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Edward McParland

(b c. 1690; d June 2, 1765).

Irish painter and architect. He was the only Irish artist other than Charles Jervas to study at Godfrey Kneller’s Academy of Painting and Drawing, London. Bindon’s family held an estate in Co. Clare, and, like his father and brother, he was MP for Ennis, Co. Clare. He travelled in Italy, had a notable library and was a friend of Jonathan Swift, whom he painted four times between 1735 and 1740. During his lifetime he enjoyed a high reputation as a painter, probably based more on lack of competition than on his skill.

The buildings most securely attributed to Bindon are houses in Co. Kilkenny: Bessborough (c. 1744; rebuilt), Woodstock (mid-1740s; ruined) and Castle Morres (partially destr.). They are related in style to the houses of Richard Castle, with whom Bindon collaborated in the 1740s (he probably completed Russborough, Co. Wicklow, after Castle’s death in 1751). The houses confirm Bindon’s status as a gentleman–amateur rather than an innovative and imaginative professional. The routine rhythms of his façades are enlivened by rusticated detail (Gibbs surrounds and quoins), features that suggest Bindon’s presence or influence at undocumented contemporary houses such as Sopwell, Co. Tipperary, Altavilla, Co. Limerick, and Carnelly, Co. Clare, and also at St John’s Square (begun ...


Federica Lamera

(b Genoa, bapt April 14, 1629; d Genoa, 1657).

Italian painter, draughtsman and etcher. He was taught by his father, Giovanni Andrea Biscaino, a mediocre landscape painter, and entered the workshop of Valerio Castello (ii), probably at the end of the 1640s. The chronology of his oeuvre, truncated by his early death in a plague, is hard to reconstruct. Only two paintings bear early documentation: St Ferrando Imploring the Virgin (Genoa, Pal. Bianco) and an untraced Flaying of Marsyas (see Manzitti, 1971, pl. 31). However, his graphic work had a continuing reputation: he was called a ‘great draughtsman’ by Pellegrino Orlandi in his Abecedario pittorico (1704), and his etchings, of which over 40 are catalogued in Bartsch, were ‘very favourably received’, according to Antoine-Joseph Dezallier d’Argenville (1762). About half the etchings are signed or initialled, and two are dated (Nativity, 1655, b. 22; St Mary Magdalene in the Desert, 1656, b. 38). From them it is possible to attribute further works, mostly small canvases, to Biscaino, and to characterize his development....


Dora Vallier

(b Freiburg im Breisgau, Dec 3, 1893; d Ascona, June 18, 1965).

German painter and draughtsman. He registered at the Karlsruhe Academy of Fine Arts in 1914 but remained there for only a few months, preferring to work alone. In 1927 he met the sinologist Ernst Grosse, who in introducing him to ancient Chinese thought enabled him to familiarize himself with a form of art completely outside the European tradition. Among the few surviving works of this period are Zurich Landing Stage (1927) and Self-portrait (1928; both Düsseldorf, Kstsamml. Nordrhein-Westfalen). In 1930 he began to make ink paintings, in the same year meeting in Paris with Constantin Brancusi, who taught him that art was rooted in meditation. Bissier then began to question the abstract painting he practised at the time, to such an extent that when a fire destroyed almost all his works in 1934 he started again from scratch and began to paint in a style influenced by Chinese monochrome ink paintings. From then on he concentrated on the technique of wash drawing in black India ink. Strongly influenced by Taoism, he combined spontaneity and mastery in a single gesture, as in ...


Lucie Galactéros-de Boissier

(b ?Paris, 1614; d Lyon, June 21, 1689).

French painter, draughtsman, architect, sculptor and printmaker. He trained in Paris, where he came into contact with Jacques Sarazin, who advised him to study painting rather than sculpture. He probably studied (c. 1637–45) with Simon Vouet, becoming familiar with perspective, the Mannerism of the School of Fontainebleau and the Baroque, then newly introduced to Paris. Around 1645 he arrived in Rome; during his stay there (which ended in 1653) he worked with artists who were members of Nicolas Poussin’s circle and frequented the studios of Andrea Sacchi, Pietro da Cortona and Gianlorenzo Bernini (who thought highly of him). He executed paintings for Niccolo Guido di Bagno (1584–1663). His engravings of antique tombs and his prospettive were much admired. In 1654 he created a mausoleum for René de Voyer d’Argenson, Ambassador of France in Venice, in S Giobbe, Venice.

