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Gilbert Herbert

(b Gildersome, W. Yorks, Dec 21, 1897; d Manchester, Sept 26, 1960).

English architect and urban planner. On graduating from the University of Liverpool in Architecture and Civic Design, he went to Palestine (1922), succeeding C. R. Ashbee as Civic Adviser to the City of Jerusalem. In 1927 he began private practice, serving also as Town Planning Adviser to the Palestine Government. In these various capacities, he was central to many major planning proposals, including the master plan (1926–30) of Jerusalem, the restoration of the walls and gates of the Old City and, together with Patrick Abercrombie, a regional plan (1933–66) for Haifa Bay, for the Jewish National Fund. His work in Jerusalem was traditional, responding sensitively to local climate, materials and culture: Barclays Bank, the ‘Khan’ of St John’s Ophthalmic Hospital (1929–30) and his undisputed masterpiece, St Andrew’s Church of Scotland (1927–30). With the Israeli architect Richard Kauffmann he planned the Reclamation Area (...


John-Paul Stonard

(b Shiraz, Jan 15, 1955).

Iranian sculptor and installation artist, active in England. She left Iran in 1973 and studied at the Chelsea School of Art, London (1976–9), then was a junior fellow at Cardiff College of Art (1979–80). Although she settled in London and was often bracketed with a group of young British sculptors, including Anish Kapoor and Richard Deacon, her work was distinguished by the interpretation of a Persian cultural background through Western sculptural language. Her early work consisted of allusive environments and biomorphic sculptural forms, demonstrating an attempt, echoed in later work, to embody spiritual concepts physically. As it developed, her work became more autonomous, austere and concerned with materials that could symbolize a spiritual transcendence of materiality (see figs 1 and 2; see image page for alternate views). The drawings Dancing around my Ghost (graphite and acrylic on paper, 7 parts, each 1.0×1.0 m, 1992–3...


W. Ali

(b Helta, Batroun District, Lebanon, 1883; d Beirut, 1962).

Lebanese sculptor and painter. In 1919 he went to Paris and Rome where he studied sculpture and drawing. In Paris he worked under Antoine Bourdelle and shared a studio with the poet and painter Gibran Khalil Gibran (1883–1931). In 1939 Hoyeck returned to Lebanon and opened the first sculpture studio in Beirut; he became the teacher and guide of a generation of Lebanese sculptors. In his work, mainly nudes and heads, he tried to reach a middle ground between popular taste, the influences of Rodin and Bourdelle, and the gracefulness of Italian sculpture....


Veerle Poupeye

(b Falmouth, Trelawny, Dec 31, 1920).

Jamaican painter. He came to the attention of the Institute of Jamaica in the late 1930s, when he also received his early training from the Armenian artist Koren der Harootian (1909–91). He was assistant to Edna Manley during her art classes at the Junior Centre, Kingston, in the early 1940s. He went on to study at the Ontario College of Art, Toronto, and at the Camberwell School of Arts and Crafts, London. He was founding tutor in painting at the Jamaica School of Art and Crafts, Kingston, in 1950. Huie is best known as a landscape and genre painter. More effectively than any other Jamaican artist he captured the shimmering, atmospheric quality of the Jamaican landscape and the rhythm of life in the rural areas. Some of his works have socio-political overtones and express nationalist sentiments and his sympathy for the working class. He also made his mark as a portrait painter; his earliest major works are portraits, among them a portrait of ...


