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Article

Franco Bernabei

(b Venice; fl 1534–65).

Italian painter and writer. He is chiefly known for his Dialogo di pittura (1548), in which he referred to Giovanni Girolamo Savoldo as his teacher. Three signed paintings by him survive, all of which show him to have been influenced by Bergamese painting and the school of Giorgione: the Portrait of a Man (1534; Chambéry, Mus. B.-A.), the Portrait of Dr Coignati (?1534; Florence, Uffizi) and the Virgin and Child with Four Saints and a Donor (1565; Padua, S Francesco). R. Pallucchini (1946) attributed to Pino another Portrait of a Man (Rome, Gal. Doria–Pamphili). In 1548 he designed the marble base of a commemorative column in the town of Noale, between Padua and Treviso; this remains in situ, but the frescoes he is thought to have painted in the loggia of the same town are untraced.

In his Dialogo Pino emerges as the first Venetian ...

Article

Andreas Stolzenburg

(b Eichstätt, Dec 5, 1470; d Nuremberg, Dec 22, 1530).

German humanist and writer. From 1478 to 1488 he was tutored and prepared for university by his father, Johann Pirckheimer (c. 1440–1501), who himself had had a humanist education. After a period of courtly and military instruction in Eichstätt (c. 1488–9), he studied jurisprudence in Italy (1489–95). During this time he pursued humanist studies and began to take an interest in art and antique architecture, as shown by a sketchbook with drawings after Roman monuments and antique inscriptions (London, BL, Cod. Egerton 1926). On his return to Germany he became a member of Nuremberg council, on which he served almost continuously from 1496 until 1523; it was at his instigation that the council founded a school of poetry in 1496. Pirckheimer and his wife lived in Nuremberg at Hauptmarkt 19, just across from the Schöner Brunnen, where they played host to the most learned men of the day, humanists, artists and historians alike. In ...

Article

Marco Collareta

(b Mantua, July 10, 1533; d Ferrara, Feb 26, 1611).

Italian writer. He entered the Jesuit Order in 1559, and was an energetic teacher, diplomat and campaigner against heretics. He also wrote a great many books, the outstanding works being the Moscovia (1586), important for information on the Russia of that time, and the Bibliotheca selecta (1593), a broad and systematic treatise on divine and human sciences. The 17th book of the Bibliotheca selecta deals with poetry and painting. Like other parts of the work, it was published on its own (1595), with additions and under the title Tractatio de poesi et pictura ethnica, humana et fabulosa collata cum vera, honesta et sacra. Possevino was convinced of the close affinity between poetry and painting and believed that painters must have a wide literary and scientific education. He referred to the major ancient and modern writers on painting, providing the first attempt at a critical bibliography on the subject. The theological and moral correctness of images interested him intensely. The ...

Article

Celia Carrington Riely

revised by Katharine Burnett

[Tung Ch’i-ch’ang; zi Xuanzai; hao Sibo, Siweng, Xiangguang, Xiangguang jushi; Wenmin]

(b Shanghai, Feb 10, 1555; d Dec 1636).

Chinese painter, calligrapher, connoisseur, theoretician, collector, and high official.

At the age of 12 Dong Qichang, the son of a local school teacher, passed the prefectural civil-service examination to qualify as a Government Student (shengyuan) and was awarded a coveted place in the prefectural school. Mortified, however, at being ranked below his younger kinsman Dong Chuanxu because of his clumsy calligraphy, from 1571 Dong resolved to study calligraphy in earnest. His initial models were rubbings of works by the Tang-period (618–907 ce) calligraphers Yan Zhenqing and Yu Shinan (558–638), but soon realizing the superior merits of the Six Dynasties (222–589 ce) calligraphers, he turned to the works of Zhong You (151–230 ce) and the great Wang Xizhi (see Wang family (i), (1)). After three years he was confident of having grasped their style, and no longer admired works by the Ming-period (...

Article

Elisabeth Scheicher

(b Antwerp, 1529; d ?Munich, 1567).

