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Ray McKenzie

(b Edinburgh, June 14, 1837; d London, Sept 30, 1921).

Scottish photographer and writer. After studying chemistry at Edinburgh University he settled on the island of Pinang, Malaysia, where he began practising as a professional photographer in 1862. Over the next 12 years he travelled extensively in the region, taking many photographs in Siam (now Thailand; see fig.), Cambodia, Vietnam and China. His subjects ranged from ethnography to antiquities, and his style is distinguished by the directness with which he represented landscapes and social practices that to his western contemporaries appeared almost fantastic. Despite acute difficulties of climate and terrain, he used the cumbersome wet collodion process, producing large-format (up to 360×480 mm) and stereographic negatives that are noted for their clarity of detail and richness of tone.

Unlike most travel photographers of his generation Thomson rarely exhibited his work, preferring the illustrated album as the medium best suited to his documentary approach. In all he produced nine such albums, varying widely both in format and reprographic process. The first, ...


Shen Fu

[Huang T’ing-chien; zi Luzhi; hao Shangu Laoren]

(b Fenning [modern Xiushui], Jiangxi Province, 1045; d Fenning, 1105).

Chinese calligrapher, poet and scholar-official. He is regarded as the avant-garde figure of the Four Great Calligraphers of the Northern Song (960–1127), who emphasized individual expression in their work; the others are Cai Xiang, Su Shi and Mi Fu (see Mi family, §1; see also China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (iv)). Huang was a calligraphy critic and an early theorist of literati painting (wenren hua; see China, People’s Republic of §V 4., (ii)) and is also acknowledged as the founder of the Jiangxi school of poetry. A member of an exceptionally cultured family of well-known poets, he became associated with individuals such as Su Shi, who at court opposed the reforms of the Chief Councillor, Wang Anshi (1021–86). As a result of political struggles between conservatives and reformers, Huang was exiled in 1094 to Fuzhou in Sichuan Province and only after this produced his most impressive calligraphy....


Julia K. Murray

[ Wang T’ing-yün ; zi Ziduan ; hao Huanghua Shanren ]

(b Xiongyue, Liaoning Province, 1151; d Beijing, 1202).

Chinese painter, calligrapher and poet. A scholar–painter who perpetuated the ideals of Su Shi and his circle, he was the most prominent artist of the Jin period (1115–1234), the alien Jürchen (Ruzhen) regime in northern China. He and his circle flourished during the reign of Zhangzong (reg 1190–1208), the cultural high point of the Jin period. Best known for his paintings after Wen Tong of bamboo, the quintessential scholar’s subject ( see China, People’s Republic of §V 3., (vi), (c) ), Wang also painted monochrome landscapes and old trees. In calligraphy, he modelled his style after Mi Fu and was most skilled in running script (xingshu). His contemporaries acclaimed him as excelling in the Three Perfections (sanjue) of poetry, calligraphy and painting.

Wang came from a prominent literati family, possibly non-Han, and passed the civil service examination to gain the title of jinshi...


Masatomo Kawai

(fl 1342–66).

Japanese painter, poet, calligrapher and Zen monk. He was a disciple of Musō Sōseki, the founder of Tenryūji in Kyoto. He went to China during the Yuan period (1279–1368) to study devotional poetry with the Chan (Zen) monk Gulin Qingmou. In addition to his Zen training, Tesshū also studied suibokuga (ink painting) (see Japan §VI 4., (iii)), and his style shows the influence of the Yuan-period painter Xuechuang Puming, who specialized in ink paintings of orchids (see China, People’s Republic of §V 3., (vi)). Tesshū’s representative work is Ranchikuzu (‘Orchids and bamboo’; Princeton U., NJ, A. Mus.), which bears an inscription by Gidō Shūshin. Other extant works include the Ransekizu (‘Orchids and rocks’; Tokyo, Gotoh Mus.) and the Roganzu (‘Reeds and wild geese’; New York, Met.). After his return to Japan in 1347 he became head of Hodaji in Awa (now Tokushima Prefect.), and in ...


Harold Mok

[Weng T’ung-ho; zi Shengjie, Renfu, Shengfu; hao Shuping, Songchan, Pingsheng, Yunzhai]

(b Changshu, Jiangsu Province, May 19, 1830; d Jul 3, 1904).

