121-140 of 286 results  for:

  • Performance Art and Dance x
  • Painting and Drawing x
Clear all

Article

Pontus Grate

(b Stockholm, Aug 14, 1896; d Stockholm, Aug 3, 1983).

Swedish sculptor, painter and stage designer. After studying at the Akademi för de Fria Konsterna in Stockholm and travelling in Germany, Italy and Greece (1922–4), he lived in Paris until 1933. At that time his art developed in two directions, one more traditional, at times classical, the other modernist. Grate largely relinquished his modernist work in the alien cultural climate on his return to Sweden. His more traditional style was inspired by ancient Greek and Renaissance sculpture, and influenced by Aristide Maillol and Charles Despiau, among others. A series of female and male figures culminated in the Four Seasons (1937–44; entrance hall of the Kanslihus, Stockholm) and the powerfully simplified form of Goddess at the Hyperborean Sea (1949–56; in front of Gävle Stadshus), while a more complex, fanciful and narrative style led to the rich granite architecture of the Fountain of Transformations (1943–56; Sundbyberg, Marabou Park). By the time of the last two commissions Grate had resumed his modernist style. He was stimulated in particular by non-Western art, Kandinsky, Klee and later Surrealism. Although he never considered himself a Surrealist, many of his works are related to Surrealism, for example ...

Article

Eduardo Serrano

(b Cartagena, 1920).

Colombian painter, sculptor, printmaker, film maker and stage designer. He studied at the Art Students League in New York from 1941 to 1943 and subsequently visited Italy, where he studied fresco and etching techniques before settling again in Colombia. Consistently devoted to the human form, he initially depicted figures with angular heads and striped tunics in a strong light, with symbolic objects such as eggs, masks or cages.

In such later paintings as Boy with Umbrella (1964; Washington, DC, A. Mus. Americas) Grau’s figures were transformed into plump, fleshy and voluptuous beings, richly arrayed with lace, feathers, hats and fans, like characters taken from the theatre or from popular turn-of-the-century postcards. His scenes were gradually filled with anecdotal details and numerous objects, including cupboards, easels, boxes, masks and flowers, through which he suggested emotionally charged atmospheres. Grau also produced murals, prints, stage sets, films and especially sculptures. The first of these were assemblages of antique and industrial objects, but he subsequently made cast-bronze sculptures that convey a sensuousness, mystery and nostalgia similar to that evoked by his paintings....

Article

Horacio Safons

(b Buenos Aires, Jan 14, 1915; d Barcelona, Oct 14, 1965).

Argentine painter, sculptor, performance artist, conceptual artist, poet and illustrator. After studying in Buenos Aires at the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes and with Cecilia Marcovich and Tomás Maldonado, he quickly established a reputation for his scandalous views, attracting extreme disapproval and equally strong support. After delivering a lecture at the Juan Cristóbal bookshop, Buenos Aires, entitled ‘Alberto Greco y los pájaros’ he was briefly imprisoned for his ‘Communism and subversive acts’. On his release in the same year he travelled to Paris on a French government grant, selling drawings and watercolours in the cafés and studying painting with Fernand Léger and printmaking with Johnny Friedlaender. Between 1956 and 1958 he lived in São Paulo, where he became aware of Art informel; he painted in this style in the late 1950s and early 1960s (Glusberg, pp. 284–5).

As early as 1959, when he had returned from São Paulo to Buenos Aires, Greco had expressed his corrosive vision of society through the form of his work. In his shows he exhibited tree trunks and rags for cleaning window gratings or floors. He moved again to Paris in ...

Article

Wiepke F. Loos

(b Amsterdam, April 2, 1837; d Amsterdam, May 14, 1891).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and printmaker. He initially wanted to be a musician like his father, but he decided to become a painter and studied with his uncle, the genre and figure painter P. F. Greive (1811–72). Thereafter he was taught by Cornelis Springer, and around 1861 he worked with L. Lingeman (1829–94) in the latter’s studio.

Greive painted river and harbour scenes and townscapes, mainly in Amsterdam, but also in Gelderland and Zeeland, for example the Shellproof Barracks in Flushing (Amsterdam, Hist. Mus.). In 1860 he made a series of 12 lithographs showing types of ships, Studies of Dutch Ships Drawn After the Original. After the death of his father, Greive was for a time obliged to take on much illustration work for magazines at home and abroad to support his family, and he briefly abandoned painting. He remained, however, active within the Amsterdam artistic world and for three years was chairman of the society Arti et Amicitiae....