Flemish writer, active in Germany. He studied medicine, philosophy and history in Ghent, Nuremberg and Basle under Hieronymus Wolf (1516–80), who subsequently summoned him to Augsburg, where he was appointed librarian to Jakob Fugger in the 1550s. He was recommended by Fugger to Albert V, Duke of Bavaria, in 1553 and travelled widely within Germany, visiting Rome, Padua and Bologna (1563). He is portrayed in a medallion (1563; Munich, Staatl. Münzsamml.) and his life is described by Heinrich Pantaleon (1522–95) in Prosographiae heroum atque illustrium virorum totius Germaniae (Basle, 1565) for which he himself wrote biographies, including that of Orlando di Lasso (1532–94).

Quiccheberg’s importance to the history of culture lies in his Inscriptiones vel tituli teatri amplissimi (Munich, 1565), in which the programme for an ideal museum was drawn up for the first time north of the Alps, with the diversity encountered in the all-embracing ...

Article

Esin Atil

[Haydār Ra’īs; Haydar Reis; Nigari; Reis Haydar]

(b ?1492; d Istanbul, 1572).

Ottoman painter, poet and naval captain. He is often known by the pseudonym Nigari (Ott. nigārī, ‘the portraitist’), with which he signed several paintings of Ottoman sultans and court officials. His couplets are frequently included on his paintings. He seems to have painted portraits from life of the sultans Süleyman (reg 1520–66) and Selim II (reg 1566–74) and the grand admiral of the Ottoman fleet, Barbaros Hayreddin Pasha (d 1546). These single-leaf portraits were later incorporated into albums (e.g. Istanbul, Topkapı Pal. Lib., H 2134). The portraits reveal a realistic approach and depict the physical characteristics of the subjects, employing large figures painted in bold colours on a dark-green ground with minimal settings. In contrast to works by members of the imperial painting studio (see Islamic art, §III, 4(vi)(e)), Nigari’s portraits are less refined and lack technical finesse: the sheets are not polished and the pigments are rapidly applied. Nevertheless, they display an individual style and a personal approach. His work helped to establish the genre of portraiture in Ottoman court circles that had been introduced in the 1480s. Although late 15th-century portraits show the impact of European art, Nigari’s works are purely in the Ottoman tradition and his style remained untouched by outside influences, even though he copied prints of European rulers, including Francis I and Charles V (e.g. Cambridge, MA, Sackler Mus., 85.214a and b)....

Article

Olimpia Theodoli

(b c. 1527; d 1611).

Italian monk, writer and scholar. His first dated works are comedies: La Checca (Venice, 1556), La balia (Florence, 1560), La Gostanza (Florence, 1565) and La Gismonda (Florence, 1569). After he joined the Camaldolese Order he concentrated on writing on religious subjects, though he also wrote Vite di conque uomini illustri...

Article

Rafael Moreira

(fl 1564; d Setúbal, 1590).

Portuguese architect and theorist. The author of the only known 16th-century Portuguese treatise on architecture, he bridged the passage from the Renaissance humanistic tradition to the ‘plain style’, influenced by military architecture, that anticipated and ran parallel with the Spanish estilo desornamentado (‘unornamented style’). The influence behind Rodrigues’s work is unknown, but the need for defences in the Portuguese empire was doubtless a determining factor. He was royal architect to Sebastian, King of Portugal (see Aviz, House of family §(13)), from 1568 and was the first teacher of the official school of architecture of the Paço de Ribeira, the royal palace (Moreira).

The Italian references in Rodrigues’s writings indicate that he may have trained in Italy, probably with a royal scholarship, for four years (?1560–63). In Portugal his point of departure was Diogo de Torralva’s late style at Tomar. Rodrigues rose rapidly, and he was nominated on ...

Article

Alicia Cámara Muñoz

(b Toledo, c. 1555; d Cadiz, Oct 12, 1614).

