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Federica Toniolo

(fl Rome, 1483–5).

Italian illuminator. He is mentioned as an illuminator, with Bartolomeo Sanvito, in Rome, in the will (1483) of Cardinal Francesco Gonzaga. In 1485 he was in Rome in the service of the Neapolitan cardinal Giovanni d’Aragona (1456–85). He can be identified with the Gasparo Romano mentioned by Pietro Summonte in a letter of 20 March 1524 to Marcantonio Michiel as the illuminator ‘al garbo antiquo’ (in the antique manner) of a copy of Pliny (untraced) for Giovanni d’Aragona. The same source stated that Gasparo was also an architect and that his style was copied by Giovanni Todeschino (fl Naples, 1487–1500).

There are no documented works by Gasparo. His Paduan origin, his presence in Rome and his relationship with Sanvito make it likely that he was one of the illuminators who propagated in Rome the antiquarian, classicizing style that originated in Padua and the Veneto region (...


Federica Toniolo

(fl c. 1471–1508).

Italian painter and illuminator. He may be identifiable with a certain ‘Laurum de sancto Johanne de Padua’ documented in 1482 in Rome as having given a professional opinion on the frescoes on the walls of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican Palace. In 1508 Bartolomeo Sanvito possessed two works executed by Lauro for the opening hours of a Book of Hours or the Office, which would seem to suggest that he was active as an illuminator. Documentary evidence indicates that Lauro was familiar with Mantegna’s Paduan works and that he worked with Giovanni Bellini at least before his visit to Rome. The main source for the reconstruction of Lauro’s oeuvre is Marcantonio Michiel, who mentioned an altarpiece (1468–71; untraced) in S Maria della Carità, Venice, by Giovanni Bellini, dedicated to St John the Evangelist, with a predella painted by Lauro Padovano. A panel representing the Legend of Drusiana (Berchtesgaden, Schlossmus.) has been identified as belonging to the Carità predella and its style was used as the basis for a catalogue of Lauro’s works until its recent attribution to Leonardo Bellini. Two panels depicting the ...


Pier Giorgio Pasini

(b Verona, c. 1420; d Rimini, after May 15, 1467).

Italian medallist, architect, painter and illuminator. He came from a good Veronese family (his father was a doctor, two of his brothers were in the church and three others were merchants). He is first documented in 1441, when he was working in Venice as painter to Piero di Cosimo de’ Medici illustrating Petrarch’s Trionfi (untraced). Subsequently (1444–6), he worked as an illuminator for the Este court, under the direction of Giorgio d’Alemagna. None of his works from this period is known.

By 1449 he was resident in Rimini, where he married Elisa di Giovanni Baldigara. There he was joined by Agostino di Duccio and other Venetian sculptors, working on the construction and decoration of two large funerary chapels (1447–c. 1452) for Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, Lord of Rimini, and his mistress, Isotta degli Atti, in S Francesco (known as the Tempio Malatestiano). Initially Matteo was probably the organizer and supervisor of this project, but ...


Thomas Tolley

[Jean de Paris; Master of Charles VIII]

(b ?1450–60; d Paris, after April 5, 1530).

French painter, illuminator, sculpture designer and architect. The most celebrated and best-documented French artist of his time, Perréal was painter and valet de chambre to three kings of France, Charles VIII, Louis XII and Francis I. In the earliest reliable document to mention him, of 1485, he was a resident of Lyon and painted two escutcheons for use during the celebrations for the entry of Charles of Bourbon into the city. Throughout his career he devoted considerable time to designing props for staging such ceremonial events. Perréal visited Italy on at least four occasions and recorded that he studied ancient remains there. In 1514 he was sent to England to negotiate the marriage of Louis XII and his second wife, Mary Tudor, and to ensure that her wardrobe conformed to French taste. According to Dupont, a portrait of Louis XII in the British Royal Collection (Windsor Castle, Berks) was painted by Perréal and brought to England at this time. Considered by Sterling to be a copy, this portrait is one of few panels that can still be associated with Perréal, who during his lifetime was highly praised for his abilities as a portrait painter....