Yuka Kadoi

Apart from a short-lived introduction of paper currency in Ilkhanid Iran under the inspiration of Chinese models, paper money was virtually unknown in the Islamic world until the mid-19th century, as the right to strike Coins was one of the most traditional and important symbols of sovereignty. The Ottoman Empire was one of the first Islamic states to issue machine-made banknotes during the 1850s, as part of its modernization policy. As Western standards of administration, including the modern banking system, were put in force, paper money began to be circulated in Iran in 1890 by the Imperial Bank of Persia, and most of the other Muslim countries followed this trend along with their independence from Western countries in the early 20th century. Like coinage, paper money was regarded as an effective means of legitimizing political aspirations in the Islamic world, due to its state monopoly and worldwide circulation. Banknotes well reflected socio-political backgrounds, and their design was intended to proclaim Islamic identity, emphasizing Arabic or Persian calligraphy in parallel with Latin transliterations, as well as images of important antiquities, such as archaeological sites and historic mosques. Following Western models of paper money, portraits of rulers and politicians were also included. Despite a general antipathy toward figural representations, life-like depictions of public figures in banknotes served as iconographic propaganda....


A. V. Ikonnikov


(b Tiflis [now Tbilisi], Sept 17, 1908; d Erevan, Sept 8, 1973).

Armenian architect of Georgian birth. He studied, from 1928 to 1930, in the architectural faculty of the Academy of Arts, Tiflis, and then in the architectural faculty of the Institute of Communal Construction, Leningrad (now St Petersburg), from 1930 to 1932, and at the Academy of Arts, Leningrad, from 1932 to 1934. From 1936 he worked in Erevan, where he designed massive constructions of natural stone combining neo-classicism with Armenian architectural traditions, of which he was a more consistent interpreter than Alek’sandr T’amanyan. He built an intricate complex of wine cellars (1937) for the Ararat Trust, Erevan, its concise volumes blending organically with the rocky landscape. These are constantly undergoing alteration and renovation. Connected to the complex is a stone aqueduct over the River Hrazdan. During and after World War II, continuing the Armenian custom of commemorating the dead at springs, he built monuments in numerous towns and villages. He also revived the ancient Armenian tradition of the ...


[Isyākhim, M’hammad]

(b Djennad, nr Azzefoun, 1928; d Algiers, Dec 1, 1985).

Algerian painter. Wounded by a home-made bomb in 1943, his left arm was amputated and he was hospitalized for two years. From 1947 to 1951 he studied first at the Société des Beaux-Arts and then at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Algiers, while simultaneously training in miniature painting with Omar Racim (1883–1958). In 1953 he continued his studies at the Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris, where he worked in the painting atelier of Raymond Legueult (1898–1978), graduating in 1958. While in Paris, Issiakhem witnessed the development of Abstract Expressionism and other artistic styles, which he quickly adopted. A pioneer of modern Algerian art, he was one of the founders of the Algerian National Union of Plastic Arts in 1963 and held exhibitions in Algeria and abroad. Attracted by left-wing ideas, he travelled to Vietnam in 1972 and Moscow in 1978. In his work, male figures are surrounded by forms, signs and blotches in sombre colours, while his female figures express drama and silent suffering (e.g. ...


(b Istanbul, March 10, 1915; d 2005).

Turkish painter. He studied at the Fine Arts Academy in Istanbul where he was taught by the painters Ibrahim Çallı, Nazmi Ziya Güran and Hikmet Onat (1886–1977), and later by Léopold Lévy (1882–1966), becoming the first graduate of higher studies at the Academy in 1944. In 1941 he formed the New Group (Yeniler Grubu) to promote new ideas in painting and organized the first exhibition of this group under the title Harbour Painters (Liman Resim Sergisi). This exhibition led to a conflict with the doctrines of the Academy. İyem searched for a style relevant to life in Turkey in his figurative paintings, and he was inspired by social realism, although from c. 1955 he showed an interest in abstraction. He defended non-figurative art in his writings until 1965, after which he returned to the manner of his earlier figurative works, depicting the simple life of villagers. His work has been included in exhibitions in Europe, the USA and South America, and in Turkey at the Maya Gallery, Istanbul (...


Mary Chou

(b Bethlehem, 1970).

