia were prominent subjects in this and many of her later exhibitions throughout the 1950s and 1960s. She spent much time in indigenous communities sketching Aborigines in remote camps or fringe settlements near towns....

Article

Roy R. Behrens

(b Martinsville, OH, June 19, 1880; d Hingham, MA, Dec 25, 1956).

American graphic designer, typographer and puppeteer After spending most of his childhood in Richmond, IN and Zanesville, OH, he moved to Chicago to study at the Frank Holme School of Illustration. His influential teachers there were the brothers J. C. Leyendecker (1874–1951) and F. X. Leyendecker (1877–1924), who had just begun to work as cover illustrators for the Saturday Evening Post, and the typographer and letterer Frederic W. Goudy (1865–1947). In 1901 he returned to Ohio and established his own printing firm, but finding that less than successful he followed Goudy’s example and moved in 1904 to Hingham, MA near Boston, the site of an Arts and Crafts Movement community. He remained there for the rest of his life, becoming increasingly recognized for his exemplary work as a book designer, letterer, typographer, illustrator and writer. He designed, and sometimes illustrated, hundreds of books for Alfred A. Knopf, Random House, The Limited Editions Club and other publishers, including well-known renditions of Robert Louis Stevenson’s ...

Article

Margaret Moore Booker

(b Cincinnati, OH, Jan 31, 1875; d Sellersville, PA, Sept 4, 1955).

American printmaker and illustrator. Among the pioneer generation of women printmakers in America, she was known for her humorous satires of the American scene. Raised in New Orleans, she moved to San Francisco where she studied art at the Hopkins Institute (c. 1896–7) and joined the Sketch Club (a professional organization that offered exhibition and collaboration opportunities for women).

By 1903 she had settled in Greenwich Village. Three years later she married the painter and etcher Eugene Higgins (1874–1958), and set aside her career. When the marriage ended 11 years later, she became a secretary of the Whitney Studio Club (where she attended evening sketch sessions), shed her married name and traveled abroad. During a trip to Paris in 1926–7, she discovered the medium that suited her artistic temperament: lithography, and studied the technique with Edouard Dûchatel (fl 1880s–1930s) in Paris.

After returning to New York, in ...