In 1655 Blanchet returned to Lyon, having been summoned to carry out the decoration, both painted and sculpted, of the Hôtel de Ville. In ...


Monica Bohm-Duchen

(b Neisse, Silesia [now Nysa, Poland], Nov 16, 1883; d London, June 19, 1954).

British painter and teacher of German birth. The son of a Jewish factory-owner, Bloch studied architecture in Berlin in 1902, aesthetics with Heinrich Wölfflin in Munich in 1905 and drawing with Lovis Corinth in Berlin in 1907. As a painter he was largely self-taught. His first one-man exhibition (1911) took place at the Paul Cassirer Gallery, Berlin. In 1912 he went to Paris, where he worked in Montparnasse and became a friend of Jules Pascin. The years 1914–18 were spent in Spain. In 1923 he founded the Bloch–Kerschbaumer school in Berlin with Anton Kerschbaumer, whose place was later taken by Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. In 1933 Bloch was declared a ‘degenerate artist’ by the Nazis, and in 1934 he fled with his family to Denmark, and thence to London, where, with Roy de Maistre, he opened his School of Contemporary Painting. In later years he taught at Camberwell School of Art....



(b Montfoort, 1533–4; d Utrecht, 1583).

Dutch painter and draughtsman. A portrait medallion (lead pencil; Leiden, Rijksuniv., Munt- & Penningkab.) made by Steven van Herwijck in 1560 gives Blocklandt’s age as 26. His father was a burgomaster in Montfoort, and he first trained in Delft with his uncle Hendrick Sweersz., a portrait painter. From c. 1550 to 1552 he was one of Frans Floris’s many pupils in Antwerp. After his marriage in 1552 to Geertgen Cornelis Meynertsdr., Blocklandt moved to Delft. He is then unrecorded until April 1572, when he travelled from Utrecht to Rome in the company of a goldsmith from Delft. He returned in September of the same year, going first to Montfoort and later to Utrecht, where in 1577 he entered the saddlemakers’ guild, to which painters then belonged. In 1578 he was married for the second time, to Susanna Anthonis Reversdr. van Vreeswijk, who bore him three children. He lived the last years of his life in the monastery of St Catharine, which belonged to the Knights of St John in Utrecht. He was a friend of Willem Danielsz. van Tetrode, the Delft sculptor; among his pupils were ...


C. J. A. Wansink

Dutch family of artists. Cornelis Bloemaert I (b Dordrecht, c. 1540; d Utrecht, bur 1 Nov 1593) was an architect, sculptor and teacher, whose pupils included Hendrick de Keyser I. In 1567 he visited ’s Hertogenbosch in order to repair the city gates and the pulpit of the St Janskerk, which had been damaged in 1566 during the Iconoclastic Fury. From 1576 he lived in Utrecht, where in 1586 he collaborated on decorations for the ceremonial entry of Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester and self-styled Governor General of the United Provinces. From 1591 to 1593 Bloemaert was master builder of Amsterdam. His son (1) Abraham Bloemaert (b 1566) was the most gifted member of the family and became one of the most important painters working in Utrecht in the first half of the 17th century. Four of Abraham’s sons also worked as artists, all of them receiving their initial training from their ...


Paul Huvenne


(b ?Poperinghe, 1488; d Bruges, bur March 4, 1581).

South Netherlandish painter, draughtsman, designer, architect, civil engineer, cartographer and engraver. He is said to have trained as a bricklayer, and the trowel he used to add as his housemark next to his monogram lab testifies to this and to his pretensions as an architectural designer. In 1519 he was registered as a master painter in the Bruges Guild of St Luke, where he chose as his speciality painting on canvas. The following year he collaborated with the little-known painter Willem Cornu in designing and executing 12 scenes for the Triumphal Entry of Emperor Charles V into Bruges. From then onwards Blondeel received regular commissions, mainly as a designer and organizer. Records of legal actions show that he was sometimes late with commissions; he took seven years to execute a Last Judgement ordered in 1540 for the council chamber at Blankenberge, and in 1545 the Guild of St Luke summoned him for his failure to supply their guild banner on time. Blondeel was married to Kathelyne, sister of the wood-carver ...


Jeffrey R. Hayes


(b Prenzlau, Germany, June 21, 1867; d South Braintree, MA, Jan 12, 1938).