Article

Marco Livingstone

(b Nashville, TN, June 1, 1937).

American painter, sculptor, installation artist, draughtsman, performance artist and film maker. He studied at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago (1955), at the New School for Social Research in New York (1956) and under Hans Hofmann in Provincetown, MA (1957). Together with Allan Kaprow, Claes Oldenburg, Jim Dine, Robert Whitman (b 1935) and others, he was briefly an instrumental figure in the history of performance art in New York during the late 1950s with the Happenings he presented as early as 1957, most famously The Burning Building (1959), which took place in his loft at 148 Delancey Street (designated the Delancey Street Museum). With their narrative flow and elements of comedy, Grooms’s highly engaging performances were closer to the ‘painter’s theatre’ of Dine than to the events created by Kaprow or the Fluxus artists. The energy that went into these performances was soon redeployed into films, beginning with ...

Article

Jacqueline Stare

(Hirsche)

(b Stockholm, Sept 2, 1888; d nr Oslo, May 22, 1946).

Swedish painter, stage designer and teacher. He studied at the Konstnärförbund school in Stockholm (1905–8), then travelled to Paris and studied at Matisse’s school (1908–11). He was a member of the Young Ones group. In 1911 he married Sigrid Hjertén. Grünewald was greatly influenced by Matisse between 1910 and 1920, and Fauvism was generally important to him. His prize-winning design (1912–14) for decorating the Register Office of Stockholm Town Hall was purely Fauvist, and he was forbidden to execute the project. This French influence can be seen in Ivan in the Armchair (1915; Stockholm, Mod. Mus.). Cézanne’s paintings also had an early significance for him. In 1915 he exhibited together with his wife at the Sturm-Galerie in Berlin. Grünewald carried out the first of many stage designs for a production of Samson and Delilah at the Kungliga Teater, Stockholm, in 1921. He was a sought-after decorator during the 1920s and worked in a classical spirit. He was also an able portrait painter and illustrator, e.g. ...

Article

Lucius Grisebach

(b Berlin, Sept 30, 1937).

German painter and stage designer. From 1957 to 1964 he studied under the German painter Peter Janssen (b 1906) at the Hochschule für Bildende Künste in West Berlin. At first he painted figurative works influenced by Baroque models and by 19th-century history painting. In aligning himself with the great tradition and the values of figurative painting in the idiom of Rubens or Hans Makart, he deliberately set himself apart from all the artistic tendencies predominant in West Germany in the 1950s and 1960s. Characteristic of his painting is a theatrical element that in the 1960s occasionally took on a quality of caricature. This is in keeping with his interest in the theatre, in which he also worked as an actor, musician, playwright and scene painter (particularly in the 1980s, when he was associated with the director Peter Zadeck in Berlin and Hamburg). As a 20th-century artist who thought in historical terms, Grützke played on the contradiction between the traditional form of figure painting and its contemporary content. In some works, such as ...

Article

M. N. Sokolov

[Vladimir] (Davidovich)

(b Tiflis [now Tbilisi], March 30, 1896; d Tbilisi, July 20, 1980).

Georgian painter, draughtsman, illustrator and stage designer. From 1910 to 1914 he trained at the Tiflis School of Painting and Sculpture and from 1919 to 1926 at the Académie Ronson in Paris. While in Paris he became closely acquainted with Modigliani, Ignacio Zuloaga, Natal’ya Goncharova and Mikhail Larionov. His early works, with their theatrically romantic depictions of Georgian national life, fantastic and Symbolist motifs and surreal effects of colour, combine elements of the grotesque with a charming poetic mystery (e.g. the ‘Tsotskhali’ Fish, 1920; Tbilisi, Mus. A. Georg.). His affinity with ancient Georgian and Persian art, of which he was a connoisseur, intensified on his return to Georgia in 1926; his colours became shimmering and tinged with gold, and, at the same time, the visual link with theatre became even stronger (many of his paintings have opera or ballet performances as their subjects or portray actresses in costume). He frequently depicted fantastic and mythological subjects (e.g. ...

Article

Alexandra Kennedy

(b ?Quito, 1818; d ?Quito, 1880).

