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Duncan Kinkead

(b Azcoitia, Guipúzcoa, Jan 16, 1621; d Seville, Sept 27, 1670).

Spanish painter and printmaker. He was the leading Baroque landscape painter of his generation in Seville. In 1646 he was married in Aracena, Huelva. He soon moved to Seville, where he married again in 1649. Nothing is known of his apprenticeship, and it is doubtful that Francisco de Herrera (i) was his teacher. Iriarte’s style was strongly influenced by Flemish landscape, which was then extremely popular in Seville, in particular by the landscapes of Josse de Momper II. The signed and dated Landscape with Shepherds (1665; Madrid, Prado) serves as a touchstone for all attributions. Between 1650 and 1700 Iriarte was second only to Bartolomé Murillo as the artist most sought after by collectors in Seville. He also painted religious scenes. An Annunciation altarpiece (untraced) was documented in the church of the Brotherhood of Charity in Seville, which also owned a print by Iriarte. A pair of drawings (...



Renate Baumgärtel-Fleischmann

(b c. 1430–35; d Bamberg, late 1508).

German painter, draughtsman and designer. He ran a painting and woodcarving workshop in Bamberg from 1465, his main patrons being the town of Bamberg and the bishop’s court. Although he was generally commissioned to supply objects for everyday use, these have not survived; nor have the stained-glass windows for which he made preliminary drawings. Extant works based on his designs include a carved stone coat of arms (1494) on the Alte Hofhaltung in Bamberg, made by a Nuremberg master, and the tomb plaque of Bishop Georg Marschalk von Ebneth (d 1505) in Bamberg Cathedral, cast by Peter Vischer I in Nuremberg. However, both works are more expressive of the masters who executed them than of the designer. Thus the only basis for judging Katzheimer’s style lies in the 22 woodcuts for the Halsgerichtsordnung (Bamberg, 1507), printed by Johann Pfeyll, for which he supplied the preliminary drawings. The compositions are simple, with the figures lined up horizontally, diagonally or in tiers (the traditional way of suggesting depth), and the interior spaces are usually represented in outline only. Two reliefs relating to the ...


Carl Van de Velde


(b ?Antwerp, c. 1544; d ?Antwerp, after 1589).

Flemish painter and woodcutter. The similarity of his name has sometimes led to the incorrect assumption that he was a nephew of Willem Key (see Key family §(1)). In most documents, he is called Adriaen Thomasz. alias Key, but Willem Key had no brother with the name of Thomas. He was perhaps a more distant relative, but in any case he was almost certainly Willem’s pupil, and he may even have borrowed his master’s name. The stylistic resemblances between the two are unmistakable: for example Adriaen’s Last Supper (1575; Antwerp, Kon. Mus. S. Kst.) is clearly derived from Willem’s version (c. 1560; Dordrecht, Stadhuis), and the younger Key’s portraits, particularly those of the 1570s, strongly resemble those of his presumed master. It is therefore unlikely that he can be identified with the ‘Adriaen Keyns’ who was enlisted at Antwerp in 1558 as a pupil of the glass painter ...


C. Höper

[Küsell; Küssell; Kiesel]

German family of engravers. They were among the most important engravers in Augsburg in the earlier Baroque period, working primarily from foreign models. The clockmaker Mathias Küssel (d 1664) had four sons, (1) Melchior Küsel I, (2) Matthäus Küsel, Elias Küsel (fl c. 1670), also an engraver, and Philipp Küsel (d 1700), a goldsmith. Melchior’s marriage to the daughter of his teacher Matthäus Merian (i) in 1649 produced the engraver (3) Johanna Sibylla Küsel; a later marriage produced two more engravers: Maria Philippina Küsel (b 1676), whose work includes engravings of goldsmithing (see Hollstein, nos 277–8), and Maria Magdalene Küsel (fl 1688–92), who was known for her flower engravings (Hollstein, nos 264–82). Matthäus also had a daughter who was an engraver, Johanna Christina Küsel (b 1665); she produced copies after Stefano della Bella (Hollstein, no. 12) and sometimes worked with her cousins. They collaborated on 263 illustrations to the Bible (Hollstein, nos 1–263) after engravings by ...


(b nr Vigevano, ?1495; d after Aug 14, 1567).

