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Lisbet Balslev Jørgensen


(b Germany, 1893; d 1979).

Danish landscape architect, teacher and writer. After training as a horticulturist he worked in Copenhagen from 1914 to 1922 as a draughtsman for the landscape architect, Erik Erstad-Jørgensen (1872–1945). From 1922 he ran his own practice, and from 1924 to 1929 he collaborated with another Danish landscape architect, G. N. Brandt (1878–1945). He became a lecturer in landscape gardening at the Kunstakademi, Copenhagen, in 1940, and as the first professor of landscape and garden architecture from 1954 to 1963 he devised training courses for the modern landscape architect. He evolved his theories in discussion and collaboration with Povl Baumann, Ivar Bentsen, Kaare Klint, Kay Fisker, Aage Rafn and Steen Eiler Rasmussen. Carl Petersen’s concepts of ‘Contrasts’ and ‘Textural Effects’ were the basis of their aesthetic views.

Sørensen aimed to avoid monotony, to create harmony and unity, and to give significance to landscape through spatial experience and sculptural forms. His materials were earth and plants. He learnt his art by visiting European gardens and saw the new ideas put into practice in Frankfurt am Main and Berlin. Through his prolific writings, his teaching and close collaboration with leading architects he had a profound influence on the cultivation of physical surroundings, on parks and woods, roads and motorways, architecture and environment in housing developments, residential suburbs and country-house gardens. The circle and the oval were Sørensen’s favoured forms. He saw in the Greek amphitheatre the divine idea projected down upon earth, citing as an example the Viking settlement at Trelleborg in Scandinavia. His own garden, created in ...


G. Komelova

(Vasil’yevich) [Vasil’yev]

(b Pokrovskaya, Tver’ province, Nov 27, 1823; d Pokrovskaya, April 22, 1864).

Russian painter and draughtsman. He came from a family of serfs and, as a youth, worked as a gardener on the Ostrovsky estate. He was a self-taught draughtsman and, between 1842 and 1847, was a pupil and assistant of the painter Aleksey Venetsianov, who owned and lived on a neighbouring estate. Venetsianov tried unsuccessfully to have Soroka released from serfdom. Under Venetsianov’s supervision, Soroka began by copying engravings by foreign masters; he also travelled about Tver’ province and produced paintings for churches. In his subsequent work, which included portraits, rural genre scenes, interiors and landscapes, Soroka closely followed Venetsianov’s form of poetic realism. Among examples of his early work are 15 pencil portraits of servants working for the Milyukov family (1842; St Petersburg, Rus. Mus.). These are relatively unsophisticated and somewhat severe and static representations of simple folk: the cook Gavriil Yevstif’yev, the potter Stepan Vasil’yev and the housekeeper ...


Bruce A. Coats

(b Ise Prov. [now in Mie Prefect.], 1275; d Kyoto, 1351).

Japanese Zen master, poet, scholar and garden designer. As spiritual adviser to both Emperor GoDaigo (reg 1318–39) and the military leaders who overthrew him, Musō was politically influential and acted as mediator during the civil wars of the 1330s. At various times in his life Musō served as abbot of Nanzenji, one of the various Gozan (Five Mountains) Zen monasteries including Nanzenji in Kyoto (see Kyoto §IV 4.). The support of both imperial and shogunal courts enabled him to found many new Rinzai Zen temples. He was instrumental in popularizing Zen teachings, though also criticized for the secularization of some Zen institutions. Three times during his life and four times posthumously he was given the honorific title kokushi (National Master).

Musō began Buddhist studies at the age of three. Although his early training was in the Esoteric Tendai and Shingon doctrines, attraction to Zen brought him to Kamakura, where he received instruction from the Japanese disciples of distinguished Chinese Chan (Jap. Zen) monks, including Kōhō Kennichi (...


Robin Karson

(b Rochester, NY, June 7, 1885; d Rochester, NY, July 16, 1971).

American landscape architect. Steele spent his childhood in Pittsford, NY, in the farmhouse that had belonged to his grandparents. Early memories reveal a strong love of nature and an appreciation for landscape values that would guide his future designs. After high school, Steele entered Williams College, where he honed his acerbic wit and also made many close friends, some of whom became important clients. Against his parents’ wishes, he enrolled in the newly formed graduate program of landscape architecture at Harvard University in 1901.