American painter and architect of German birth. Bluemner emigrated to the USA in 1892, after receiving his diploma and an award for a painting of an architectural subject from the Königliche Technische Hochschule, Berlin. He first worked as a draughtsman at the World’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago, and later designed New York’s Bronx Borough Courthouse (1902). Around 1910 his professional focus moved to painting under the aegis of Alfred Stieglitz, who gave him a one-man exhibition at the Gallery 291 gallery in 1915, published his writings in Camera Work and recommended his inclusion in the Forum Exhibition of Modern American Painters (1916).

Bluemner’s prismatically structured early landscapes (e.g., Expression of a Silktown, 1915; Trenton, NJ State Mus.) reflected his lasting interest in colour theory and familiarity with the work of Paul Cézanne and Vincent van Gogh and with Neo-Impressionism. During the 1920s he concentrated on watercolours (e.g., ...


(b Falun, April 11, 1860; d Stockholm, May 7, 1946).

Swedish architect, draughtsman and painter. After studying at the Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan and the Kungliga Akademien för de fria Konsterna (1878–84), with his artist-wife Anna Boberg (b 1864) he made extensive journeys in Italy, France, Spain and the rest of the Mediterranean region, also visiting Britain. Early on he was impressed by the work of H. H. Richardson, and this was reinforced by his visit to the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago (1893) and to the studio of Louis Sullivan. Boberg’s highly personal style amalgamated these American influences with impressions from Italy, Spain and North Africa, and his ornamentation in particular is connected both to Sullivan and to the Moorish and Byzantine. Gävle Fire Station (1890) shows clearly the Richardsonian use of the Romanesque with round-arched doorways in heavy granite, picturesque asymmetry and colonette motifs. Industrial buildings for the Stockholm Gas and Electricity Works in the 1890s demonstrate Boberg’s effective use of colourful brick and stone. The surviving portal of an electricity station (destr.) in central Stockholm is decorated by ornamentation of electric light-bulbs with a Sullivanesque sharpness, and postal motifs of a similar nature adorn the Central Post Office (...


Michael Eissenhauer

(b ?Memmingen; fl c. 1511; d Mulhouse, 1553).

German painter, draughtsman and etcher. The son of a Memmingen artist, he was in Lucerne in 1512–13 and was taxed in Konstanz from 1515 to 1544. Leaving Konstanz in 1543, he stayed briefly in Colmar, then worked in Montbéliard (1544–6). From 1552 until his death he was employed painting the town hall (built 1551) of Mulhouse. His principal work was the high altar (1523–4; destr. 1529) of the church at St Gall Abbey. His surviving work was formerly thought to include the triptych (1524) in the cathedral at Konstanz, and the etchings of the Augsburg monogrammist Master CB were also attributed to him, but the triptych is now known to be the work of Matthäus Gutrecht II (fl 1517–24), and the monogrammist CB has been identified as Conrad Bauer (fl 1525–31). Thus Bockstorffer is no longer seen as a painter of Augsburg training who had a lasting influence on, and introduced significant innovations to, the painting of the Bodensee area. His oeuvre, of which only a few samples survive (along with the St Gall altarpiece, all the murals were lost), shows him as an artist of slight originality. A winged altarpiece (...


Hans Vlieghe

[Bockhorst, Johann; Lange Jan]

(b Münster or Rees, c. 1604; d Antwerp, April 21, 1668).

Flemish painter and draughtsman of German birth. Around 1626 he moved to Antwerp. According to de Bie and Filips Rubens (Vita Petri Pauli Rubenii, 1676), he became a pupil or assistant of Jacob Jordaens and Peter Paul Rubens; the style of his work bears this out. A document of 1655 reveals that Boeckhorst painted a ‘Silenus’, which was subsequently retouched by Rubens and which must have been made under his supervision (i.e. Rubens’s typical workshop practice). Boeckhorst must have had a good relationship with Rubens during the 1630s, as he was one of those who contributed to the large series of paintings Rubens was then working on for the decorations of the Pompa Introitus Ferdinandi (1635; destr., see Martin, p. 134) and for the Torre de la Parada (1637–8; see Alpers, p. 218). Between 1635 and 1637 he toured Italy, and in 1639 he returned there especially to visit Rome. As an independent painter he also executed a number of commissions in the 1630s, such as the 26 scenes, mostly biblical, for the Falcon Monastery in Antwerp, commissioned by a merchant named ...