Chinese calligrapher, scholar, and official. He came first in the first category of the palace examination and earned the title of jinshi in 1856, subsequently rising to the ranks of Assistant Grand Secretary and Minister of Revenue while concurrently serving as tutor to the emperors Tongzhi (reg 1862–1874) and Guangxu (reg 1875–1908). His official career ended in 1898 when he was stripped of his ranks and sent home owing to his involvement in a short-lived reform movement that took place that same year. In the history of Chinese calligraphy, he has been noted for his steadfast adherence to the Tang tradition at a time when it was largely disregarded.

Intensely engaged as he was in his official duties, Weng took great pains to master calligraphy by diligently copying various masters and by insisting on abidance by established rules. He modeled his works successively on Ouyang Xun and Chu Suiliang...


Walter Smith

(b Jiangxi, China, July 14, 1920; d Greenbrae, CA, Dec 27, 2011).

American architect, teacher and writer. Born to American missionaries in China, Tyng graduated from Radcliffe College in 1942 and received her Masters of Architecture degree from Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, in 1944. From 1947 to 1973 she worked with Louis Kahn and was closely involved in the design of many of his buildings, notably the Yale University Art Gallery. During this time she was also Associate Consultant Architect for the Philadelphia City Planning Commission and Redevelopment Authority (1952–3) and for the Mill Creek Pennsylvania Redevelopment Plan. From 1968 she was an adjunct professor in the Graduate School of Fine Arts, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; she also taught at several other colleges, and she practised architecture independently after 1973. In 1975 Tyng received a PhD in architecture from the University of Pennsylvania. Her highly theoretical research involved the interrelations between physical, natural, and psychic structures and their architectural application. Her dissertation discusses the mathematically based Fibonacci–Divine Proportion as a matrix, ‘linking unpredictable information bits in the brain … to precise proportional mean, or “essence”’. This she related to Jung’s theories of the collective unconscious. An early independent building by Tyng, the Walworth Tyng House (...


Peter C. Sturman

[zi Mojie ]

(b near Taiyuan, Shaanxi Province, ad 701; d c. 761).

Chinese poet, painter and Musician. One of China’s greatest poets, he was also a painter at a time when relatively few men of high social position practised this art. His reputation as a painter was limited in his own time, but his unparalleled stature as a man of letters attracted the attention of scholar–official painters of subsequent periods, who celebrated Wang Wei as the founder of the literati tradition of painting ( see China, People’s Republic of §V 4., (ii) ). Born into a powerful and prestigious clan, at the age of 15 he dazzled the Tang court at Chang’an (modern Xi’an, Shaanxi Province) with his precocious skills as a poet, painter, calligrapher and musician. He passed the metropolitan examinations to receive his jinshi degree at the age of 20 and was appointed Assistant Secretary of Music. He ended his career with the high office of Right Assistant Director of the Department of State Affairs....


Xu Wei  

James Cahill

revised by Vyvyan Brunst

[Hsü Wei; zi Wenchang]

(b Shanyin [modern Shaoxing], Zhejiang Province, Mar 12, 1521; d 1593).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, essayist, poet, and dramatist. He was born to the concubine of a minor official and was reared by his father’s second wife after his father’s death. In 1540 he passed the first test leading to higher government examinations. He was married the following year and moved with his wife’s family to Guangzhou (Canton). Xu retreated to a monastery in 1550, after the deaths of his wife and stepbrothers, and attempted the higher civil service examination but failed repeatedly. While in the monastery Xu Wei turned his energies to writing and painting, producing paintings, plays, poetry, and essays on opera. His literary reputation resulted in his appointment as personal secretary to Hu Zongxian, the commander–governor of the southeast coastal provinces, a post he held until 1562, when his patron was accused of treason and imprisoned. Between 1552 and 1561 Xu Wei four times attempted the provincial examinations, the second stage in the civil service examinations, with no success. From ...


Josh Yiu

[Wang Wuxie; Wang Wu-hsieh]

(b Dongguan, Guangdong Province, 1936).