Steele was not impressed by the “old maids” at Harvard, preferring instead Denman Ross, a painter and art theorist with whom he maintained a close personal and intellectual relationship for decades. After one year, he dropped out of the program to take a paid position in the office of Warren H. Manning, who assigned him to supervise development of several large projects. After a three-month grand tour (funded partly by Manning), Steele opened a Boston-based practice in ...


J. Krčálová

(b Melide, nr Lugano; d Prague, 1552).

Italian sculptor and architect, active in Bohemia. He was commissioned by Ferdinand I, King of Bohemia (Holy Roman Emperor, 1556–64), to design the Summer Palace (Belvedere) in the formal gardens of Hradčany Castle (see Prague §IV 1.) and prepared a model of it in Genoa in 1537. The Belvedere was the most important Renaissance building of its time in Central Europe: with its wide arcade at ground level, the building recalls the medieval Palazzo della Ragione in Padua (1172–1219; loggias 1306), while Sebastiano Serlio’s Regole generali di architettura (1537) may have provided the pattern for the windows. The roof has a double-S profile, and the upper-floor windows alternate with niches. From May 1538 Stella led a group of Italian masons in Prague who sculpted a series of reliefs—the most extensive of their kind in Central Europe—for the Belvedere. The expressive and Mannerist traits of this building are evidence against the identification of Paolo Stella with another sculptor known as ...


Robert Williams

(b East Stratton, nr Micheldever, Hants, bapt Feb 25, 1683; d London, June 8, 1745).

English garden designer and writer. He was first trained as a gardener at one of Sir William Russell’s country seats, Stratton House, near Winchester, Hants, and then went to work for George London and Henry Wise at their Brompton Park nursery in London. From c. 1700 he learnt estate management, first under London at Castle Howard, N. Yorks, then under Wise at Blenheim Palace, Oxon. From c. 1714 Switzer was employed at various estates: the forested park at Cirencester, Glos, for Allen, 1st Lord Bathurst; at Grimsthorpe, Lincs, for Robert Bertie, Marquess of Lindsey; and at Marston House, Somerset, where for Charles Boyle, 4th Earl of Orrery, he added fountains and cascades.

Despite these various works, Switzer’s reputation rests largely on his writings. Formatively influenced by Joseph Addison’s Spectator essays (1712), in which a Lockean epistemology was brought to bear on discussions linking husbandry, landscaping and the creative imagination, Switzer sought to promote this ...


Gavin Townsend


Federal Agency, founded in 1933. Chartered by the US Congress on May 18, 1933, the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was established to control the flooding of the Tennessee River and to generate the enormous amounts of hydroelectric power needed nationally. To fulfill its aims, TVA constructed dams, hydroelectric plants, locks and housing throughout the Tennessee River basin, employing thousands of workers in Southern Appalachia and providing economic relief and electricity to one of the most impoverished regions of the country.

The first task was to provide housing for TVA’s construction workers in Norris, TN. Under Earle S. Draper, Director of TVA’s Division of Land Planning and Housing, TVA architects in 1934 produced a series of well-designed houses built in traditional styles and materials and arranged along winding roads in the manner of an English “garden city.” Norris included a common central green and a band of wilderness around the town. The arrangement was later used on a much larger scale (...


Robert Williams

(b ?Yorks, Dec 25, 1865; d London, March 27, 1950).

British landscape designer, architect and writer. He was the nephew of the landscape designer William Brodrick Thomas (1811–98) and trained (1886–9) as an architect in the London office of G. F. Bodley and Thomas Garner (1839–1906). The success that he and fellow architect Reginald Blomfield had with The Formal Garden in England (1892), a polemical history (illustrated in part by Thomas) that popularized the formal gardens of the 17th century and the early 18th, led to a number of large commissions in the 1890s, establishing him as one of the leading revivalists of the time. He was less busy during the Edwardian era, and his activities in Russia and elsewhere during World War I spelt the end of his career. Most of the dozen or so commissions for gardens that Thomas obtained were from new owners of Tudor manor houses bought cheaply during a glut in the country-house market; these owners required him to restore or enlarge their houses, and to complement them with sympathetically designed revivalist gardens inspired by English Renaissance and Baroque formal examples. His finest gardens of the 1890s are at Athelhampton, Dorset (...