Ecuadorean painter and Musician. He was involved in the foundation of the Escuela Miguel de Santiago in Quito in 1849 (transformed in 1852 into the Escuela Democratica Miguel de Santiago), and he won third prize for his painting Modesty (Quito, Mus. Fund. Hallo) when the school held the first public art exhibition in Ecuador. He criticized the dependence of Ecuadorean art on Spanish and other European models, and he fought for the liberation of oppressed social classes and particularly of the indigenous people, as well as for individual creativity and the autonomy of the artist from the ecclesiastical powers that remained dominant in Ecuador at that time. Stylistically, Guerrero represented the transition from Quito’s colonial Baroque style to Romanticism. He introduced watercolour painting into Ecuador and used the medium to illustrate, criticize and satirize leading figures of the time. His album of drawings and watercolours of landscapes, personalities and customs of the period (...

Article

Éva Bajkay

(b Budapest, Oct 12, 1882; d Budapest, Feb 2, 1932).

Hungarian painter, draughtsman, stage designer and writer. He studied at the School of Crafts and Design in Budapest (1900–01); in 1902 he registered at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence and in 1903 at the Accademia in Rome. From 1902 his work was regularly included in the exhibitions of the Budapest National Salon. In 1906 he went to Paris and from there travelled extensively. His work was inspired variously by small Italian towns, by Giotto, Botticelli and Alessandro Magnasco; in his early work the influence of the Pre-Raphaelites is also noticeable, as is that of the Viennese Secessionist style (e.g. Paolo and Francesca, 1903; Budapest, N.G.). In 1907 he exhibited with Ödön Márffy at the Uránia bookshop in Budapest, and the following year he took part in an international exhibition in London. In 1909 he took part in a travelling exhibition of Neo-Impressionist painters and literary figures. He sought to express himself through the themes and forms of the past: his ‘Rococo’ period was directly inspired by Italian and French art, and is characterized by its finesse, as well as by the use of the grotesque and the tragi-comic. The work of Toulouse–Lautrec was also influential on Gulácsy’s style. He called his Rococo works ‘Biedermeier frolics’, and he professed to live in a world of ‘noble dreams’. His work as a whole expresses raw feelings with soft lyricism, as in ...

Article

Stephen Addiss

[Uragami Hitsu; Ki Tasuku; Gyokudō, Ryosai]

(b Ikeda, Bizen Province [now Okayama Prefect.], 1745; d Kyoto, 1820).

Japanese Musician, painter, poet and calligrapher. Although he was more famous in his lifetime as a musician and little appreciated as an artist, Gyokudō has come to be considered one of Japan’s great painters in the literati painting tradition (Jap. Bunjinga or Nanga; see Japan §VI 4., (vi), (d)) and his rough, bold works are among Japan’s most powerful and individualistic artistic expressions. He belonged to the third generation of Japanese literati artists, who returned to painting in a more Sinophile, orthodox manner in contrast to the more unorthodox, Japanese approach of second-generation masters such as Ike Taiga and Yosa Buson.

He was born to a samurai-official family, and in 1752, a year after his father died, he took up the Ikeda clan duties. He received a Confucian-style education and as a youth studied the Chinese zither (qin). He was skilled both as a player and composer on this subtle instrument. The creative processes that he developed for composition, particularly with respect to asymmetry and repetition, were transferred to the calligraphy and painting of his later years. He took his art name (...

Article

Barbara Lange

revised by Andrés Mario Zervigón

[Herzfeld, Helmut ]

(b Berlin, June 19, 1891; d Berlin, April 26, 1968).

German photomontagist, draughtsman, typographer, stage designer, and film director. After a difficult childhood owing to the persecution of his father for his political beliefs, he studied art at the Königliche Kunstgewerbeschule in Munich from 1907 to 1911, specializing in advertising art. In 1912 he took his first job in a paper packaging company (for which he completed graphic design work) in Mannheim, moving to Berlin in 1913, where he and his brother Wieland Herzfeld made contact with avant-garde circles. (Wieland changed his surname to Herzfelde in early 1914.) Heartfield’s experiences in World War I led him to conclude that the only worthy art was that which took account of social realities (see Eclipse of the Sun on the Rhine, 1957). He destroyed all his early work.

From 1916 Heartfield collaborated closely with George Grosz and in the summer of 1917, like Grosz, anglicized his name, although he did not adopt this form officially until after the war. His earnest criticism of bourgeois society found its expression in his commitment to the ...