Hong Kong painter and educator of Chinese birth, active also in the USA. Born in Guangdong Province, Wucius Wong moved to Hong Kong in 1938. He joined the Modern Literature and Art Association in 1956 as an aspiring poet, but focused on painting under the tutelage of Lui Shou-kwan. From 1961 to 1965, Wong earned a BFA and MFA from the Columbus College of Art and Design and Maryland Institute respectively. In 1967 he served as Assistant Curator of the City Hall Museum and Art Gallery (later Hong Kong Museum of Art) until 1970, when he received the John D. Rockefeller III grant. Wong taught graphic design from 1974 to 1984 at Hong Kong Polytechnic (later Hong Kong Polytechnic University). In 1984 Wong resigned from teaching to devote himself full time to painting, and then emigrated to the United States. In 1996 he relocated to Hong Kong permanently.

Raised and educated during Hong Kong’s colonial period and with formal art training from the United States, Wucius Wong’s career had a distinct trajectory that was least politically motivated when compared to other modern Chinese artists. He felt a deep-seated rootlessness and identity crisis for much of his life, as is illustrated in his ...


Guo Xi  

Mary S. Lawton

[Kuo His; zi Shunfu]

(b Wen xian, Henan Province, c. 1020; d c. 1090).

Chinese painter and theorist. He is considered one of the most important of the late 11th-century masters. Guo Ruoxu (fl 11th century), a minor official at the court of Bianliang (modern Kaifeng), in the Tuhua jianwen zhi (‘Experiences in painting’; 1075) described Guo as supreme among the landscape painters of his generation. Other contemporary critics acclaimed his creativity, the spontaneity of his composition and the dexterity and versatility of his brushwork. Guo’s ideas on the principles of landscape painting, as recorded by his son Guo Si (fl c. 1070–1123) are also important.

Very few details of Guo’s life are known. In 1068 he was summoned to paint a screen for the imperial palace. He received special recognition from the emperor Shenzong (reg 1068–85) for his introduction of an innovative way of painting. He also served other emperors but was not equally honoured. Nevertheless, he remained at court, becoming an assistant teacher (...


Julia K. Murray

[Ts’ai Hsiang; zi Junmo]

(b Xianyou County, Fujian Province, 1012; d Xianyou County, 1067).

Chinese calligrapher, scholar–official and poet. From an undistinguished provincial family, he rose to prominence as an official after passing the national civil-service examination to become a jinshi in 1030. He attained his highest posts at the courts of the emperors Renzong (reg 1023–63) and Yingzong (reg 1064–7) during the ascendency of the reform faction led by Fan Zhongyan (989–1052) and Ouyang Xiu. Cai is traditionally designated one of the Four Great Calligraphers of the Northern Song (960–1127), along with Su Shi, Huang Tingjian and Mi Fu (see China, People’s Republic of §IV 2., (iv), (a)). The oldest of the four, Cai played an important role in setting the direction for the development of Song (960–1279) calligraphy and was praised by Su Shi as the greatest calligrapher of the period.

As a calligrapher, Cai achieved distinction in several established scripts: regular script (...


Ju-Hsi Chou

revised by Michael J. Hatch

[Cheng Hsieh; zi Kerou; hao Banqiao, Pan-ch’iao]

(b Xinghua, Jiangsu Province, 1693; d 1765).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, and poet. Equally known as Zheng Banqiao, Zheng Xie was, together with Jin Nong, the most prominent of the group of painters later referred to as the Eight Eccentrics of Yangzhou (see Yangzhou school). He grew up with little means and had to sell his family library to pay for his father’s funeral. Taking work as a private tutor in 1718 at the age of 25, he started a small family in the suburbs of Yangzhou, only to see his wife and son die by 1731. He subsequently achieved some success in the official civil service examinations and twice obtained appointments as a district magistrate in Shandong Province from 1742 to 1753. A brief encounter in 1748 on Mt. Tai, Shandong, with the Qianlong emperor (reg 1736–1796) won him the coveted title of Official Calligrapher and Painter (shuhuashi), for which he had a seal carved to commemorate the event. The end of his official career came in ...


Weihe Chen

[ Zhang Chengshi, Zhang Dian ; Chang Hsü ; zi Bogao ]

(b Wunjunwu [now Suzhou, Jiangsu Province] or Wuxing [now Huzhou, Zhejiang Province], fl early 8th century).