Italian architect, engraver and writer. He is thought to have been in Rome by 1507, but the first specific record of him dates from 1526 when, together with Antonio da Sangallo (ii), Pier Francesco da Viterbo and Michele Sanmicheli, he worked for Pope Clement VII on the fortifications of Parma and Piacenza. After the sack of Rome in 1527, he was as much involved with restoration efforts as he was with recording antique monuments and participating in new building projects. Many existing drawings, some of them from the collection of Vasari (Florence, Uffizi), relate Labacco’s work to that of Sangallo, who commissioned him in 1539 to execute the large wooden model, now in the Vatican Museum, of his design for St Peter’s, Rome. The model required at least seven years to execute, and it was finished only after Sangallo’s death in 1546. Between 1546 and 1548 Labacco also published three engravings of Sangallo’s design....


Jane S. Peters

(b ?Essen, 1512; d after 1561).

German printmaker. His engraved Self-portrait (Hollstein, no. 34) reveals that he was 28 years old in 1540 and from Essen. His oeuvre comprises about 70 engravings of religious, mythological, allegorical and ornamental subject-matter, plus copies of the 50 anonymous Italian engravings known as the ‘Tarrocchi Cards of Mantegna’, engraved after Andrea Mantegna. Ladenspelder signed five prints (Joan Ladenspelder Essendiensis), placed a variety of monograms (formed from the letters IHVE, LVE, HLVE, etc) on 50 others and dated 23 prints between 1535 and 1559. He copied nine of Albrecht Dürer’s engravings, for example Adam and Eve (Hollstein, no. 2), and one after Sebald Beham, Luna (Hollstein, no. 64), and issued engravings bearing his own monogram from a plate by Cornelis Massys. His prints reflect the influence of Marcantonio Raimondi as well as of Netherlandish artists and the Dürer school. Ladenspelder is thought to be the painter ‘Johann von Essen’, documented as having purchased a house in Cologne in ...


Sophie Biass-Fabiani

[Lafreri, Antonio]

(b Orgelet, Jura, 1512; d Rome, July 20, 1577).

French engraver and print publisher, active in Italy. He is known to have worked in Rome from 1544 onwards, on the evidence of three plates dated and signed Antonii Lafrery sequani formis. He became famous for his work as a publisher. Most of his engravings from 1544 to 1553 were copies of works by his rival Antonio Salamanca, whose associate he became in 1553. Their contract was broken in 1563 by Salamanca’s son Francesco. Lafréry’s most important work, the Speculum romanae magnificentiae, was by its nature unfinished. It was an album of plans and views of Rome, executed between 1545 and 1577 by the best engravers in Rome. By 1567 it comprised 107 plates. The project, intended to give an account of ancient Rome, contained numerous reconstructions and extended to the architectural work of Michelangelo’s period, as well as to some events and festivals. The plates were captioned in Latin and in ...


Patrick Ramade

(b Nancy, c. 1580; d Paris, 1636).

French painter, draughtsman and printmaker. A native of Lorraine, he established himself in Paris in 1601, was naturalized there in 1616 and by 1626 had received the title of Peintre Ordinaire du Roi. Lallemant enjoyed a prolific career, receiving numerous commissions, religious and civil, for Paris and for the provinces. His studio was one of the busiest in the city: Laurent de La Hyre, Michel Dorigny and Nicolas Poussin all received training there, and Philippe de Champaigne was involved in collaborative works. Although a large proportion of Lallemant’s work is lost, a sufficient number of paintings, decorative works, drawings, engravings and tapestries remain for his output and style to be assessed. Among his paintings, the group portrait of the Aldermen of the City of Paris (1611; Paris, Carnavalet), made for the Hôtel de Ville, is an example of his commissions executed in the conservative style followed by numerous established painters. His works carried out in the churches of Paris include the extant wall paintings (...


Jane S. Peters

(b ?Bamberg, c. 1520; d Vienna, between 1564 and Jan 6, 1566).

German printmaker, draughtsman and medallist. Often erroneously referred to as Hans Sebald Lautensack, he was the son of Paul Lautensack (1478–1558), a painter and organist from Bamberg. In 1527 his family moved from Bamberg to Nuremberg, where he probably, like his brother Heinrich Lautensack (1522–68), trained as a goldsmith. Although he referred to himself as ‘pictor’, no paintings by him are known. His artistic reputation lies with his etched oeuvre, which consists primarily of historical or biblical subjects, portraits (Hollstein, nos 48–76) and pure landscapes (Hollstein, nos 7–34). He has also been credited with several drawings and carved moulds for six portrait medals.

Lautensack’s artistic career can be divided into two periods: the earlier in Nuremberg, from his first ascribed etchings in 1544; the second in Vienna from 1554 until his death. The portraiture and figural work from his Nuremberg years reflect the influence of the Nuremberg ...


Michel Sylvestre

(b Nancy, c. 1587; d Nancy, Oct 20, 1633).