James Holderbaum

[Niccolò di Raffaello de’ Pericoli; il Tribolo]

(b ?Florence, 1500; d ?Florence, Sept 7, 1550).

Italian sculptor, engineer and garden designer. He was apprenticed in Florence first as a wood-carver with Giovanni d’Alesso d’Antonio and then as a sculptor with Jacopo Sansovino, whom he continued to assist well into the second decade of the 16th century. Vasari listed many works (most now untraced) from Tribolo’s youth, among which was his earliest fountain; an old terracotta copy (London, V&A) shows this unpretentious and slightly old-fashioned work to have featured two children and a spouting dolphin that foreshadow the blithe charm of his later masterpieces.

Tribolo was famously unassertive and often adapted his art to suit established or collaborative projects. His plump and lissom putto (marble, c. 1523–4) on the lower right of Baldassare Peruzzi’s tomb of Hadrian VI (Rome, S Maria dell’Anima) indicates his exposure both to antique sculpture and to contemporary Roman work, especially that of Michelangelo’s maturity. In 1525–7 he collaborated on façade sculpture for S Petronio, Bologna, where his portal relief of ...


Monica E. Kupfer

(b Horconcitos, Chiriquí, Feb 11, 1927).

Panamanian painter, ceramicist, printmaker, tapestry designer and landscape architect. He studied both architecture and painting in Panama, holding his first exhibition in 1953; he then continued his studies in Madrid (1954–8) at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, at the Escuela de Cerámica de la Moncloa and at the Escuela Superior de Arquitectura. In 1959 he returned to Panama, where he began a long teaching career at the Universidad de Panamá. In the early 1960s Trujillo painted social satires, such as The Commissioners (1964; Panama City, Mus. A. Contemp.) with small monstrous figures in cavernous settings. Later his palette brightened as he turned to new subjects based on nature, including numerous still-lifes and semi-abstract paintings with botanical allusions, for example Still-life with Fruit (1975; Washington, DC, A. Mus. Americas).

Always a versatile and prolific artist, in the 1970s and 1980s he based his subjects both on his rich imagination and on his knowledge of Panama’s indigenous cultures. He made recurring reference to the patterns of pre-Columbian ceramics, natural and biomorphic forms, mythological and primitive figures, and Indian symbols and ceremonies, all treated as elements of an iconography strongly related to his Panamanian origin. Although generally classified as belonging to the return to figuration among Latin American artists, he ranged stylistically from realism to abstraction....


Hervé Paindaveine

(b Brussels, Oct 18, 1883; d Montreux, Oct 12, 1929).

Belgian urban planner, landscape designer and painter. He was trained as a landscape designer by his father, Louis-Léopold Van der Swaelmen, and took an active part in the foundation of the Union Internationale des Villes during the Exposition Universelle et Internationale at Ghent (1913). There he met Patrick Geddes who had a deep influence on his ideas about urban planning. During World War I Van der Swaelmen was exiled in the Netherlands where he became close to H. P. Berlage; during this time he prepared for the reconstruction of his country by centralizing research and documentation in the Comité Néerlando-belge d’Art Civique, which he founded in 1916. In that year he also published his ideas as Préliminaires d’art civique, which was one of the first explicit theories on functionalist urban planning to be published in Belgium. Having returned there after the war, he organized modernist urban planners into the ...


Roger White

(b Durham, bapt Feb 20, 1718; d London, May 17, 1765).

English architect, engraver and furniture designer. The son of a gardener, he was appointed Clerk of the Works at the Queen’s House, Greenwich, in 1736 and was clerk at a succession of royal buildings, notably at the London palaces of Whitehall, Westminster and St James’s (1746–54). In this capacity he became closely associated with William Kent, whose Horse Guards scheme he was responsible for executing and possibly modifying (1750–59). He engraved and published a number of Kent’s designs (notably in Some Designs of Mr Inigo Jones and Mr William Kent, 1744). Not surprisingly, Kent’s influence is strongly felt in Vardy’s own work, such as the ‘New Stone Building’ adjoining Westminster Hall (begun 1755; destr. 1883) and the unexecuted scheme (1754) for a building for the new British Museum in Old Palace Yard, Westminster.