Chinese calligrapher, poet, scholar and government official . He graduated from being a minor official in Changshu to the senior post of Zuoshuaifu Changshi, which earned him the nickname ‘Zhang Changshi’. He was adept at writing poems, especially in qijue (a four-line verse with seven characters to a line and following a strict tonal pattern and rhyme scheme). As a poet he was equally as famous as He Zhizhang (659–755), Bao Rong and Zhang Ruoxu, which earned them the title of Wuzhong sijia (Four Scholars of the Wu Area). He was friendly with He Zhizhang and Li Bai (701–762) and associated with Gao Shi, Li Qi and Yan Zhenqing.

It is as a calligrapher that Zhang is best remembered. He had a good command of kaishu (regular script), which he imparted to Cui Miao and Yan Zhenqing. Yan said that his kaishu was so detailed and penetrating that it could be considered as truth and the correct Way. His uninhibited ...


Lu Xun  

Eugene Yuejin Wang

[Lu Hsün; Chou Shu-jen; Zhou Shuren]

(b Shaoxing, Zhejiang Province, Sept 25, 1881; d Shanghai, Oct 19, 1936).

Chinese woodcut-printmaker, writer and critic. Already in childhood his imagination was caught by popular fiction illustrations, which were to resurface in his later writing. His sojourn in Japan (1902–9) was a turning-point, convincing him that literature and art rather than medicine made a nation healthy. From 1912 to 1926 he was employed in the Ministry of Education in Beijing, supervising and coordinating art-related affairs. For the next year he taught at Xiamen University in Fujian Province; later he chaired the Department of Literature at Sun Yat-sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou (Canton). The last ten years (1927–36) of Lu’s life in Shanghai were the most productive in terms of publication.

Lu was an anti-formalist. He believed that artists fulfil a Messianic role in expressing the collective soul. In Ni bobu meishu yijianshu (‘Views on the promulgation of fine arts’; 1913), one of the first modern Chinese art manifestos, Lu Xun boldly attempted a new definition of art, distinguishing it from relics and rarities and emphasizing its conceptual base (‘no art without thought’). The chief virtue he saw in Western art was the primacy of social urgency, and he ardently commended to a Chinese audience the works of such artists as Käthe Kollwitz and Carl Meffert (...


Botond Bognar

(b Yamagata, Aug 10, 1948).

Japanese architect and critic. He was educated at the University of Tokyo, studying under Kenzō Tange and Sachio Ōtani. After graduating in 1975, he worked for Arata Isozaki from 1978 to 1983 and then established his own office in Tokyo (1984). At first he was both a designer and an architectural critic, contributing to numerous national and international journals and publications. In his architecture Yatsuka aims at an acceleration of modernism that is not only sharply critical of the reactionary, classicist and other historicist tendencies in international Post-modernism but also challenges modernist ideology and dogma. His ‘deconstructionist’ designs, loose assemblies of individual parts, which are influenced by contemporary French philosophy, occupy a position between Structuralism and Post-structuralism; they show affinity with the works of Rem Koolhaas (b 1944), Bernard Tschumi and Zaha Hadid (b 1950). His few completed projects include the acclaimed Angelo Tarlazzi Building (...


Alice R. M. Hyland

[T’ang Yin; zi Bohu; hao Ziwei, Liuru]

(b Suzhou, April 6, 1470; d Suzhou, Jan 7, 1524).

Chinese painter, poet and calligrapher. He was born into the merchant class of Suzhou, where his father was a restaurateur, and although lacking social standing, he received an excellent education. He was a brilliant student and became the protégé of Wen Lin (1445–99), the father of Wen Zhengming. His friends in Suzhou scholarly circles included Shen Zhou, Wu Kuan (1436–1504) and Zhu Yunming. In 1498 Tang Yin came first in the provincial examinations in Nanjing, the second stage in the civil service examination ladder. The following year he went to Beijing to sit the national examinations, but he and his friend Xu Jing (d 1507) were accused of bribing the servant of one of the chief examiners to give them the examination questions in advance. All parties were jailed, and Tang Yin returned to Suzhou in disgrace, his justifiably high hopes for a distinguished civil service career dashed forever....