French painter and etcher. He was born into a family in the service of Duke Charles III of Lorraine (reg 1559–1608). He perhaps had his earliest training in the then independent duchy. He is said to have spent more than 20 years in Italy but is first recorded there in 1617, in the house in Rome of the Venetian painter Carlo Saraceni. His earliest known etching, a Death of the Virgin (see 1982 exh. cat., no. 5) after Saraceni, was published in Rome in 1619. In 1621 he signed the mural Doge Enrico Dandolo Recruiting for the Crusade in the Sala del Maggior Consiglio in the Doge’s Palace in Venice. This work had been begun, or at least designed, by Saraceni before his death the previous year. As a reward Leclerc was made a knight of the Order of S Marco.

Leclerc had returned to Nancy by April 1622...


Jetty E. van der Sterre

(b Antwerp, c. 1545; d Antwerp, 1592).

Flemish woodcutter and engraver. He entered the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp as a pupil of Bernard van de Putte (1528–80) in 1558–9 and is known primarily for the book illustrations that he executed while working for Christoph Plantin. Van Leest depicted a wide range of subjects in his woodcuts, including biblical themes in several editions of the New Testament (Flem. edns, 1571 and 1578; Fr. edn, 1573) and allegorical images such as those in J. B. Houwaert’s Declaratie van die triumphante incompst van den … prince van Oraignien binnen die princelijke stadt van Brussele, 1578 (‘Declaration of the triumphal entry of the … Prince of Orange into the princely city of Brussels, 1578; Antwerp, 1579), which contains images alluding to contemporary politics. There are images of figures in exotic costume in Sluperius’s Omne fere gentium (Antwerp, 1572) and in Nicolas de Nicolay’s Les Navigations pérégrinations et voyages faicts à la Turquie...


Janez Höfler

(b ?Nuremberg, c. 1490; d after 1537).

German painter and woodcut designer. His main achievement was to introduce the painting principles of the Danube school to Middle Germany; he worked largely in Protestant contexts. Once thought to be a native of Landshut, he was probably the son of Simon Lainberger of Nuremberg, a painter and wood-carver, and brother of Hans Leinberger, a wood-carver in Landshut. A Christ Bearing the Cross (c. 1511–12; Moosburg, St Kastulus) on the reverse of the predella on a high altar carved by Hans Leinberger, with frontal paintings (1511–14) by the Landshut court painter Hans Wertinger, is ascribed to Lemberger. Despite this link with Wertinger, his method of working owes more to the restlessly creative style of his supposed brother, which in turn shows the influence of Albrecht Altdorfer.

Between 1513 and 1515 Lemberger may have joined Altdorfer in Regensburg and collaborated on the miniatures in the Triumphal Procession of Emperor Maximilian I...


Bernardina Sani

[il Padovano]

(b Rome, 1578; d Rome, Sept 4, 1630).

Italian draughtsman, printmaker and painter. He was the son of the Paduan-born Ludovico Leoni (1542–1612), a maker of medals and wax relief portraits. Although Ottavio was active entirely in Rome, where his father had also worked and died, he was often known as ‘il Padovano’ because of the family origins. In 1603 Ottavio was involved in a libel action against Caravaggio by the painter Giovanni Baglione, whose vita provides the best source of information on Leoni’s life. One witness at the trial, Tommaso Salini, claimed he had received verses criticizing Baglione written by Orazio Gentileschi and ‘Ottavio Padovano’ (i.e. Leoni). Caravaggio testified that he knew Leoni without having ever spoken to him. The following year Leoni was admitted to the Accademia di S Luca in Rome and in 1614 became its principal. It was at this time, according to Baglione, that he painted two canvases, a Martyrdom of St Martina...


J. P. Filedt Kok

(b Leiden, c. 1494; d Leiden, 1533).

North Netherlandish printmaker, draughtsman and painter, son of Hugo Jacobsz.. He was the first Dutch artist to establish an international reputation for himself as an engraver while he was still alive. His prolific output as a printmaker—c. 200 prints—shows the whole of his development; dated engravings survive from practically every year between 1508 and 1530. His early prints hark back to those of his slightly older German contemporary, Albrecht Dürer; later on, his work was clearly meant to compete with that of Dürer, while from 1525 onwards it was influenced mainly by examples from the Italian Renaissance, which reached Lucas through the prints by Marcantonio Raimondi and the work of Jan Gossart, the first to bring this new style to the north. Less international in outlook than his graphic work—but at least as important for the development of north Netherlandish art—is the rather small group of paintings (c....