Article

Lee M. Edwards

(b Waal, Bavaria, May 26, 1849; d Budleigh Salterton, Devon, March 31, 1914).

English painter, illustrator, printmaker, stage designer, film maker, writer and teacher of German birth. He was the only child of Lorenz Herkomer (d 1887), a wood-carver, and Josephine (née Niggl), an accomplished pianist and music teacher. They left Bavaria for the USA in 1851 and lived briefly in Cleveland, OH, before settling in Southampton, England, in 1857.

Herkomer received his first art instruction from his father and from 1864 to 1865 he attended the Southampton School of Art. Later he often criticized the crippling academic methods to which he was exposed as a student. In 1865 he briefly attended the Munich Academy and spent the summer terms of 1866 and 1867 at the South Kensington Art School in London, where he found the teaching ‘aimless and undirected’. With the encouragement of his fellow student Luke Fildes, Herkomer took up black-and-white illustration; his first wood-engraving appeared in Good Words...

Article

S. Kontha

(b Budapest, April 17, 1904; d Budapest, Jan 26, 1986).

Hungarian painter, illustrator, mosaicist, tapestry designer, stage designer, poster designer, printmaker, sculptor, teacher and administrator. From 1922 to 1929 he studied at the Hungarian Academy of Fine Arts (Magyar Kepzőmüvészeti Főiskolá) in Budapest under Gyula Rudnay (1878–1957) and János Vaszary (1867–1939). In the mid-1920s he became acquainted with Béla Uitz’s General Ludd series (1923; Budapest, N.G.) and in Venice he saw the work of such Russian avant-garde artists as Rodchenko and El Lissitzky and such Italian Futurists as Severini. In 1926 in Paris he studied the works of Léger, Braque, Picasso and others in the collection of Léonce Rosenberg. He was also influenced by the art of Brancusi and Joseph Csáky, as well as André Breton’s Manifeste du surréalisme (Paris, 1924). From the outset, Hincz’s work revealed a number of different objectives. Although he experimented with abstraction, the reference to the figure is always present in one form or another. His profound interest in humanity and its social interaction was based on, and motivated by, this interest in the figure. His early paintings are expressionist in mood and are composed of flattened forms in a shallow space in a manner reminiscent of Cubo–Futurist art. Elements of Purism and Surrealism are also present. After World War II he became increasingly preoccupied with realism, political agitprop art and the problems inherent in creating new symbols; a study trip to Korea, China and Vietnam in ...

Article

Marco Livingstone

(b Bradford, July 9, 1937).

English painter, printmaker, photographer, and stage designer. Perhaps the most popular and versatile British artist of the 20th century, Hockney made apparent his facility as a draughtsman while studying at Bradford School of Art between 1953 and 1957, producing portraits and observations of his surroundings under the influence of the Euston Road School and of Stanley Spencer. From 1957 to 1959 he worked in hospitals as a conscientious objector to fulfil the requirements of national service. On beginning a three-year postgraduate course at the Royal College of Art, London, in 1959, he turned first to the discipline of drawing from life in two elaborate studies of a skeleton before working briefly in an abstract idiom inspired by the paintings of Alan Davie.

Encouraged by a fellow student, R. B. Kitaj, Hockney soon sought ways of reintegrating a personal subject-matter into his art while remaining faithful to his newly acquired modernism. He began tentatively by copying fragments of poems on to his paintings, encouraging a close scrutiny of the surface and creating a specific identity for the painted marks through the alliance of word and image. These cryptic messages soon gave way to open declarations in a series of paintings produced in ...

Article

Andreas Franzke

(b Bleckede, nr Lüneburg, June 14, 1945; d Düsseldorf, May 28, 2007).

German painter, draughtsman and sculptor. He entered the Kunstakademie in Düsseldorf in 1963, spending three semesters studying stage set design before becoming a student of Joseph Beuys. After producing a series of pictures in 1966 using babies as his prime motif, he adopted a word suggestive of baby talk, ‘Lidl’, for performances and political demonstrations in Düsseldorf and other cities from 1968 to 1970. These activities, for which he enlisted the support of other artists, continued after he began teaching art in 1968 at a secondary school in Düsseldorf; he remained a teacher there until 1980.

Immendorff’s renewed application to painting coincided with his first meeting with A. R. Penck in East Berlin in 1976. They wrote a brief manifesto on working collaboratively and met again in 1977, when they decided to organize joint artistic activities and exhibitions. It was at this time that Immendorff began his Café Deutschland series, e.g. ...