Palestinian conceptual artist. Jacir’s works use a variety of media including film, photography, installation, performance, video, sound, sculpture and painting. Jacir was raised in Saudi Arabia and attended high school in Rome, Italy. She received her BA from the University of Dallas, Irving, TX in 1992, her MFA from the Memphis College of Art, Memphis, TN in 1994, and participated in the Whitney Independent Study Program from 1998 to 1999. She became a professor at the International Academy of Art, Palestine in Ramallah in 2007. Jacir’s conceptual works explore the physical and psychological effects of social and political displacement and exile, primarily how they affect the Palestinian community. Her work investigated the impact of Israeli action on the Palestinian people and countered representations of Palestinians in the press as primarily militant. Jacir often collaborated with members of the Palestinian community, both local and international, in the creation of her works....


(b Tel Aviv, 1932; d Tel Hashomer, Israel, May 8, 2015).

Israeli sculptor and painter. From 1947 to 1950 he studied with the Israeli sculptor Moshe Sternschuss (b 1905) at the Avni Institute in Tel Aviv and in 1954 with the Israeli sculptor Rudi Lehmann (1903–77) in Jerusalem. In 1959 he moved to London, studying there until 1962. He remained in London until 1972 and had his first one-man show there in 1965 at the Grosvenor Gallery. His sculptures of the 1960s were Minimalist in style and so designed as to appear to defy gravity. This was achieved either through careful balance and construction, as in Suspense (1966; Jerusalem, Israel Mus.), or by using glass and metal so that the metal appeared unsupported, as in Segments (1968; New York, MOMA), and the glass allowed the environment to be part of the work.

Through the 1970s Kadishman extended this tendency to incorporate nature into his art. In ...


M. N. Sokolov


(b Kukhi, nr Kutaisi, Aug 20, 1889; d Tbilisi, May 10, 1952).

Georgian painter, collagist, stage designer and film maker. He was born into a peasant family and studied from 1909 to 1916 in the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics at the University of St Petersburg. From 1910 to 1915 he also studied painting and drawing in the studio of L. Ye. Dmitriyev-Kavakazsky (1849–1916). With Pavel Filonov he became a member of the St Petersburg artistic group Intimnaya Masterskaya (The Intimate Studio). The group’s manifesto (1914) proclaimed the beginning of a new era in art, awarded a central importance to Filonov’s principle of sdelannost’ (‘madeness’) and drew attention to the fundamental structural principles of artistic language. The manifesto was one of the most original developments of the pre-revolutionary avant-garde in Russia.

Kakabadze was an outstanding representative of the artistic avant-garde in Georgia. In his work innovation was always combined with a deep interest in Georgian national traditions, on which he was an expert. He studied medieval Georgian ornament while still a student, and in ...


Vanessa Rocco

(b Tambov, April 8, 1908; d London, Dec 24, 1974).

Russian-born photographer of Armenian heritage active in Britain. Kar is best known for her idiosyncratic and telling photographic portraits of writers and artists, particularly those within her circle of post-war London. She moved with her parents to Egypt in 1921 and studied at the prestigious Lycée Français in Alexandria. At age 20 she moved to Paris, became enamoured of Surrealism, and worked as an apprentice in the photographic studio of the German Heinrich Heidersberger (1906–2006). She returned to Egypt in 1933 and later opened a photography studio called ‘Idabel’ with her husband Edmond Belali, then in 1945 relocated her portrait practice to London with her second husband, the art dealer Victor Musgrave (1919–84). In London Kar cultivated a roster of painters, sculptors, authors, and actors as clients. Closely cropped portraits of the painter Bridget Riley (1963, see fig.) and the sculptor Dame Barbara Hepworth (...


(b Tel Aviv, Dec 7, 1930).

Israeli sculptor. He studied art in Tel Aviv and then attended the Bezalel Academy of Arts and Crafts in Jerusalem, with further study from 1955 to 1957 in Florence and in Paris. Throughout his career he produced large-scale public works from Minimalist forms, designed to relate to their climate and landscape as well as to the wider social environment. In the 1960s and early 1970s he also designed wall reliefs and theatre and ballet sets.