Vardy’s private commissions included the remodelling (1761–3) of Hackwood Park (destr. in later alterations, ...


Arthur Channing Downs

(b London, Dec 20, 1824; d Bensonhurst, NY, Nov 19, 1895).

American architect and landscape designer of English birth. He was apprenticed (?1840–45) to the architect Lewis Nockalls Cottingham in London. In 1846 he and George Truefitt (1824–1902) toured Europe and afterwards helped found the Architectural Association in London.

In 1850 Vaux accepted the offer of A(ndrew) J(ackson) Downing to work in Newburgh, NY, and in 1851 the two formed a partnership. Vaux became involved in an expanding architectural and landscape design business extending from New England to Washington, DC. After Downing’s death (1852), Vaux collected the partnership’s house plans and his own designs done alone or with Frederick Clarke Withers and published them as Villas and Cottages (1857). This became the principal vehicle for transmitting Downing’s distinctly American planning idioms to builders and the architectural profession. Opposed to Revivalism, Vaux was probably the era’s first architectural author to abandon style-based design titles. Believing that all styles have the ‘self-same geometry’, he urged that they all be studied, but only for the appropriate ideas, not ‘authority’. Having been naturalized in ...


Cornelia Bauer

(b Steckborn, July 9, 1812; d Zurich, Feb 12, 1858).

Swiss architect . He studied at the Technische Hochschule, Karlsruhe (1832–3), under Heinrich Hübsch and Friedrich Eisenlohr. In 1833 he directed work on the buildings in the botanic garden at Heidelberg, and in 1835 he studied in Munich under Friedrich von Gärtner. From 1836 he worked in Zurich. His reputation rests on his public buildings in Zurich, which were compact structures that made sparing use of classical and historical ornamentation. They include the Kantonsspital (1836–8), built jointly with Leonhard Zeugheer, and the main railway station (1846–8). Wegmann’s great interest in technical matters included advanced heating systems, sanitary arrangements and the solution of constructional problems, as in a greenhouse (1836–8) for the botanic garden in Zurich. Between 1839 and 1842 he built the Kantonsschule on the Rämibollwerk, closely modelled on Karl Friedrich Schinkel’s Bauakademie in Berlin. The round-arched windows and sparse ornamentation of the heavy cube of the Mädchenschule (...


( Reijmert )

(b The Hague, Jan 12, 1860; d Santpoort, June 25, 1937).

Dutch painter, draughtsman and illustrator . He first trained as a landscape gardener in Amsterdam. In 1878–9, however, he received lessons in painting from the cattle painter Dirk van Lokhorst (1818–93) and he was working in Drenthe, Gelderland and North Brabant. During that time he also received tuition from the marine painter Jacob Eduard van Heemskerck van Beest (1828–94). Wenckebach lived and worked in Utrecht from 1880 to 1886, in Amsterdam until 1898 and thereafter in Santpoort.

Wenckebach’s preference was for traditional genres such as land-, river- and townscapes; in the latter, his drawings of views of old Amsterdam in particular are well known. In his style of painting and choice of subject-matter, he showed himself to be a late follower of the Hague school . Through a number of publishers he received many commissions as an illustrator and designer of books. In this field he collaborated on, among other things, the Verkade albums, a large series devoted to the history and nature of the Netherlands, and various children’s books. He is, however, particularly well known for his work for the ...


Michael Symes

[ Whateley ]

(d London, May 26, 1772).

English writer, garden designer and politician . An MP from 1761 until his death, he served as a Treasury Secretary in 1764–5, helping to draft the Stamp Act (1765), a key document in events that led to the American Revolution in 1775. Whately’s writings include his Observations on Modern Gardening, for which he is perhaps best remembered. This work describes a large number of English landscape gardens, some in great detail, and attempts to analyse and categorize them. It was considered by his contemporary Horace Walpole to be ‘a system of rules pushed to a great degree of refinement’ (‘On Modern Gardening’, Anecdotes of Painting in England, ed. R. N. Wornum, 1849, iii, p. 807). Whately described gardens as such (e.g. Stowe, Bucks), as well as in relation to farms (e.g. The Leasowes, W. Midlands), parks (e.g. Painshill Park, Surrey) and ridings (e.g. Piercefield, Gwent). He examined specific features, such as buildings, rocks, trees and the form of the land, and this led him to reject overtly emblematic uses of temples, statues or inscriptions—all of which featured in early 18th-century English gardens—in favour of less contrived effects. Visitors to gardens would often use the ...