Spanish engineer and writer. He was educated as an architect and from 1591 also trained as an engineer in Brittany, graduating in 1595. On his return he taught at the Academia de Matemáticas in Madrid, an outcome of which was his first technical treatise (1598), the first published by a Spaniard. An illustrated work, it deals with geometry and arithmetic, the different parts of fortifications building materials and techniques, and the organization of an army for battle. On the subject of fortification it follows the Italian school, citing many of its treatise writers. The manuscript of a book by Rojas on military engineering survives, dated 1607. It is prepared for printing and is divided into three parts: the army, fortifications and artillery. In 1613 Rojas also published a brief treatise in which he summarized the essentials of the art of fortification.

As an engineer, he worked mainly on the fortifications at Cadiz but also in Gibraltar, North Africa and other points on the Spanish coasts, being obliged to make frequent visits to the court. He also designed civil and religious works, including the choir (...

Article

(b ?Como or ?Venice, c. 1520; d Venice, 1587).

Italian architect, decorator and writer. Rusconi was a pupil of the mathematician Niccolò Tartaglia (Tafuri, 1989). In his early years he seems to have been chiefly a military architect in the service of the Venetian Republic in Dalmatia. He returned to Venice to become proto (overseer) to the Provveditori al Sal, in which post he was responsible in 1563 for the design of the new prisons across the canal east of the Doge’s Palace. The first stage, the rear section, was begun in 1566 and completed to his design, although it was enlarged in 1589 and re-faced with a new block by Antonio da Ponte, facing the Riva degli Schiavoni. Around 1573–5 Rusconi worked on Michele Sanmicheli’s monumental Palazzo Grimani at S Luca, taking over from Grigi, de’ family §(2) in supervising the completion of the second piano nobile and the roof. Also about this time he advised Doge ...

Article

Sadiqi  

S. J. Vernoit

[Ṡādiqī; Ṡādiqī Beg; Ṡādiqī Beg Afshār]

(b Tabriz, 1533–4; d Isfahan, 1609–10).

Persian calligrapher, painter, poet and chronicler. He came from a notable family of the Khudabandalu Turkmen tribe. At the age of 32 he turned to art, studying under the poet–calligrapher Mir San‛i at Tabriz; in 1568 Sadiqi moved to the Safavid capital at Qazvin, where he studied painting with Muzaffar ‛Ali. Sadiqi rose quickly in the royal atelier. The last major manuscript produced for the Safavid ruler Tahmasp (reg 1524–76), a copy (London, BL, Or. MS. 12985) of Asadi’s Garshāspnāma (‘Book of Garshasp’), dated 1573–4, has one painting (fol. 85v) attributed to Sadiqi, and he played a leading role in illustrating the incomplete copy (dispersed) of the Shāhnāma (‘Book of kings’) made for Isma‛il II (reg 1576–8). The seven paintings ascribed to Sadiqi show such characteristics of his early style as distinct colouring, hard contours, flat architecture and rigid figure drawing. During the reign of Muhammad Khudabanda (...

Article

Fernando Marías

(b Burgos, c.1490; d Toledo, before June 5, 1528).

Spanish writer. He studied at Alcalá de Henares (1512–15) and in 1517 became priest and chaplain there to Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros and possibly to Queen Joanna. Sagredo travelled in Italy between 1518 and 1521, before joining Toledo Cathedral in 1522. From 1524 he received a semi-prebend from the cathedral, and in 1527 he became the cathedral librarian, working as a designer of temporary structures and feast day organizer. Under the protection of Archbishop Alonso de Fonseca y Acevedo, to whom he dedicated his treatise and for whom he acted as Inspector of Works at the archiepiscopal palace of Alcalá de Henares, Sagredo obtained royal permission in 1524 to publish his Medidas del Romano (Toledo, 1526). Five further editions in Castilian followed by 1564, and the text was translated into French and printed seven times between c. 1537 and 1608. Already in the first French edition a series of paragraphs and illustrations was added on intercolumnar dimensions, arcades, and pedestals (with woodcuts showing the ‘entire’ orders): these were then used in the subsequent Spanish editions....