Karavan’s first important work was the Negev Monument (1963–8), on a hill overlooking Beersheba. It consists of a cluster of concrete forms covering an area of one hectare, with wind-driven sound pipes in the central tower and inscribed doodles and writing on the surfaces. In the late 1970s he produced a number of temporary Environments for Peace, including one for the Venice Biennale in 1976. This work, made from concrete Minimalist forms, was bisected by ‘drawings’ of running water. The viewers were requested to walk over the structure barefoot to feel its texture, and near an olive tree incorporated into the design were the words: ‘Olive trees should be our borders.’ He continued to produce environments in the 1980s, such as the permanent, urban environment ...


Israeli family of architects. Dov Karmi (b Odessa, 1905; d Tel Aviv, 14 May 1962) settled in Palestine in 1921. He studied (1923–6) at the Bezalel School of Painting and Sculpture, Jerusalem, then trained in architecture and engineering (1926–30) at the Rijksuniversiteit, Ghent. He returned to Palestine c. 1930 and set up a private practice in Tel Aviv in 1936. His early designs, mainly for residential buildings, were severe, cubic structures that adapted Le Corbusier’s solutions for sunny climates, such as brises-soleil, recessed balconies and the raising of buildings on pilotis for improved air circulation. His school building (1930s) for the Armenian monastery in Jaffa demonstrates a sophisticated mix of Arabic and European idioms in its flat roof and rough ashlar façade, articulated with arched openings. His designs did much to inaugurate Modernism in Israel, and he was awarded important commissions, for example the Histadrut Headquarters (...


Reinhold Misselbeck

(b Mardin, Turkish Armenia, Dec 23, 1908; d Boston, MA, July 13, 2002).

Canadian photographer of Turkish Armenian birth. He moved to Canada in 1924 and worked as an assistant in his uncle’s photographic studio in Montreal (1926–8). He studied photography in Boston from 1928 until 1931. He opened his own portrait studio in Ottawa in 1932. His front cover for Life magazine (30 Dec 1941), a portrait of Winston Churchill, was the basis for his fame and career as a portrait photographer, which involved many of the most important contemporary figures from the worlds of politics, science and the arts (e.g. Beaumont Newhall).

Karsh’s photography used strongly focused lighting and dark backgrounds, creating a chiaroscuro effect seen, for example, in Ingrid Bergman (1946; see Karsh, 1983, p. 169). He tried to reflect a characteristic image of the person photographed through the pose, for example in the contemplative profile portrait of Ronald Reagan (1982; see Karsh, ...


Uriel M. Adiv

[Heb. Yitzchak]

(b Frankfurt am Main, June 20, 1887; d Jerusalem, Feb 3, 1958).

Israeli architect and urban planner of German birth. He first studied painting at the Städel Kunstakademie in Frankfurt am Main and then architecture at the Grossherzogliche Hochschule in Darmstadt. In 1909 he began painting landscapes in the studio of Hans von Hayek (1869–1940) in Dachau and studied at the Königlich Bayerische Technische Hochschule in Munich under Theodor Fischer, Paul Pfann (1860–1919), Heinrich Freiherr von Schmidt (1850–1928), Friedrich von Thiersch and others. After his studies he worked in the office of Georg Metzendorf (1874–1934) on the Margarethenhöhe near Essen, where he was involved in urban development work of a garden city nature for Emst, Hamm and Remscheid, as well as a group of houses for the Krupp estate in Margarethenhöhe and various works for the Werkbundausstellung in Cologne (1914). He received third prize for his building plan and six house types for the small Bickendorf housing estate near Cologne. He had his own office in Frankfurt for a few months until he was called up in ...


[Oscar; Oskar]

(b Újszentanna [now Santa Ana, Romania], Feb 2, 1873; d Budapest, Sept 6, 1956).