Joan Kee

[Bahc Mo; Bahc Chulho]

(b Busan, June 23, 1957; d Seoul, April 26, 2004).

Korean artist and art critic. Bahc Chulho spent his childhood in Busan, then moved to Seoul, where he studied painting at Hongik University from 1976 to 1980. In 1982 he moved to New York to continue his painting studies at the Pratt Institute. After his graduation in 1985, he remained in New York, working under the name Bahc Mo, or literally in Korean, ‘Anonymous Bahc’. He founded and operated Minor Injury (1985–9) in Brooklyn, a non-profit alternative space focusing on concerns of minorities and the third world. He was also an active member of SEORO, a networking group for Korean-American artists, and as part of that group he helped to organize the first large-scale exhibition of Korean and Korean-American contemporary art in the USA, Across the Pacific: Contemporary Korean and Korean American Art (New York, Queens Mus. A., 1993).

Bahc wrote extensively as an American-based correspondent for major Korean art magazines from ...


Yi Sŏng-mi

[cha Ch-ŏngji ; ho Pihaedang , Maejuk-hŏn , Nanggan-kŏsa ]

(b 1418; d 1453).

Korean calligrapher, painter, poet and collector . Also known as Prince Anp’yŏng, he was the third son of King Sejong . His talents in poetry, painting and calligraphy earned him the title of ‘three excellences’. He sponsored many gatherings of scholars, poets and artists in his studio and became the major patron of An Kyŏn , who painted the famous Dream Visit to the Peach Blossom Land (1447; Tenri, Cent. Lib.) based on a dream that Yi Yŏng had related to him. Prince Anp’yŏng’s collection of Korean and Chinese paintings must have served as inspiration for many contemporary painters. Its contents are known thanks to the Hwagi (‘Notes on painting’) section of the statesman Sin Suk-ju’s Pohanjae chip (‘Collected writings of Pohanjae [Sin Suk-ju]’). This is a valuable record, unique in that no other catalogue of painting collections of the Chosŏn period is known. The Hwagi lists 189 paintings and 33 items of calligraphy, mainly by Chinese painters and calligraphers of the Song (...


Katsuyoshi Arai

(b Tokyo, Feb 13, 1917; d Tokyo, Dec 17, 1980).

Japanese architect, urban planner, teacher and writer . He was the son of a diplomat and spent several years in Europe in his youth. In 1941 he graduated from Waseda University, Tokyo, and began to teach there, continuing until his death. He entered private practice in Tokyo in 1945. From 1950 to 1952 he studied in France and worked in Le Corbusier’s studio in Paris. During this time he translated many of Le Corbusier’s writings including eight volumes of his complete works. He later collaborated on Le Corbusier’s National Museum of Western Art (1957–9), Tokyo, with Kunio Maekawa and Junzō Sakakura, both of whom had also worked for Le Corbusier. Yoshizaka’s first major work, the Japanese Pavilion commissioned by the Japanese Government for the Venice Biennale of 1956, revealed the influence of Le Corbusier in its exposed structural frame and use of concrete. After his time in Le Corbusier’s studio, the expression of regional identity became a central issue for Yoshizaka. He advocated humanism and vernacular approaches to regionalism in architecture, constantly seeking new forms of expression. Examples of his work include the Kaisei High School (...


Elizabeth F. Bennett

[ Yu Youren ; zi Saoxin ; hao Ranweng, Taiping Laoren ]

(b Sanyuan, Shanxi Province, 1879; d Taipei, 1964).

Chinese calligrapher, poet, journalist and official . Yü Yu-jen came from a scholarly family and began to study the classics and calligraphy at the age of ten. Six years later he was first in the local examinations and in 1903 he passed the provincial examination, the next step in the civil service examinations, to receive his juren. By this time Yü had become interested in the republican cause and wrote a poem criticizing the Manchu court. An order for his arrest was issued while he was preparing for his final examination at the capital, and he fled to Shanghai, where he studied under an assumed name. From 1903 to 1913, Yü published four newspapers in succession, all anti-Manchu; the longest lasting and best known of these was the republican Minli bao (‘The people’s stand’). Yü held a number of high-ranking positions in the republican government from 1912 until his death; in ...