(fl 1496–1524).

Italian illuminator. He was one of the last great Renaissance illuminators active in Naples and worked in the service of Andrea Matteo III, Duca di Atri. A number of manuscripts known to have been in the Duke’s collection are attributed both to him and to his followers. Between 1496 and 1504 he decorated a copy of Seneca’s Epistulae morales (Vienna, Österreich. Nbib., Cod. Phil. lat. 7). Dating to the beginning of the 16th century and the most splendid of his commissions for Andrea Matteo is the Ethics of Aristotle (Vienna, Österreich. Nbib., Cod. Phil. gr. 4). The frontispiece to each of the ten books is elaborately decorated with scenes synthesizing the content of each book, as well as with mythological scenes and figures; the iconography was almost certainly directed by the Duke. On the frontispiece of the sixth book are inscribed the initials r. f., probably ‘Reginaldus fecit’, and on fol. 80 of the same book the artist signed his name in full. Piramo’s work draws on a number of diverse influences; his classicizing style owes much to the Paduan school, while Ferrarese and Netherlandish–Neapolitan influences may also be noted. Towards the end of his career Piramo returned to Monópoli, in Apulia. In ...


Rafael Moreira

(fl 1547; d Évora, 1569).

Portuguese architect. He is earliest recorded in 1547 as a frequenter of bookshops in Lisbon, defending the humanist André de Resende (1498–1573) and the royal bookseller João de Borgonha in a chance argument in the street against the grammarian Fernando Oliveira, who was suspected of Protestant leanings. The fact that the subject of the quarrel was the Tratado da esfera by Pedro Nunes (1541) shows that Pires was no stranger to cosmography and geometry. The first work attributable to Pires was in fact an exercise in mathematical proportion, the church of Bom Jesus at Valverde, 10 km south of Évora. Local tradition assigns the work to Pires’s lifelong patron, the Cardinal-Infante Henrique, Archbishop of Évora and later King Henry, suggesting a close collaboration between the two men. Work must have begun soon after the foundation of the Capuchin monastery at the site in 1544, although the name of Pires only appears in ...


Janet Backhouse

(fl 1483–97).

French illuminator and painter. He lived and worked in Tours, seat of the French court and centre of the Loire school of illumination during the latter part of the 15th century. He was presumably related to Mathelin (or Maturin) Poyet, who is listed as a court painter alongside Jean Fouquet in 1475. Jean Poyet is first mentioned in 1483, and in December 1491 he was among local artists paid for their work on the decorations provided to celebrate the ceremonial entry into Tours of Anne of Brittany as Queen of Charles VIII of France. In August 1497 the Queen’s accounts show that Poyet was paid 153 livres tournois to illuminate a ‘petites heures’ for her use. For this he provided 23 miniatures and almost 300 borders. It was thought that this identified him as the artist of the famous Hours of Anne of Brittany (Paris, Bib. N., MS. lat. 9474), until the discovery in ...


(b Bergen-Mons, Henegouwen, c. 1465; d Bruges, Jan 1529).

South Netherlandish painter. He probably came into contact with Simon Marmion, the renowned painter and book illuminator from Valenciennes, via Jacquemart Pilavaine, a publisher and illuminator in his native Bergen. Provoost married Marmion’s widow, Jeanne de Quaroube, before 1491, and it is thus assumed that Marmion was his teacher. In 1493 Provoost moved to Antwerp, a promising town for artists, where he registered as a master in the Guild of St Luke, but in 1494 he travelled to Bruges. He became a citizen there and soon played an important part in the painters’ guild. In 1506 Maximiliaen Frans (1490–1547) was his pupil. Provoost received commissions for decorative work from the town council and church authorities in 1509, 1513 and 1520, the year of the Triumphal Entry of Charles V into Bruges, for which he worked on the decorations. He returned to Antwerp the same year to meet Albrecht Dürer, who may have drawn his portrait. Dürer visited Bruges in ...