Hungarian architect and interior designer, active in Germany and Palestine. After studying music in Budapest, he studied architecture at the Technische Hochschule, Karlsruhe, where he obtained his Diploma of Architecture in 1899. In 1900 he settled in Berlin, where he worked first as an interior designer for private clients. Later he specialized in designing theatres and cinemas. In contrast with reform movements, he advocated the strict separation of the stage from the auditorium (the realm of illusion from that of reality), and the traditional arrangement of the auditorium with balconies and intimate boxes. His first major work was the Hebbeltheater (1907–8; with San Micheli Wolkenstein and Albert Weber), Berlin. The almost monolithic severity of the façade and the building’s imposingly dynamic composition are emphasized by the intimate, refined elegance of the interior, a contrast characteristic of his subsequent work. The wall-coverings of silk and wood and the decentralized light-sources combine to create a warm, salon-type interior. Similar designs include the Municipal Theatre (...


S. J. Vernoit

[Kemalettin Bey]

(b Istanbul, 1870; d Ankara, July 1927).

Turkish architect. He studied at the College of Civil Engineering in Istanbul, graduating in 1891, and at the Charlottenburg Technische Hochschule in Berlin (1896–8). After his return to Turkey in 1900, he taught at the College of Civil Engineering in Istanbul and became chief architect of the Ministry of Pious Foundations (1909), entrusted with the restoration of historical monuments and the design of new buildings. This work enabled him to analyse the principles of Ottoman architecture and formulate a revivalist idiom. He built mosques, mausoleums, office blocks, schools, prisons and hospitals; the small mosque (1913) at Bebek, Istanbul, is a fine example of his revivalist style. The Fourth Vakıf Han (1912–26), a large seven-storey office block in Istanbul’s Bahçekapı district, epitomizes Ottoman revivalist architecture, also known as the First National Architectural Style (see Islamic art, §II, 7(i)). Its well-ordered stone façade with rich carvings and coloured tiles hides a sophisticated steel framework. His last building complex in Istanbul, the Harikzedegan apartments (...


(b Kayseri, Turkey, 1872; d 1962).

Archaeologist, collector and dealer of Armenian descent. He excavated in Iran at Sultanabad from 1903 and the medieval city of Rayy from c. 1907 and assembled an outstanding collection of Oriental art, especially Islamic and Persian. He exhibited Islamic ceramics in London in 1911 and works excavated under his supervision were shown in New York in 1914. Major sales of Islamic pieces from his collection, including lacquer doors and tile panels from Isfahan, books and paintings, carpets and ceramics, were held in the 1920s at the Anderson Gallery, New York. In 1929 he acquired at auction the Mughal album of calligraphy and painting that became known as the Kevorkian Album (now divided New York, Met., 55.121.10; Washington, DC, Freer; see also Indian sub-continent, §V, 4(i)(d)). His gifts to museums and universities included Assyrian reliefs to the Brooklyn Museum, New York. His desire to promote American interest in Middle Eastern art and archaeology was continued through the Hagop Kevorkian Fund....


S. J. Vernoit

(b Mostaganem, March 14, 1930; d Mostaganem, 1991).

Algerian painter. A self-taught artist, he worked in France initially as a printer but later came to occupy a central position in the development of modern Algerian painting. He developed an abstract style of painting in the artistic milieu of Paris, exhibiting work at the Jeune Peintre exhibition in Paris in 1955, and at the Salon de Réalités Nouvelles in 1955, 1957 and 1958. On returning to Algeria in the early 1960s he devoted himself to painting, engraving and producing designs for the theatre, and in the following years he exhibited work in Europe, Japan, the Middle East, Russia and the USA. His paintings explore calligraphic compositions and motifs of Arab–Berber origin and display a sophisticated use of colour. Such oil paintings as Kabylie (1.14×1.62 m, 1960; Paris, Inst. Monde Arab.) and Olive Tree Mediterranean (1.16×0.89 m, 1977; see 1978 exh. cat.) were inspired by his experience of landscape. His works are in numerous collections, including the Musée d’Art Moderne, Paris, and the Musée National des Beaux-Arts, Algiers....