Article

Ugo Ruggeri

[il Talpino]

(b ?Salmezza, c. 1565–70; d Bergamo, Feb 23, 1626).

Italian painter and theorist. Little is known of his training, but he must have absorbed a variety of influences as a young man. The Virgin Suckling the Infant Christ (1590; Bergamo, S Lazzaro) is derived from the art of Jacopo Bassano; yet his first monumental work, the Adoration of the Magi (1594), painted on an organ shutter in S Maria Maggiore in Bergamo shows an interest in the 16th-century painting of Bergamo and Brescia, from Giovanni Girolamo Savoldo to Giovanni Battista Moroni and Moretto, while at the same time suggesting an awareness of the classicism of early 16th-century Lombard art. There are no documents to suggest that Salmeggia ever visited Rome, so he must have absorbed the art of Raphael through that of Cesare da Sesto, Bernardino Luini and Lorenzo Lotto. From Luini, above all, he derived the use of clear compositions and ideal forms that are fundamental aspects of his art. The ...

Article

A. Bustamante García

(b Chinchón, ?1535; d San Lorenzo, El Escorial, June 3, 1591).

Spanish painter and writer. He was a Hieronymite monk, originally at the former monastery in Guisando (Ávila), and one of the founder-members of the royal monastery at San Lorenzo el Real, El Escorial (1561–84), founded by Philip II. There he was community treasurer (arquero) and archivist, and was charged with the care of relics and the library. He assisted Benito Arias Montano, who taught him Greek and Hebrew, to organize the royal library. Fray San Jerónimo was an expert in practical perspective and illumination, and he painted a series of plants and animals from Historia natural de Indias (pubd Rome, 1628–48) by Dr Francisco Hernández, which hung in Philip II’s private quarters at the monastery. He also painted devotional subjects in gouache for the monastery (untraced). He was commissioned to write Memorias del monasterio de El Escorial (MSS, Madrid, Escorial, Bib. Monasterio S Lorenzo), the first written account of its foundation, which details the progress of the construction and decoration from ...

Article

Donata Battilotti

(d Verona, May 8, 1550).

Italian humanist, historian and patron. He was the author of the first printed book on the history and antiquities of Verona, published in 1540, with woodcuts after drawings by Giovanni Battista Caroto that are still extant (Verona, Bib. Civ.). De origine et amplitudine civitatis Veronae, written in Latin, takes the form of a conversation between members of a group of Veronese humanists including, apart from the author, Giacomo Villafranca and Giovanni Nicola Capella, and the artist Giovanni Battista Caroto. Caroto is given the task of providing technical information on the monuments that are the subject of the second book, which he himself had illustrated.

De origine was the first complete catalogue of Veronese antiquities, from the most prominent, such as the Arena, to miscellaneous remains such as displaced capitals. Also worthy of note are the Latin inscriptions, of which the author must have possessed a collection. The measurements are minute, and the monuments (except for the Arena) are completely reconstructed in the illustrations. Each is placed chronologically in relation to the salient moments of Roman history, and due recognition is given to the architects....

Article

Donata Battilotti

(b Padua, 1478; d Padua, May 29, 1574).

Italian ecclesiastic and historiographer. Educated in Padua, he later entered the clergy and was elected a canon of Padua Cathedral in 1556. He wrote a number of religious works but is best remembered for his book on the antiquities and illustrious men of Padua. This Latin work was granted a licence to print in Venice in 1557 but was published in Basle in 1560. Following the tradition of earlier municipal chronicles, Scardeone described the origins and cultural heritage of Padua, paying considerable attention to its ancient monuments and transcribing many inscriptions from tombs. He also devoted a chapter to the artists of Padua, from the 14th century to his own day, including Andrea Mantegna, Francesco Squarcione, Andrea Riccio and Tiziano Minio. This was the first attempt, outside Florence, to compose a local compendium of artistic biographies. Although the accounts of the lives of individual artists, particularly the earlier ones, often have an anecdotal or legendary quality, they are nevertheless a valuable source for the study of Paduan art, especially that of the 15th century. The frontispiece of this volume is a view of Padua by an anonymous artist: it offers the first accurate compilation of visual data on the city’s buildings....