Gordon Campbell

(b Normandy c. 1449; d London 1529/30).

Anglo-Norman printer. Pynson became a printer in London, initially as an assistant to William Caxton. In the early 1490s he succeeded William de Machlinia as the principal printer of law books in London; his press also printed an illustrated edition of Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales. On the accession of King Henry VIII in ...



(b Amantea, Calabria; fl 1451; d Naples, 1488).

Italian illuminator. He is cited in the records of the Aragonese treasury as the official illuminator to the court of Aragon in Naples from 1451 to 1488. From 1455 he received a regular stipend, but the books illuminated by him are not specifically identified in the documents until 1471, although there are general references to Graduals, Missals etc, most of which are untraced. Numerous manuscripts have been attributed to Rapicano on the basis of style. His earliest documented works include a copy of Aesop’s Fables (30 Oct 1473; Berlin, Dt. Staatsbib., MS. Hamilton 6), a copy of Strabo’s Geography (1473–4; Rome, Vatican, Bib. Apostolica, MS. Ottob. 14448) and a copy of Andrea Contario’s Obiurgatio in Platonis calumniatorum (1471; Paris, Bib. N., MS. lat. 12947), in which Angiolillo Arcuccio (fl 1464–92) also collaborated. Attributed works for the years c. 1474–81 include the statutes of the Ordine del Toson d’oro (Naples, Bib. N., MS. ii D 20) and the ...


Gordon Campbell

(b Augsburg, 1447; d Augsburg, 1527–8).

German printer. While still a child he moved to Mainz, where he trained as a printer, probably in the workshop of Johann Gutenberg . In the 1470s and early 1480s he worked as a printer in Venice, and in 1486 he accepted an invitation to return to his native Augsburg, where his workshop became the most important producer of colour printing in Germany. Ratdolt’s many innovations include the first title-page, the first type-face catalogue, the first texts of geometry and astronomy to be illustrated with diagrams and the first books with illustrations in three colours. He first printed music in ...


[Raimondi, Vincenzo; Raimondo, Vincenzo]

(b ?Lodève; fl 1535; d Rome, Feb 10, 1557).

French illuminator, active in Italy. He is thought to have come from Lodève in Languedoc and worked on the decoration of liturgical manuscripts for the Sistine Chapel during the pontificates of Leo X, Clement VII and Paul III. He is the only illuminator mentioned between 1535 and 1549 in the Vatican registers of the Tesoreria secreta. Although his output must have been large, by the late 20th century little had been firmly attributed to him. One of the most important works agreed to be his is the Psalter (Paris, Bib. N., MS. lat. 8880) illuminated for Pope Paul III and dated 1542. The miniatures are minutely worked but lacking in inventiveness; he evidently borrowed freely from the work of such contemporary painters as Raphael and Michelangelo. The only full-page miniature in the Psalter, God Creating the Stars, is strikingly similar to Michelangelo’s representation of the same subject on the Sistine chapel ceiling. Most of the border motifs are taken from the decorative schemes of ...


Patrizia Ferretti

(fl 1449–80).

Italian illuminator. He was trained between 1449 and 1452 by Battista di Niccolò da Padova (fl from 1425; d 1452) and after Battista’s death collaborated occasionally with Filippo di Matteo Torelli. Ricciardo was one of the first Florentine artists to be concerned with archaeological discoveries, and this is consistently reflected in his painting. A copy of Plautus’s Comedies (Florence, Bib. Medicea–Laurenziana, MS. Plut. 36.41), datable before 1450, and belonging to Piero de’ Medici, is thought to be his first autograph work. In early commissions from the Medici, Ricciardo shows a strong interest in a wide range of Classical ideas, partly derived from gems and cameos in the Medici collections. He was also sensitive to Florentine painting, from the work of Domenico Veneziano to that of the Master of Pratovecchio, and to the narrative style typical of paintings on cassoni. His illustrations are full of biblical symbolism, providing a rich pictorial commentary on the text. This tendency characterizes the works of his early period (...