Arnout Balis

(b Antwerp, bapt Oct 22, 1622; d Paris, Sept 3, 1674).

Flemish painter, draughtsman and etcher. He came from an artistic family: his father Jan Boel (1592–1640), was an engraver, publisher and art dealer; his uncle Quirin Boel I was an engraver; and his brother Quirin Boel II (1620–40) was also a printmaker. Pieter was probably apprenticed in Antwerp to Jan Fyt, but may have studied previously with Frans Snyders. He then went to Italy, probably visiting Rome and Genoa, where he is supposed to have stayed with Cornelis de Wael. None of Boel’s work from this period is known. In 1650 he became a master in the Antwerp Guild of St Luke (having given his first name as Jan, not Pieter). His marriage to Maria Blanckaert took place at about the same time. Boel dated only a few of his paintings, making it difficult to establish a chronology. He is best known for his hunting scenes, some of which clearly show his debt to Snyders, but the dominant influence on his work was that of Fyt, particularly evident in his emphatic brushwork. However, Boel was more restrained both in his treatment and in his handling of outline. He also borrowed the theme of open-air hunting still-lifes (e.g. ...


Lorraine Peake

(b Chantilly, Feb 18, 1755; d Rome, April 1, 1839).

French painter and draughtsman, active in Italy. Sent to Paris at the age of 23 as a protégé of the Prince de Condé, he was admitted to the Académie on the recommendation of Augustin Pajou to study history painting. In 1783 he went to Rome, where he began to concentrate on landscape, spending the summer months outdoors in the Roman Campagna. These trips resulted in hundreds of drawings (Rome, Pal. Farnesina), the best of which have been compared to those of Claude Lorrain. In the 1790s Boguet painted views for European aristocrats staying in Rome, in particular Frederick Augustus Hervey, 4th Earl of Bristol, for whom he painted a View of Lake Albano (Grenoble, Mus. Peint. & Sculp.) in 1795. The following year Boguet was introduced to Napoleon, who persuaded him to paint a number of works celebrating his Italian campaigns, including the Battle of Castiglione (Versailles, Château).

In 1800...


Philippe Sorel

(b Chalon-sur-Saône, Aug 30, 1735; d Paris, Dec 9, 1814).

French sculptor, draughtsman and painter. He probably first trained in Chalon, under the sculptor Pierre Colasson (c. 1724–70); later he studied in Paris at the school of the Académie Royale, under Simon Challes. In 1766 he travelled to Italy, remaining there until 1770. The art of Raphael and his school and the Fontainebleau school influenced Boichet’s art (e.g. Agrippina Bearing Germanicus’s Ashes, Lille, Mus. B.-A.) from an early date by giving his work a Neo-classical character. Boichot next worked in Burgundy, where he was responsible for architecture, sculpture and paintings at the château of Verdun-sur-le-Doubs (destr.). He also produced decorative work for the salon of the Académie de Dijon, of which he was a member; for the refectory of the abbey of St Benigne, Dijon, he executed a painting of the Triumph of Temperance over Gluttony (Dijon, Mus. B.-A.). In Paris his studio was in the Passage Sandrier off the Chaussée d’Antin. Introduced by Augustin Pajou, he was approved (...


Marie-Félicie Pérez

(b Lyon, Nov 30, 1736; d Lyon, March 1, 1810).

French printmaker, draughtsman and painter. Apart from studying briefly at the Ecole Gratuite de Dessin in Lyon, he was self-taught. His first concentrated phase as a printmaker was 1758–64, during which he published three suites of etchings. Boissieu spent 1765–6 in Italy in the company of Louis-Alexandre, Duc de la Rochefoucauld (1743–93), returning to Lyon via the Auvergne with a cache of his own landscape drawings. He remained in Lyon, where he published further prints at intervals, making occasional trips to Paris and Geneva. Boissieu’s prints earned him the reputation of being the last representative of the older etching tradition—he particularly admired Rembrandt van Rijn—at a time when engraving was being harnessed for commercial prints, and lithography was coming into use. For his landscape etchings Boissieu drew upon the scenery of the Roman Campagna, the watermills, windmills and rustic figures of the Dutch school (notably Salomon van Ruysdael) and the countryside around Lyon. He also engraved ...