Article

Mary Chou

(b Bethlehem, 1970).

Palestinian conceptual artist. Jacir’s works use a variety of media including film, photography, installation, performance, video, sound, sculpture and painting. Jacir was raised in Saudi Arabia and attended high school in Rome, Italy. She received her BA from the University of Dallas, Irving, TX in 1992, her MFA from the Memphis College of Art, Memphis, TN in 1994, and participated in the Whitney Independent Study Program from 1998 to 1999. She became a professor at the International Academy of Art, Palestine in Ramallah in 2007. Jacir’s conceptual works explore the physical and psychological effects of social and political displacement and exile, primarily how they affect the Palestinian community. Her work investigated the impact of Israeli action on the Palestinian people and countered representations of Palestinians in the press as primarily militant. Jacir often collaborated with members of the Palestinian community, both local and international, in the creation of her works....

Article

John-Paul Stonard

(b Northwood, Middx, Jan 31, 1942, d London, Feb 19, 1994).

English film maker, theatre designer, writer and painter. After attending King’s College, London (1960–62), he studied painting and stage design at the Slade School of Fine Art, London (1963–7), where he developed a sparse figurative style influenced by that of David Hockney. He exhibited widely after his graduation, participating in the opening exhibition of the Lisson Gallery in London (founded by fellow Slade student Nicholas Logsdail), Young Contemporaries (London, Tate), the John Moores Liverpool Exhibition, Liverpool, and the fifth Biennale des Jeunes Artistes (Paris, Mus. A. Mod., Ville Paris). He soon moved away from the influence of Hockney, painting abstracted landscapes that dwelt on the magical and mythological elements of a location, making reference to the work of Paul Nash. Although he continued painting sporadically during the 1970s, his energies were principally directed in this decade toward film making and theatre design; commissions included two productions in London in ...

Article

Salme Sarajas-Korte

[Erik] (Nikolai)

(b Viipuri [now Vyborg, Russia], Nov 8, 1863; d Helsinki, Nov 15, 1937).

Finnish painter. He came from a Swedish-speaking Finnophile family of artists, writers and composers descended from the Baltic aristocracy. He studied at the Academy of Art in St Petersburg (1883–6) under his uncle Mikhail Klodt (1832–1902), and at the Académie Julian in Paris (1886–91). In Paris he embraced the plein-air naturalism favoured by Jules Bastien-Lepage and Pascal-Adolphe-Jean Dagnan-Bouveret, among others, as well as by Järnefelt’s fellow countryman Albert Edelfelt. He then became interested in the problem of the depiction of light in plein-air painting, as in Lefranc, Wine Merchant, Boulevard de Clichy, Paris (1888; Helsinki, Athenaeum A. Mus.). The depiction of Finnish folk themes in a plein-air style, however, is most typical of his work of the 1880s, for example Boat from Savo (1888; Hämeenlinna, A. Mus.), which won him a gold medal at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1889.

Järnefelt was an extremely important portrait painter. In his portraits of the 1880s he concentrated on showing his subjects in realistic and familiar settings. Among the most striking are those of ...

Article

P. Knolle

(b Leeuwarden, Sept 24, 1770; d Amsterdam, Oct 6, 1836).

Dutch painter, illustrator, printmaker and actor. He received his training from his father, Rienk Jelgerhuis (1729–1806), and from the landscape painter Pieter (Pietersz.) Barbiers II. While travelling with his father through the Dutch Republic he produced illustrations for almanacs, political cartoons and engravings of current events. In 1806 he settled in Amsterdam.

Jelgerhuis was famous primarily as an actor; his manual for actors, Theoretische lessen over de gesticulatie en mimiek, was published in 1827 by Pieter Meijer Warnars, whose bookshop Jelgerhuis had depicted in an attractive painting in 1820, The Bookshop of Pieter Meijer Warnars on the Vijgendam, Amsterdam (Amsterdam, Rijksmus.). With his drawings and paintings of towns (e.g. A Street in Amersfoort, 1826; Amsterdam, Rijksmus.), landscapes and church interiors and his portraits he achieved a distinctive place for himself among Dutch artists. His scenes are remarkable for their lively rendering of human activity, unusual in topographical drawings of the period, although the figures in his subtle, brightly lit paintings often seem somewhat clumsy....