Jürgen Zimmer

(b c. 1532; d c. 1592–3).

German draughtsman, publisher, wood-engraver and painter. In 1548 he published a textbook of writing instruction and in 1551 one on arithmetic. In 1560–63 he made a model of Augsburg (Augsburg, Maximilianmus.) and in 1563 a map of the city, which was used in simplified form in the monumental Civitates orbis terrarum (1572–1618) by Georg Braun and Franz Hogenberg (fl c. 1560–c. 1590/94). His Augsburger Meilenscheibe (c. 1565, frequently reissued), a disc with a plan of Augsburg at the centre, with lists of towns and distances radiating from it, was a practical instrument for travellers from and to the most important trade and cultural centre of 16th-century central Europe and is to be seen in close conjunction with the Reissbüchlein (Augsburg, 1563) by Jörg Gail.

Rogel reproduced the works of several artists in woodcuts, for example the Geometria et perspectiva (Augsburg, 1567...


Evelyn M. Cohen

The most profusely decorated Hebrew codex produced in Renaissance Italy. It is a compilation of approximately 70 works, including biblical, liturgical, historical, legal, philosophical, astrological, Cabbalistic and moralistic texts, many of them with a commentary written in the margins. The religious works include the books of Psalms, Proverbs and Job, a Machzor and a Haggadah. The secular books include Josippon’s history of the Jews (based on Josephus) and the Meshal ha-Kadmoni. The codex would thus have functioned as a miniature library. The patron of the manuscript is unknown, as there is no colophon or inscription of ownership, but the name Moses ben Jekutiel ha-Cohen, mentioned in the blessing of the Torah (fol. 106), possibly refers to the original owner. The calendar of the lunar cycle (fol. 471) begins with 1470, and stylistically the manuscript appears to belong to the third quarter of the 15th century.

This small (210×156 mm) codex, written on fine vellum in an Italo-Ashkenazi script, is composed of 437 folios, 408 of which are illuminated. In addition to two full-page miniatures for the Book of Job and five full-page diagrams, the manuscript contains approximately 200 smaller text illustrations, which are placed in the columns of text, the outer margins of the pages, or the borders of the initial word panels. These pictures capture the daily life of a Renaissance Jew in Italy by portraying the religious observances that were performed daily, on the Sabbath and on the various holy days, as well as the rituals of circumcision, marriage and mourning. Biblical episodes are also depicted, as are scenes from numerous animal fables....


Charles M. Rosenberg


(b ?Mantua; fl c. 1453–82).

Italian illuminator. Although he may have been in Ferrara as early as 1453, he is first unambiguously recorded in 1455, in the contract for the sumptuously decorated Bible of Borso d’Este (1455–61; Modena, Bib. Estense, MS. V.G. 12, lat. 422–3). Este court records refer to Franco ‘da Mantova’, but it is not obvious where he received his earliest training. His early style, in the Bible illuminations, reveals a certain courtly quality and naturalism of detail associated with a Lombard background, but these characteristics are tempered by a degree of sobriety. Figures tend to be large-scale, their heavy garments falling in long, straight patterns or gathered into broader, broken folds. Landscapes are schematic and airless, often marked by relatively dense foliage and wavelike hills. His palette is cool and opaque.

It is generally agreed that Franco left Ferrara early in the 1460s to work in the Veneto, where he remained until ...


Christopher L. C. E. Witcombe

(Martínez [Martini; Martino] de)

(b ?Salamanca, Spain, 1478; d Rome, 5 July, 1562).