Eric Domela Nieuwenhuis

(b Leiden, Oct 24, 1607; d Amsterdam, June 4, 1674).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and printmaker. His work has often suffered by comparison with that of Rembrandt, with whom he was closely associated from 1625 to 1631. Yet Lievens’s early work is equal to that of Rembrandt, although in later years he turned more towards a somewhat facile rendering of the international Baroque style favoured by his noble patrons, thus never fully realizing his early promise. Nonetheless, he became a renowned portrait painter and draughtsman, and his drawings include some of the finest examples of 17th-century Dutch portraiture in the medium.

He was, the son of Lieven Hendricxz. [De Rechte] (bur Leiden, 8 May 1612), an embroiderer, hatmaker and hatseller in Leiden, and his wife, Machteld Jansdr. van Noortsant (bur Leiden, 6 March 1622). According to Orlers, at the age of eight Jan became a pupil of the Leiden painter Joris van Schooten (c. 1587–c....


Marianne Grivel

(b Limoges, c. 1505; d Limoges, 1575/7).

French Enameller, etcher, painter and miniature painter. He was the best-known enameller of Renaissance France and may have learnt that trade in the Pécinaud workshop in Limoges. Encouraged by the Bishop of Limoges, Jean de Langeac, who probably put him in touch with the court of Francis I, Limosin produced painted enamels on copper in all forms, including plates and plaques with mythological and religious subjects (see fig.), tableware and caskets. His chief speciality was the interpretation in enamels of portrait drawings by artists of the school of Jean and François Clouet, such as that of Anne de Montmorency (Paris, Louvre).

Limosin’s earliest enamels were inspired by German engravings; in 1532 he copied Albrecht Dürer’s Small Passion series (Paris, Mus. Cluny). From 1535, however, he turned more towards Italian art and that of the Fontainebleau school, using, for instance, motifs from Raphael’s Legend of Psyche, engraved by the Master of the Die, for a large plate (Paris, priv. col., see Lavedan, p. 85) enamelled with the ...


Rüdiger Klessmann

(b Oldenburg, c. 1595–1600; d Verona, Dec 5, 1631).

German painter, draughtsman and printmaker, active in Italy. He was one of the few painters working in Venice in the 17th century to achieve European significance. In less than 15 years of artistic activity, he showed exceptional promise, always responding to new inspirations and incorporating them in his own style. Having had his early training in the Netherlands, he brought new vigour to the rich tradition of Venetian painting that had ended with Tintoretto.

According to Joachim von Sandrart, who knew Liss well, the artist came from the most northerly part of Germany, the Oldenburg region north of Lübeck. His father may have been a painter in the service of the Dukes of Holstein: a painter also named Johann Liss is recorded at Schleswig, where the Dukes resided, and was commissioned by this court to decorate standards (1622, 1649). His wife, Anna Liss (b 1576–7; d after ...


(b Flensburg, 1526/27; d ?Silesia, after Dec 31, 1588).

Danish draughtsman, engraver, woodcut designer, painter, architect, surveyor and author. Facts about his highly productive career, which ranged from Denmark to Turkey, come primarily from an autobiographical letter of 1 January 1563 (free English trans. in Fischer, 1990) to King Frederick II of Denmark to whom he owed allegiance by birth; also from inscribed works, his letters and mostly unpublished material in archives in Vienna, Hamburg, Antwerp and Copenhagen.

With some effort Lorck persuaded his well-connected parents to let him become an artist: he became apprenticed to a Lübeck goldsmith, whom he accompanied on business voyages in the Baltic and western Scandinavia. His earliest works are two engravings, one dated 1543, copying engravings by Heinrich Aldegrever. Prompted by the goldsmith, Lorck continued his training in South Germany and Italy. Engravings such as the Pope as a Wild Man (1545; Hollstein, no. 44), St Jerome in the Desert (...


Michael Eissenhauer

(b ?Kronstadt, Transylvania [now Braşov, Romania], c. 1530; d Helmstedt, Oct 1597).

Hungarian woodcutter, printmaker and printer of German descent, active in Germany. He was probably employed at the printing works of Gáspár Heltai (c. 1520–74) in Klausenburg (now Cluj) from c. 1545 and later probably worked in Nuremberg. From 1555 he lived in Wittenberg, at the same time as Lucas Cranach II. From 1556 he had his own printing works, and in 1564 he was appointed university book printer in Rostock. In 1579, after a dispute with the university, he moved to Helmstedt, still as a university book printer. After his death from bubonic plague, his son Jakob Lucius II (fl 1568–1616) carried on his printing business.

The extent of Lucius’s oeuvre is difficult to ascertain, and any appreciation of his work is dominated by his major standing as a book printer. His woodcuts reflect the influence of Lucas Cranach II and attain especial quality only in his Wittenberg period, in such works as the ...