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Marianne Uggla


(b Stockholm, Feb 19, 1751; d Chester, DE, Oct 5, 1811).

Swedish painter, active also in France, Spain and the USA. He was trained in sculpture and painting at the Stockholm Academy and was a student of Joseph-Marie Vien in Paris (1772–5) and Rome (1775–9). In 1781 he settled in Paris, painting Ariadne on the Shore of Naxos (1783; Stockholm, Nmus.), a meticulously executed Neo-classical work. He became a member of the French Academy in 1784 and First Painter to Gustavus III of Sweden. The latter commissioned him in 1784 to paint the massive Marie Antoinette and her two Children Walking in the Trianon Gardens (Stockholm, Nmus.). Wertmüller’s most interesting work, Danaë and the Shower of Gold (1787; Stockholm, Nmus.), a masterpiece of mythological portrayal, is the foremost example of Swedish Neo-classical painting.

A lack of portrait commissions in Paris prompted Wertmüller in 1788 to go and work for wealthy merchants in Bordeaux, Madrid and Cadiz. His career as a portrait painter proceeded successfully; his portraits display an unsentimental and cool, smooth style. In ...


Robert C. Alberts

(b Springfield [now Swarthmore], PA, Oct 10, 1738; d London, March 11, 1820).

American painter and draughtsman, active in England ( see fig. ). He was the first American artist to achieve an international reputation and to influence artistic trends in Europe. He taught three generations of his aspiring countrymen. His son Raphael Lamar West (1769–1850) was a history painter.

He was one of ten children of a rural innkeeper whose Quaker family had moved to Colonial America in 1699 from Long Crendon, Bucks. In romantic legends perpetuated by the artist himself, he is pictured as an untutored Wunderkind. However, it has become clear that West received considerable support from talented and generous benefactors. West’s earliest known portraits, Robert Morris and Jane Morris...


Jan K. Ostrowski

(b Kraków, 1772; d Warsaw, Jan 20, 1812).

Polish painter . He began to study painting in Kraków under one of the local guild master craftsmen. From about 1790, thanks to the protection of Father Sebastian Sierakowski, a Kraków canon and amateur architect, he studied in the studio of Marcello Bacciarelli in Warsaw. In 1794 he took part in the Kościuszko Uprising, whose purpose was to gain Poland’s independence from the partitioning powers; after it was crushed he stayed in Puławy for about two years as a court painter of the Czartoryski princes. In 1797–8 Wojniakowski lived in the province of Wołyń, and thereafter in Warsaw. During the last years of his life he worked for the Polish painter Józef Kosiński (1753–1821). As a result of his unsteady character and bohemian existence, Wojniakowski never attained the rewards and social status commensurate with his talents and he died in poverty. He painted genre scenes with landscaped backgrounds in the early Neo-classicist manner, influenced to some extent by the Rococo tradition. He also painted religious pictures, as well as scenes connected with the political life of Warsaw and the Kościuszko Uprising (e.g. the ...


Frans Grijzenhout

(b Utrecht, Jan 10, 1780; d Amsterdam, July 12, 1852).

Dutch painter, active in England . He was largely self-taught, although between 1802 and 1804 he attended classes at the academy in Düsseldorf. In 1807 he established the Kunstliefde (Love of Art) Society in Utrecht together with other artists including Jan Kobell II. During this period he painted Time (1810; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.), a symbolical representation of a naked and winged old man in a strongly Neo-classical style. Wonder also painted interior scenes in imitation of the Dutch 17th-century masters.

In 1823 Gen. Sir John Murray, Bart, the Scottish collector (?1768–1827), invited Wonder to come and live in London. Murray had a strong admiration for Wonder’s work and was convinced Wonder would obtain numerous portrait commissions in England. While in London, Wonder painted many portraits of the Murray family as well as of their friends and relatives. His masterpiece is Sir John Murray’s Art Gallery, which he completed in ...


David Fraser and Lin Barton

[Wright, Joseph ]

(b Derby, Sept 3, 1734; d Derby, Aug 29, 1797).

English painter. He painted portraits, landscapes, and subjects from literature, but his most original and enduringly celebrated works are a few which reflect the philosophical and technological preoccupations of the later 18th century and are characterized by striking effects of artificial light. He was the first major English painter to work outside the capital all his life: apart from spells in Liverpool (1768–71), Italy (1773–5), and Bath (1775–7), he lived and worked in his native Derby, though exhibiting in London at both the Society of Artists (1765–76, 1791) and the Royal Academy (1778–82, 1789–90, 1794). Reappraisal of his achievements has followed Nicolson’s monograph of 1968.

Wright was the third son of a Derby attorney. He trained as a portrait painter in the London studio of Thomas Hudson from 1751 to 1753, then returned to Derby where he painted a penetrating, detached ...


Kathleen Curran

(b Regensburg, Feb 7, 1800; d Munich, July 24, 1873).

Bavarian architect and painter. After working with the stage designer Domenico Quaglio II he studied at the Königliche Akademie der bildenden Künste in Munich under the Neo-classical architect Karl von Fischer. Following Fischer’s death, Ziebland completed many of his projects, including the Hof- und Nationaltheater (1811–18) in Munich. An exhibition of Ziebland’s paintings brought him to the attention of Ludwig I, King of Bavaria ( see Wittelsbach, House of family §III, (3) ). In his quest to transform Munich into a museum of architecture, Ludwig sent Ziebland to Italy to study Early Christian basilicas, so that he could design one for Munich. After two years in Italy (1827–9) Ziebland was commissioned to design an Early Christian-style basilica with an adjacent Benedictine monastery. The Bonifaziusbasilika (1835–40), Munich, is the best known of Ziebland’s works. A brick, five-aisled basilica with a sumptuous interior, St Boniface was hailed as one of Ludwig’s greatest building projects. Its monastery is attached to his exhibition building, the ...