Spanish book and print publisher, active in Italy. Salamanca was in Rome by 1519 when he published Amadis de Gaula. Subsequently he published Ordo perpetuus divini officii secundu[m] Romana[m] Curia[m] (1520; printed by Antonio Blado), Esplandian (1525), La Celestina (c. 1525; with Jacopo Giunta), Antonio de Guevara’s Libro aureo de Marco Aurelio (1531), a Quignon Breviary (1535; with Giunta and Blado), Hernando da Salazar’s Las yglesias & indulgentias de Roma (1539), Las obras de Boscan (1547), a writing manual (1548; printed by the Dorico brothers) and Juan de Valverde’s Historia de la composicion del cuerpo humano (1556; with Antoine Lafréry). In 1538 he began also to publish prints. His address, often abbreviated (Ant. Sal. exc.), appears on the second or later state of over 250 prints. Of this number, at least 150 are by ...


Federica Toniolo

(b Padua, 1435 or 1438; d Padua, after 1518).

Italian scribe and illuminator. He was also the most important humanist scribe in Padua, whose monumental epigraphic style was influential also in Rome and Naples. He is first documented as ‘scriptor’ at the end of the 1450s in Padua, where he was in contact with academic circles and in particular with Bernardo Bembo (1422–1519), a Venetian patrician, who in those years was a student in Padua and for whom Sanvito produced splendid manuscripts (e.g. the Oratio gratulatoria, London, BL, Add. MS. 14787). In these, as in other works executed in Padua in the late 1450s and early 1460s, script and decoration were revived in a humanist and antiquarian vein, aimed at recreating the Classical codex. From 1469 to 1501 Sanvito was in Rome at the papal court, where he transcribed numerous books, some signed with the monogram b.s., for such illustrious patrons as the humanist Bartolomeo Sacchi or il Platina (...


Donata Battilotti

(d Verona, May 8, 1550).

Italian humanist, historian and patron. He was the author of the first printed book on the history and antiquities of Verona, published in 1540, with woodcuts after drawings by Giovanni Battista Caroto that are still extant (Verona, Bib. Civ.). De origine et amplitudine civitatis Veronae, written in Latin, takes the form of a conversation between members of a group of Veronese humanists including, apart from the author, Giacomo Villafranca and Giovanni Nicola Capella, and the artist Giovanni Battista Caroto. Caroto is given the task of providing technical information on the monuments that are the subject of the second book, which he himself had illustrated.

De origine was the first complete catalogue of Veronese antiquities, from the most prominent, such as the Arena, to miscellaneous remains such as displaced capitals. Also worthy of note are the Latin inscriptions, of which the author must have possessed a collection. The measurements are minute, and the monuments (except for the Arena) are completely reconstructed in the illustrations. Each is placed chronologically in relation to the salient moments of Roman history, and due recognition is given to the architects....


Marco Torriti

[Stefano di Giovanni di Consolo]

(b Siena or Cortona, c. 1400; d Siena, April 1, 1450).

Italian painter and illuminator. He was the most original painter in Siena in the 15th century. Working within the Sienese tradition, he introduced elements derived from the decorative Gothic style and the realism of such contemporary Florentine innovators as Masaccio. Most of his surviving works are panel pictures, notably those from the altarpiece painted for S Francesco, Borgo San Sepolcro.

The name Sassetta appears to have been associated with him, mistakenly, only since the 18th century (Pecci, 1752), but it is generally used. He was the son of Giovanni di Consolo of Cortona (Bacci, 1936) and is firmly documented first in 1426 in Siena but was probably active there earlier. His influences included Taddeo di Bartolo, Martino di Bartolommeo (fl 1389; d c. 1435), Benedetto di Bindo, Gregorio di Cecco and other artists who were links between the great Sienese painters of the early 14th century (Simone Martini, Ambrogio Lorenzetti and Pietro Lorenzetti) and the art of the 15th-century Renaissance....