Richard Jeffree


(b ?Antwerp, ?1589; fl 1636–c. 1666).

Painter, etcher and draughtsman, active in London. He was probably from a family of painters originating in Mechelen who later settled in Antwerp. Bol and his wife were members of the Dutch Church in London in 1636. An etching of an Action between the Dutch and Spanish Fleets (Oxford, Bodleian Lib.) is signed and dated 1639, and a set of etchings by him after Abraham Casembrot (fl c. 1650–75) includes a view of Lambeth Palace as well as four imaginary Mediterranean seaports. A signed drawing of the Blockhouse at Gravesend is in the British Museum, London. George Vertue saw at Wotton House, Bucks, ‘three views of London from the River side Arundel House Somersett house Tower Lond. painted before the fire of London by Cornelius Boll: a good free taste’. They were probably commissioned by John Evelyn, the diarist, around 1660 and descended in the Evelyn family. Their attribution to Bol is confirmed by a signed version of ...


Marijke van der Meij-Tolsma

(b Dordrecht, bapt June 24, 1616; d Amsterdam, bur July 24, 1680).

Dutch painter and draughtsman. He was a pupil and prominent follower of Rembrandt in Amsterdam. His reputation and fame are based on his history paintings, which, though successful at the time, lack originality, and on his portraits, a genre for which he showed more talent.

His father, a surgeon, belonged to the prosperous middle class. Ferdinand received his initial training as a painter in Dordrecht from Jacob Gerritsz. Cuyp. It is possible that he, like Cuyp, worked for a short time in Utrecht, for his earliest signed work, Vertumnus and Pomona (c. 1635; London, Cevat priv. col., see Blankert, 1982, pl. 1), exhibits influences of the Utrecht school. Unlike many of his contemporaries, Bol did not travel to Italy, but left for Amsterdam in 1637, at the age of nearly 20, to study in Rembrandt’s workshop. The older painter’s influence profoundly affected the whole of his subsequent career. It is not known how long he remained with Rembrandt; however, there is no surviving signed and dated work before ...


Hans Devisscher

(b Mechelen, Dec 16, 1534; d Amsterdam, ?bur Nov 20, 1593).

Flemish painter and draughtsman. He received his training as a painter from two of his uncles, Jacob Bol I and Jan Bol (fl 1505). After two years in Heidelberg, he was made a master in the Mechelen Guild of St Luke. After the annexation of the city by the Spanish troops in 1572, Bol settled in Antwerp, where he became a master in 1574. A decade later he left Antwerp, arriving in Amsterdam after travelling to Bergen-op-Zoom, Dordrecht and Delft. Van Mander’s statement that he was buried in Amsterdam on 20 November 1593 is disputed by some sources because of a supposedly signed Adoration of the Shepherds dated 1595 (see Wurzbach, i, p. 130). Bol’s most important students included his stepson Frans Boels, Jacob Savery and Joris Hoefnagel.

Bol began his career primarily as a watercolour painter; the technique of waterschilderen was very common in Mechelen, where, instead of the far more expensive wall tapestries, large-scale scenes were painted on canvas using opaque watercolour or tempera. While in Antwerp he also executed numerous fine miniature landscapes in gouache on parchment, richly populated with human figures. He was a gifted draughtsman, and many of his drawings were made into prints by such engravers as ...


(b Milan, c. 1467; d Milan, June 15, 1516).

Italian painter and draughtsman. A pupil of Leonardo da Vinci, he was active mainly in Milan and was particularly noted as a portrait painter.

Boltraffio belonged to a noble Milanese family; he did not paint from financial necessity and did not pursue his career in a systematic way. His birth date is calculated from the inscription on his tomb (Milan, Castello Sforzesco; ex-S Paolo in Compito, destr. 1547). No signed painting by him survives, and the documentation records only three works of secure attribution and date and provides little biographical information. His reconstructed oeuvre has been expanded unduly by some writers and restricted too rigorously by others. Vasari stated that he trained with Leonardo; he is probably the ‘Gian Antonio’ mentioned by Leonardo in a note of 1491 (Paris, Bib. Inst. France, MS. C, fol. 15v), when Boltraffio was about 24. Some writers suggest that before he entered Leonardo’s workshop Boltraffio had a phase of work influenced by Vincenzo Foppa and Bernardo Zenale, when he may have painted two panels with ...