Robert Williams

(b 1653; d Warwick, Dec 15, 1738).

English garden designer . About 1687 he joined the group venture of George London at Brompton Park, a nursery fast becoming the largest and best-stocked in London. By 1694 he was London’s sole business partner, and was subsequently co-translator of their two gardening directories. London’s influential position in the royal gardens helped provide a ready market for Brompton’s stock, and Wise too became increasingly involved in work for the Crown. Between 1689 and 1692 he improved the gardens at Hampton Court Palace: the ground was re-levelled, avenues of timber planted in neighbouring Bushey Park, and a basin dug to receive the Diana Fountain. During the 1690s he and London developed a useful working partnership, with Wise managing Brompton while London scoured England’s country seats for commissions.

At Anne’s succession in 1702 Wise was appointed Royal Gardener, and numerous alterations and additions on Crown property were made by him over the next few years. At the palaces of ...


Kristin E. Larsen

(b Lawrence, KS, July 2, 1878; d Newton, NJ, July 9, 1936).

American landscape architect and housing reformer. Educated at the University of Pennsylvania, Wright received his early training in planned picturesque park and streetscape design in the offices of the landscape architect George Kessler (1862–1923). Wright’s first widely recognized project in Clayton, an upscale neighborhood in St Louis, MO, featured palatial homes on large lots along curvilinear roads and oriented toward interior parks. He moved to Washington, DC, in 1918 to design new communities for war workers in the ship building industries. This short-lived experiment in federally funded housing transformed Wright, connecting him with such architects as Clarence Stein (1882–1975), who shared his social reform sensibilities. In the 1920s and 1930s, in partnership with Stein, Wright designed “new towns” inspired by the English garden city writings of Ebenezer Howard but reflective of the new “motor age.” Begun in 1924, Sunnyside Gardens in Queens, New York, featured single family, duplex and cooperative apartments arranged in a perimeter design around central courtyards. In ...


Philip Attwood

(b c. 1720; d London, Dec 3, 1779).

English medallist. He may have been responsible for engraving some admission tickets for the entertainments at Vauxhall Gardens, London, in the 1730s. His first known medals, and his best, are those commemorating the Battle of Culloden of 1746. Both the official medal (gold and bronze; see Hawkins, Franks and Grueber, ii, no. 283) and the larger medal portraying William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, as Hercules (gold, silver and bronze; hfg, ii, 278) demonstrate Yeo’s mastery as an engraver, while the imaginative allegorical reverses combine effectively with decorative Rococo flourishes. In 1749 he was appointed Assistant Engraver to the Royal Mint, London, and in 1775 he was promoted to the position of Chief Engraver, a post he retained until his death. In the 1760s and 1770s he made the dies for a number of coins of George III. His relatively small number of known medals includes the exquisite Cambridge University Chancellor’s medal of ...


(b Haarlem, Feb 12, 1791; d Haarlem, July 8, 1870).

Dutch architect, urban planner and landscape designer. He was the most illustrious member of a family of architects and landscape gardeners. He and his brother, Karel George Zocher (1796–1864), were both trained by their father, Jan David Zocher the elder (d 1817), and he in turn introduced his son, Louis Paul Zocher (1820–1915), to the practice. Zocher the younger’s career was a microcosm of developments in 19th-century design. As a landscape architect he was dedicated to the Picturesque and introduced the English garden style into the Netherlands. His buildings, however, were the purest examples on Dutch soil of Romantic Classicism, a style that had relatively little impact there.

In 1809 Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland, granted Zocher a bursary and in 1811 sent him to study at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris under Louis-Hippolyte Lebas. After completing his training Zocher toured France, Italy, Switzerland and England. This contact with current architectural trends abroad enabled him to break with the Palladian tradition that had prevailed in the Netherlands since the mid-17th century. Zocher returned to the Netherlands in ...