Article

Rosemarie Bergmann

(b Nuremberg, Nov 11, 1481; d Nuremberg, June 14, 1542).

German jurist, diplomat and legal adviser. While teaching at the University of Wittenberg (1507–12) he was adviser to the Saxon princes and assessor at their court, where he met Lucas Cranach (i), who painted his portrait (1509; Germany, priv. col.). His Oratorio (Leipzig, 1509) was prefaced with a dedicatory epistle to Cranach, which, in humanist fashion, extolled the latter’s perfection, celerity and industry. Cranach designed a woodcut of Wittenberg Collegiate Church (Lucas Cranach, exh. cat., p. 187, pl. 88, no. 96) for this booklet, and a coloured one of a lady bearing the arms of Scheurl’s parents (c. 1510; London, BM) for use as a bookmark. In 1512 Scheurl was appointed legal adviser to the government of Nuremberg, whose secular and religious concerns he represented in many diplomatic missions. As an active member of the city’s humanist circle he was involved in the deliberations leading to the introduction of the Reformation there in ...

Article

Lon R. Shelby

[Hans]

(fl 1487; d after 1518).

German goldsmith. Because Schmuttermayer wrote a booklet on pinnacles (Fialenbüchlein), published in Nuremberg in the late 1480s, most scholars have assumed he was a master mason. But although in his prologue he mentioned ‘other great and famous masters, such as the Junkers of Prague’, by which he meant the Parler family of master masons, he did not state his own profession.

In the late 1480s Schmuttermayer’s name began to appear regularly in the court records of Nuremberg, and the first references to him intimated that he was a goldsmith. In 1487 he was sued by a woman who claimed that he had a silver cane that belonged to her. In the same year Hermann Laisner certified that he owed money to Albrecht Dürer and Hanns Schmuttermayer. This was probably Albrecht Dürer the elder, who was a goldsmith and father of the famous artist. In 1489 a financial agreement was recorded between Hanns Schmuttermayer, ...

Article

Alicia Cámara Muñoz

[Pier Luigi; Pyrrhus Aloisius]

(b ?Valencia, before 1490; d ?1560–69).

Spanish engineer, military architect and writer, active in Italy. He is first noted as working on the fortifications of Naples in 1532 in the service of the Viceroy, Pedro de Toledo. Between 1534 and 1540 he was engaged at the citadel of L’Aquila, on the defences of Nola and Capua, and on the Castel Sant’Elmo in Naples, where he is named in an inscription over the gate. There is little information about him after 1540, and it is uncertain if he is to be identified with an engineer named Luis Scriva, who was active in Milan, Africa and Spain. A codex dated 1560, with designs by Francesco Paciotto for the fortifications of Vercelli, includes one by Scrivá.

In 1537 Scrivá published Veneris tribunal, dedicated to Francesco Maria I della Rovere, Duke of Urbino, a mixture of writings on love, mythology, dreams and other literary themes, with descriptions of architecture and fiestas. His ...

Article

Deborah Howard

(b Bologna, Sept 6, 1475; d ?Fontainebleau, ?1554).

Italian architect, theorist, and painter, active also in France. He wrote one of the most influential architectural treatises of the Renaissance, although he began his career as a painter. After a period of study in Rome, he moved to Venice, where he established a reputation as an architectural adviser, and then to France, where he executed his only complete buildings. His treatise comprised volumes (published separately and in some cases posthumously) on aspects of architectural theory, and its visual emphasis gave it an important influence, especially in northern Europe. It also charted Serlio’s stylistic development: his artistic formation occurred in the circle of Bramante in Rome, where his chief mentor was Baldassare Peruzzi; in Venice he adapted Roman themes to Venetian circumstances and building types and began to show an enjoyment of the more bizarre traits of Mannerism; finally, in France he absorbed features of the French native tradition. A woodcut portrait of Serlio in Torello Sarayna’s ...